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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       inet - Internet Protocol family

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       #include <sys/types.h> #include <netinet/in.h>

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  Internet Protocol family is a collection of protocols
       layered atop the Internet Protocol (IP) Version 4 and Version
  6  transport  layers,  and  utilizing  the  Internet
       address format. The Internet family provides protocol support
  for the SOCK_STREAM, SOCK_DGRAM, and SOCK_RAW socket
       types; the SOCK_RAW interface provides access  to  the  IP

       Internet   addresses   are  4-byte  (AF_INET)  or  16-byte
       (AF_INET6) quantities, stored in network  standard  format
       (on  the Alpha, VAX and other machines, these are word and
       byte reversed).  The netinet/in.h include file defines the
       in_addr  and  in6_addr (AF_INET6) structures to hold these

       Sockets bound to the Internet protocol family  utilize  an
       addressing structure sockaddr_in (AF_INET) or sockaddr_in6
       (AF_INET6), whose format is dependent  on  whether  _SOCKADDR_LEN
   has   been   defined  prior  to  including  the
       netinet/in.h header file.  If  _SOCKADDR_LEN  is  defined,
       the   sockaddr_in  (AF_INET)  or  sockaddr_in6  (AF_INET6)
       structure takes 4.4BSD behavior, with a separate field for
       specifying  the  length  of  the  address;  otherwise, the
       default 4.3BSD behavior is used.

       Sockets may be created with the local  address  INADDR_ANY
       (AF_INET)  or  in6addr_any  (AF_INET6)  to effect wildcard
       matching on incoming messages. The address in a  connect()
       or  sendto()  call may be given as INADDR_ANY (AF_INET) or
       in6addr_any (AF_INET6) to mean ``this host.''  The distinguished
 address INADDR_BROADCAST (AF_INET) is allowed as a
       shorthand for the broadcast address on the primary network
       if the first network configured supports broadcast.  There
       is no broadcast in IPv6.

       The Internet protocol family comprises  the  IP  transport
       protocol, Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Version
       4 and Version 6, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP),  and
       User  Datagram  Protocol (UDP). TCP is used to support the
       SOCK_STREAM abstraction while UDP is used to  support  the
       SOCK_DGRAM  abstraction.   A raw interface to IP is available
 by creating an Internet socket of type SOCK_RAW.  The
       ICMP message protocol is accessible from a raw socket.

       The  32-bit IP Version 4 address contains both network and
       host parts.  It is frequency-encoded; the most-significant
       bit is clear in Class A addresses, in which the high-order
       8 bits are the network number. Class B addresses  use  the
       high-order  16  bits  as  the  network  field, and Class C
       addresses have a 24-bit network part. Sites with a cluster
       of  local  networks  and  a connection to the Internet may
       chose to use a single network number for the cluster; this
       is  done by using subnet addressing. The local (host) portion
 of the address is further subdivided into subnet  and
       host  parts. Within a subnet, each subnet appears to be an
       individual network; externally, the entire cluster appears
       to  be  a  single, uniform network requiring only a single
       routing entry.

       IPv4 subnet addressing is enabled and examined by the following
 ioctl commands on a datagram socket in the Internet
       domain; they have the same form as the SIOCSIFADDR command
       (see  the  reference page for the netintro function).  Set
       interface network mask. The network mask defines the  network
  part  of  the  address;  if  it contains more of the
       address than the address type would indicate, then subnets
       are in use.  Get interface network mask.

       The 128-bit IP Version 6 address has several formats.  One
       format is as follows:


       In this format, x is the hexadecimal  value  of  a  16-bit
       piece  of the address.  See the Network Programmer's Guide
       for more information on IPv6 addresses.

NOTES    [Toc]    [Back]

       The Internet protocol support is subject to change as  the
       Internet  protocols  develop.   Users should not depend on
       details of the current implementation, but rather the services

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       Functions: ioctl(2), socket(2).

       Network  Information:  netintro(7), tcp(7), udp(7), ip(7),

       Network Programmer's Guide

       Technical Overview

       RFC 2373, IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture, July 1998

[ Back ]
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