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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       voldg - Manages Logical Storage Manager disk groups

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       /sbin/voldg  init  groupname {medianame=accessname} [nconfig=config-copies
 | all | default] [minor=base-minor]

       /sbin/voldg  [-g  diskgroup]  [-f]   reminor   [diskgroup]

       /sbin/voldg  [-tfC] [-n newname] [-o shared | private] [-o
       convert_old] import diskgroup

       /sbin/voldg   [-n   newname]   [-h    newhostid]    deport

       /sbin/voldg [-g diskgroup] [-k] adddisk {medianame=accessname}

       /sbin/voldg [-g diskgroup] [-k] rmdisk {medianame...}

       /sbin/voldg [-q] list [diskgroup...]

       /sbin/voldg [-g diskgroup] [-qa] free [medianame...]

       /sbin/voldg [-g diskgroup] [-q] spare [medianame...]

       /sbin/voldg flush [diskgroup...]

       /sbin/voldg [-g  diskgroup]  [-k]  repldisk  unassoc-medianame=spare-medianame...

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Specifies the disk group for the operation, either by name
       or by disk group ID. If no disk group  is  specified,  the
       rootdg disk group is implied.  Clears the previous name of
       the specified disk group.  Forces an  operation  that  the
       Logical  Storage  Manager (LSM) considers potentially dangerous
 or of questionable use. This permits a limited  set
       of  operations  that  would otherwise be disallowed.  Some
       operations might be  disallowed  even  with  this  option.
       Keeps  (when  used  with  rmdisk or repldisk) or reapplies
       (when used with  adddisk)  the  previous  LSM  disk  media
       records for the named disk.  Typically used when replacing
       a failed disk to keep the LSM structure  of  the  affected
       volume  or  disk group intact. This option sets any plexes
       requiring recovery to STALE.  Assigns a new host  name  to
       the  disk  group.   Assigns  a new name to the disk group.
       Used with import.  Converts the disk group's configuration
       databases  and  kernel  change logs as appropriate for the
       system on which the disk group  is  being  imported.  When
       manually  importing a disk group to a cluster from a standalone
 system, use -o shared. When  manually  importing  a
       disk  group  to a standalone system from a cluster, use -o
       private.  Used with import to import disk groups  deported
       before  upgrading the LSM software from pre-Version 5.0 to
       Version 5.0 or higher.   This  option  upgrades  the  disk
       group's  metadata  to  the current format and examines all
       volumes to determine if  they  use  Block  Change  Logging
       (BCL).  If  such volumes are found, LSM displays a message
       instructing you to use the vollogcnvt utility  to  convert
       BCLs  to  Dirty  Region  Logs  (DRLs).  The  disk group is
       imported but logging is disabled on volumes that use  BCL.
       The  volume  is usable and data continues to be written to
       all mirrors, but if a disk in the volume fails or the system
  crashes,  the entire volume will be resynchronized to
       recover the data.  Suppresses headers in output fields. If
       used  with  diskgroup,  this  option is ignored.  Displays
       information about space  on  spare  disks  (which  is  not
       really  allocatable)  in addition to regular free space in
       the disk group. Normally, spare disk  information  is  not
       displayed.  Performs the operation temporarily.

              When  used  with import, the disk group will not be
              reimported on reboot. Normally,  an  imported  disk
              group  will  be  reimported  automatically when the
              system is rebooted, if at least some of  the  disks
              in  the disk group remain accessible and usable. If
              you do not want the disk  group  to  be  reimported
              when  the  system  reboots,  import  it with the -t

              Can be used with -n newname to temporarily assign a
              new minor number or name to a volume or disk group,
              respectively.  When  used  with  -n  newname   when
              importing  a  disk  group,  the disk group's stored
              name is retained, but the disk group  is  known  to
              the  new  host  as  newname.   This allows the disk
              group to be reimported on the  original  host  with
              its former name.

KEYWORDS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Defines  a new disk group composed of the disks identified
       by disk access names. This operation assigns  an  internal
       unique ID to the group, stores a reference to the group on
       all of the named disks that have a disk header, and stores
       a  disk  group  record  in  the disk group's configuration
       database. At least one of the disks  specified  must  have
       space allocated for a configuration copy.

              If a medianame is specified for use with a particular
 disk, that medianame will name the  disk  media
              record  used  to reference the disk within the disk
              group (for operations such as  rmdisk  and  subdisk
              creations).  If no medianame is specified, the disk
              media name defaults to accessname.  See  voldisk(8)
              for  more  information on defining and initializing
              disk access records.

              The init operation can be used to initialize a root
              disk  group  configuration,  which is identified by
              the special name rootdg. Disks should  be  initialized
 and added to the disk group right after rootdg
              is created.

              If the autoconfiguration functionality  of  LSM  is
              disabled,  add  the names of disks that have copies
              of  the  rootdg  configuration  database   to   the
              /etc/vol/volboot bootstrap file. See voldctl(8).

              The  nconfig  attribute  can be used to specify the
              number of configuration database copies and  kernel
              log copies that are maintained for a disk group.

              The  value  of config-copies can be one of the following:
 LSM maintains the copies and  their  number
              and   distribution   throughout   the   disks   and
              controllers in the disk group.   All  configuration
              and  kernel  log  copies  on  all disks in the disk
              group are maintained.

              This policy places extra overhead  on  the  system,
              because  every  copy  of the configuration database
              must be updated with  every  configuration  change.
              The  specified  number  of copies is maintained (or
              all copies, if the number  you  specify  is  larger
              than  the number of available copies on all disks).

              When a specific number (or default)  is  requested,
              configuration  copies  are  scattered approximately
              evenly through the disk  controllers  in  the  disk
              group. If SCSI disks with multiple disks per target
              are found, each such target is treated similarly to
              a  controller  (that  is,  configuration copies are
              evenly distributed among such  targets).  With  the
              default  policy,  one configuration and log copy is
              maintained for each controller, and one  configuration
  and log copy is also maintained for each SCSI
              target that has multiple disks; if  this  does  not
              result  in  allocating  at least four copies, additional
 copies are spread  through  the  controllers
              and targets.


              If a policy other than all is used, some disks will
              not have up-to-date, online configuration  and  log
              copies.  As a result, it is possible that some number
 of disk failures will leave a disk group  unusable,
  even  if some disks in the disk group remain
              usable. However, the  default  policy  allocates  a
              sufficient number of copies, in a sufficient spread
              of locations, so  that  such  a  scenario  is  very
              unlikely to occur. The default policy is the recommended

              Refer to voldisk(8) for more information on configuration
  and  log copies and for information on how
              to create them.  Because disk groups can  be  moved
              between  systems,  LSM  lets  you  allocate  volume
              device numbers in separate  ranges  for  each  disk
              group.   That  way, you can choose ranges such that
              all disk groups in a group of machines can be moved
              without  causing  device  number collisions. Collisions
 may occur because LSM stores  device  numbers
              in disk group configurations, so that the same numbers
 can be used after a reboot (which is necessary
              for  use  with  NFS,  which requires persistency of
              device numbers). If two systems use the same device
              numbers  for  a set of volumes, and if a disk group
              from one machine is moved to the other, LSM can  be
              forced to temporarily remap some devices.

              A  base volume device minor number can be set for a
              disk group with the minor  operand.  Volume  device
              numbers  for  a disk group are chosen to have minor
              numbers starting at  this  base  minor  number.  On
              Tru64  UNIX  systems,  minor  numbers  can range up
              through 1048576. If no more than 1000 volumes would
              ever  be  created  in any one disk group, then 1048
              different ranges of minor numbers are available for
              different  disk  groups.  A  reasonably sized range
              should be left at  the  end  for  temporary  device
              number  remappings  (in  the  event that two device
              numbers still conflict).

              If the minor attribute is not specified on the init
              command  line,  LSM  chooses  a random number of at
              least 1000 that is a multiple of 1000 and yields  a
              usable  range of 1000 device numbers.  This default
              number is chosen such  that  it  does  not  overlap
              within  a  range  of 1000 of any currently imported
              disk groups and  does  not  overlap  any  currently
              allocated volume device numbers.


              The default policy is likely to ensure that a small
              number of disk groups can  be  merged  successfully
              between  a set of machines. However, in cases where
              disk groups  will  be  merged  automatically  using
              fail-over mechanisms, you should select ranges that
              avoid overlap.  Changes the base minor number for a
              disk  group,  and renumbers all devices in the disk
              group to a range starting at that  number.  If  the
              device  for a volume is open, the old device number
              will remain in effect until the system is  rebooted
              or until the disk group is deported and reimported.
              Also, if you close an open volume, you can  execute
              voldg  reminor  again  to  cause the renumbering to
              take effect without rebooting or reimporting.

              A new device number can also overlap with a  temporary
  renumbering  for  a volume device, which will
              also require a  reboot  or  reimport  for  the  new
              device numbering to take effect. A temporary renumbering
 can happen in the following situations: When
              two  volumes (for example, volumes in two different
              disk groups) share the  same  permanently  assigned
              device  number, in which case one of the volumes is
              renumbered temporarily to use an  alternate  device
              number When the persistent device number for a volume
 is changed, but the active device number cannot
              be  changed  to match The active number can be left
              unchanged after a persistent device  number  change
              either  because  the  volume  device  was  open  or
              because the new number was in  use  as  the  active
              device number for another volume.

              The voldg reminor operation will fail if you try to
              use a range of numbers currently in use as  a  persistent
  (not  a  temporary) device number. You can
              force use of the number range with the  -f  option.
              With  the -f option, some device renumberings might
              not take effect until a reboot or a reimport  (just
              as  with open volumes).  Also, if you force volumes
              in two disk groups to use the same  device  number,
              one  of  the volumes will be temporarily renumbered
              on the next reboot. The volume device to be  renumbered
  is  selected  at  random, except that device
              numberings in the rootdg disk group take precedence
              over all others.

              The -f option should be used only when swapping the
              device number ranges  used  by  two  or  more  disk
              groups. See EXAMPLES for more information.  Imports
              a disk group  to  make  the  specified  disk  group
              available on the local machine. This makes any configuration
 information stored with the  disk  group
              accessible,  including any disk and volume configurations.
 You specify the disk group to import  with
              the  diskgroup  argument,  which  can be either the
              administrative disk group name or the disk  group's
              unique ID.

              Normally,  a  disk  group  is  not imported if some
              disks in the disk group  cannot  be  found  by  the
              local  host.  You  can force the import with the -f
              option if, for example, one of the  disks  is  currently
 unusable or inaccessible.


              Take  care when using the -f option, because it can
              cause the same disk group to be imported twice from
              disjointed sets of disks, causing the disk group to
              become inconsistent.

              When a disk group is imported,  all  disks  in  the
              disk group are stamped with the host's ID, which is
              usually the host name. Normally, a disk group  cannot
  be  imported  if  any of its disks are stamped
              with a nonmatching host ID. This provides  a  check
              in cases where disks can be accessed from more than
              one host.

              If you are certain that a disk is  not  in  use  by
              another  host (such as because a disk group was not
              cleanly deported), use the -C option to  clear  the
              existing  host ID on all disks in the disk group as
              part of the import. You can also clear  a  host  ID
              using the voldisk clearimport command.

              You  can rename a disk group on import using the -n
              newname option. If you do not want the name  change
              to  be  permanent,  use  the  -n option with the -t
              option. This retains the original name of the  disk
              group  but presents the disk group to the importing
              host under the new name.  Disables  access  to  the
              specified  disk  group.  You  cannot  deport a disk
              group if any volumes in the disk  group  are  open.
              When you deport a disk group, the host ID, which is
              usually the host name, is cleared on all  disks  in
              the  disk  group  unless  you specify a new host ID
              using the -h option. This is to  prevent  automatically
  importing  the  disk  group  when the system

              You can rename a disk group when you deport it with
              the -n newname option. You can also assign the disk
              group to an alternate host by specifying  the  host
              ID  (voldctl(8))  of the alternate host with the -h
              newhostid option.  This allows the disk group to be
              automatically  imported  when  the  alternate  host
              reboots. See EXAMPLES.  Adds the specified disk  or
              disks to a disk group (rootdg by default). The disk
              must not already be part of an imported disk group.
              The  accessname  component  to a disk specification
              argument names  a  disk  access  record  (a  device
              address specification) used to access the disk.  If
              a medianame component is specified,  it  names  the
              disk  media  record  used to define the disk within
              the disk group. If no medianame component is specified,
 the disk media record will have the same name
              as the disk access record.

              Adding a disk to  a  disk  group  causes  the  disk
              group's  configuration  to  be copied onto the disk
              (if the disk has regions for configuration copies).
              Also,  the  disk  is stamped with the system's host
              ID, which is usually the host name, as  defined  in
              the  /etc/vol/volboot  file.  Removes the specified
              disk  or  disks  from  a  disk  group  (rootdg   by
              default).  The last disk cannot be removed from its
              disk group. It is not possible to remove  the  last
              disk containing a valid disk group configuration or
              log copy from its disk group.

              Normally, the rmdisk  operation  fails  if  subdisk
              records point to the named disk media records. However,
 if the -k option is specified, the disk media
              records  will be kept, although in a removed state,
              and the subdisk records will still point  to  them.
              The  subdisks,  and  any plexes that refer to them,
              are unusable until the disk is  again  added  using
              the -k option to the adddisk operation. Any volumes
              that become unusable,  because  all  plexes  become
              unusable, are disabled.


              Use  extra  care  with  the  -k option because this
              option can disable active volumes.  Lists the  contents
  of  disk groups. If no diskgroup argument is
              specified, all disk groups are listed in an  abbreviated
  one-line format. If a diskgroup argument is
              specified, a longer format is displayed  indicating
              the  status and configuration of the disk group and
              a listing of the disks that contain copies  of  its
              configuration  database and kernel log.  Lists free
              space that can be used for allocating subdisks.  If
              a disk group is specified, the output is limited to
              the  indicated  disk  group;  otherwise,  space  is
              listed from all disk groups. If disks are specified
              by disk media name, the output is restricted to the
              indicated disks.

              A  region of free space is identified by disk media
              name, a physical device tag, an offset relative  to
              the  beginning  of the public region for the media,
              and a length.

              The physical device tag is a reference  that  indicates
 which physical device defines the disk media.
              It appears as a truncated disk access name.   If  a
              particular  physical  device  is split into several
              Logical Storage Manager disk  objects,  the  device
              tag  for  each disk object will be the same. Device
              tags can be compared to identify space that  is  on
              the  same  or  on  different physical disks.  Lists
              spare space that can be used  for  relocating  subdisks
  during  recovery.  If a disk group is specified,
 the output is limited to the  indicated  disk
              group;  otherwise, spare space from all disk groups
              is listed. If disks are  specified  by  disk  media
              name,  the  output  is  restricted to the indicated

              A region of spare space is identified by disk media
              name,  a physical device tag, an offset relative to
              the beginning of the public region for  the  media,
              and a length.

              The  physical  device tag is a reference that indicates
 which physical device defines the disk media.
              It   appears  as  a  truncated  disk  access  name.
              Rewrites all on-disk structures managed by the Logical
  Storage  Manager  for  the named disk groups.
              This  rewrites  all  disk  headers,   configuration
              copies,  and  kernel log copies.  Also, if any configuration
 copies were disabled (for example  as  a
              result  of  I/O  failures), this will rewrite those
              configuration copies and attempt  to  enable  them.
              Dissociates  the  disk  access record from the disk
              media record named by spare-medianame and reassociates
  it  with  the  unassociated disk media record
              named by unassoc-medianame. Both  unassoc-medianame
              and  spare-medianame  must  be  members of the disk
              group named by the diskgroup  argument  (rootdg  by
              default).  However,  if the -k option is specified,
              the disk media records for the spare-medianame will
              be kept, although in a removed state.

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The voldg utility performs basic administrative operations
       on disk groups.  Operations include the creation  of  disk
       groups,  the  addition  of disks to a disk group, and disk
       group imports and deports. The behavior of the voldg utility
  depends  upon  the  keyword  specified  as  the first

       A groupname argument must be a disk group name.

       A diskgroup argument can be either a disk group name or  a
       disk group ID.

       An  accessname argument refers to a disk access name (also
       referred to as a disk device name), as stored in the  root
       configuration  by the voldisk utility (for example, dsk5).
       A medianame argument is an  administrative  name  used  to
       define a disk within a disk group (for example, disk01).

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

       To  swap the number ranges for two disk groups, use the -f
       option when renumbering the first disk group  to  use  the
       range  of  the  second  disk group. Renumbering the second
       disk group to the first range  does  not  require  the  -f

              #  voldg  -f  reminor  dg-1  dg2-base-minor # voldg
              reminor dg-2 dg1-base-minor To move a  rootdg  disk
              group  from one host to a second host (for example,
              so you can make repairs to  the  root  volume)  and
              then  move  the  disk group back to the originating
              host, which can then be rebooted  on  the  repaired
              disk  group,  do  the  following: Identify the disk
              group ID for the rootdg disk group with voldisk  -s
              list.  On the other host, use that disk group ID to
              import that rootdg using -C to clear import  locks,
              -t  for  a  temporary  import, and -n to specify an
              alternate name (to avoid collision with the  rootdg
              disk group on the second host):

              #  voldg  -tC  -n  tempname  import rootdg_id After
              repair, deport the disk group using -h  to  restore
              the first host ID:

              # voldg -h orig_host_id deport tempname

              To  deport  a  disk  group to be used as the rootdg
              disk group for  a  new  machine:  Deport  the  disk
              group,  renaming  it  rootdg  and assigning the new
              host ID: # voldg  -n  rootdg  -h  newhostid  deport
              diskgroup  Connect the disks to the new host.  Boot
              the new host. The system  finds  the  configuration
              automatically  and  imports  the  new  rootdg  disk
              group.  To import disk groups deported from a  preVersion
  5.0  version  of LSM onto a system running
              Version 5.0 or higher and  upgrade  their  metadata
              format,  enter:  #  voldg  -o  convert_old   import

              If the disk group contains volumes  that  use  BCL,
              the following message is displayed:

              lsm:voldg:WARNING:Logging  disabled on volume. Need
              to convert to DRL.  lsm:voldg:WARNING:Run the  vollogcnvt
 command to automatically convert logging.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       Commands:  vold(8), voldisk(8), vollogcnvt(8), volplex(8),

       Other: volintro(8)

[ Back ]
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