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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       paste - Joins corresponding lines of several files or subsequent
 lines in one file

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       paste [-d list] [-s] file...

STANDARDS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Interfaces documented on this reference  page  conform  to
       industry standards as follows:

       paste:  XCU5.0

       Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information
 about industry standards and associated tags.

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Replaces the delimiter that separates lines in the  output
       (tab  by  default)  with one or more characters from list.
       If list contains more than one character, then the characters
  are  repeated  in order until the end of the output.
       In parallel merging, the lines from the last  file  always
       end with a newline character, instead of one from list.

              The  following  special  characters  can be used in
              list: Newline character Tab Backslash Empty  string
              (not  a  null  character) [Tru64 UNIX]  An extended

              You must quote characters that have special meaning
              to  the  shell.   Merges  all lines from each input
              file into one  line  of  output  (serial  merging).
              Using  this  option,  the  paste command merges all
              lines in the first input  file  forcing  a  newline
              before at the end.  The command then continues with
              the next input file, continuing in the same  manner
              until  all  input  files have been completed. A tab
              separates the input lines unless  you  use  the  -d
              option.  Regardless of the list, the last character
              of the output is a newline character.

OPERANDS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The name of an input file.   You  may  specify  up  to  12
       files, including hyphens.

              If  you  specify  a  -,  paste reads standard input
              recursively, one line for each -.

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       Specifying the -d option or no options  causes  the  paste
       command to treat each file as a column, joining them horizontally
 with a tab character by default  (parallel  merging).

       Using  the -s option, the paste command combines all lines
       of each input file into one output line (serial  merging).
       These  lines are joined with the tab character by default.

       Output lines can be any length.

       [Tru64 UNIX]  The output of pr -t -m  is  similar  to  the
       output  produced  by  the  paste  command, but pr with its
       options creates extra  spaces,  tabs,  and  lines  for  an
       enhanced page layout.

RESTRICTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       If the -s option is not used, it is an error if any specified
 file cannot be opened.

EXIT STATUS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The following exit values are returned: Successful completion.
  An error occurred.

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

       To  paste  several  columns of data together, enter: paste
       names  places  dates  > npd

              This creates a file named  npd  that  contains  the
              data  from  names in one column, places in another,
              and dates in a third.  The columns are separated by
              tab characters.

              File npd then contains:

              rachel           New  York        28 February jerzy
              Warsaw          27  April  mata             Nairobi
              21  June  michel           Boca  Raton      27 July
              segui           Managua         18 November

              A tab character separates the name, place, and date
              on each line.  To separate the columns with a character
 other than a  tab  (sh  only),  enter:  paste
              -d"!@"  names  places  dates  > npd

              This  alternates the apostrophe (!) and the at sign
              (@) as the column separators.   If  names,  places,
              and  dates  are  the same as in Example 1, then npd

              rachel!New York@28 February  jerzy!Warsaw@27  April
              mata!Nairobi@21   June  michel!Boca  Raton@27  July
              segui!Managua@18 November To display  the  standard
              input  in multiple columns, enter: ls | paste  -  -
              -  -

              This lists the current directory in  four  columns.
              Each hyphen (-) tells the paste command to create a
              column  containing  data  read  from  the  standard
              input.  The  first line is put in the first column,
              the second line in the second column, ... and  then
              the fifth line in the first column, and so on.

              This  is  equivalent to ls | paste -d"\t\t\t\n"  -s

              which fills the columns across the page with subsequent
   lines   from   the   standard  input.   The
              -d\t\t\t\n defines the character  to  insert  after
              each  column:  a tab character (\t) after the first
              three columns, and a newline character  (\n)  after
              the  fourth. Without the -d option, paste -s - displays
 all of the input  as  one  line  with  a  tab
              between  each  column.   To  merge the lines of the
              file names above into one output line, enter: paste
              -s names

              This  results  in:  rachel   jerzy   mata    michel


       The following environment variables affect  the  execution
       of  paste: Provides a default value for the internationalization
 variables that are unset or null. If LANG is unset
       or  null,  the corresponding value from the default locale
       is used.  If any  of  the  internationalization  variables
       contain an invalid setting, the utility behaves as if none
       of the variables had been defined.  If set to a  non-empty
       string value, overrides the values of all the other internationalization
 variables.  Determines the locale for  the
       interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters
 (for example, single-byte as opposed  to  multibyte
       characters  in arguments and input files).  Determines the
       locale for the format and contents of diagnostic  messages
       written  to  standard  error.   Determines the location of
       message catalogues for the processing of LC_MESSAGES.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       Commands:  cut(1), grep(1), fold(1), join(1), pr(1)

       Standards:  standards(5)

[ Back ]
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