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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       ls - Lists and generates statistics for files

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       ls [-aAbcCdDfFgilLmnopqrRstux1] [file... | directory...]

STANDARDS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Interfaces  documented  on  this reference page conform to
       industry standards as follows:

       ls:  XCU5.0

       Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information
 about industry standards and associated tags.

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Lists  all entries in the directory, including the entries
       that begin with a (dot). Entries that begin with a are not
       displayed  unless  you  refer to them specifically, or you
       specify the -a option.  [Tru64 UNIX]  Lists  all  entries,
       except (dot) and (dot-dot). If you issue the ls command as
       the superuser, it behaves as if you specified this option.
       [Tru64  UNIX]  Displays  nonprintable  characters in octal
       notation.  Uses the time of last inode modification  (file
       created,  mode  changed,  and so on) for sorting when used
       with the -t option. Displays the time of last inode  modification
 (instead of the time at which the file's contents
       were last modified) when used with the  -l  option.   This
       option  has  effect only when used with either -t or -l or
       both.  Sorts output vertically in  a  multicolumn  format.
       This  is  the  default when output is to a terminal.  Displays
 only the  information  for  the  directory  that  is
       named,  rather than for its contents.  This is useful with
       the -l option to get the status of a  directory.   If  the
       file  is a special file, and the machine is cluster aware,
       the size field contains the major and minor device numbers
       assigned  on  the  local  machine.  Lists the name in each
       slot for each named directory. This option turns  off  -l,
       -t,  -s,  and  -r,  and  turns on -a; this option uses the
       order in which entries appear in the directory.  Puts a  /
       (slash)  after  each file name if the file is a directory,
       an * (asterisk) after each file name if the  file  can  be
       executed,  an  =  (equal sign) after each file name if the
       file is a socket, an @ (at sign) for a symbolic link,  and
       a | (vertical bar) for a FIFO.  Displays the same information
 as -l, except  for  the  owner.   Displays  the  file
       serial  number  in the first column of the report for each
       file.  Displays the mode, number of links,  owner,  group,
       size  (in  bytes),  and time of last modification for each
       file, and pathname.

              [Tru64 UNIX]  If the file is a symbolic  link,  the
              pathname  of the linked-to file is also preceded by
              ->. The attributes of the symbolic  link  are  displayed.
 The -n option overrides the -l option.

              [Tru64   UNIX]  If  CMD_ENV=svr4,  the  ls  command
              reports an l in  the  group  execution  field  when
              mandatory  locking is enabled.  [Tru64 UNIX]  Lists
              the file or directory link references  rather  than
              the  link  itself,  if  the  argument is a symbolic
              link.  Uses stream output format (a comma-separated
              series).   Displays  the  same  information  as -l,
              except that it displays the user and the group  IDs
              instead  of  the  user names and group names.  Displays
 the same information as with -l,  except  for
              the  group.  The -n option overrides the -o option.
              Puts a slash after each file name if that file is a
              directory.   Displays  nonprintable  characters  in
              file names as a ?  (question  mark)  character,  if
              output  is  to  a terminal (default).  Reverses the
              order of the sort, giving reverse collation or  the
              oldest  first, as appropriate.  Lists all subdirectories
  recursively.   Gives  space   used   in   n
              1024-byte  units  (including  indirect  blocks) for
              each entry.

              [Tru64 UNIX]  When run on an AdvFS clone file  set,
              the  ls  -s  command displays the space used by the
              files in the original file  set  at  the  time  the
              clone file set was created. The file sizes are displayed
 in 1024-byte units.  Sorts by time  of  last
              modification  (latest  first)  instead  of by name.
              Uses the time of the last access instead of time of
              the  last  modification for sorting (when used with
              -t) or for displaying (when used  with  -l).   This
              option  has  no effect when not used with either -t
              or -l or both.  Sorts output horizontally in a multicolumn
  format.  Forces one entry per line output
              format; this is the  default  when  output  is  not
              directed to a terminal.

       When you specify the following mutually exclusive options,
       the last option on the command line takes  effect:  [Tru64
       UNIX]  -C  and  -l  (ell)  [Tru64  UNIX]  -C  and -1 (one)
       [Tru64 UNIX]  -m and -l  (ell)  [Tru64  UNIX]  -x  and  -l
       (ell) [Tru64 UNIX]  -c and -u

OPERANDS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  path name of a file or directory about which information
 is to be output.  If this  operand  is  omitted,  the
       current directory is used.

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  ls  command writes to standard output the contents of
       each specified directory or the  name  of  each  specified
       file,  along  with  any other information you ask for with
       options.  If you do not specify a file or a directory,  ls
       displays the contents of the current directory.

       By  default, ls displays all information in collated order
       by file name.  The collating sequence is determined by the
       LC_COLLATE environment variable.

       [Tru64 UNIX]  There are three main ways to format the output:
 [Tru64 UNIX]  List entries  in  multiple  columns  by
       specifying either the -C or -x options.  When output is to
       a terminal, -C is the default format.  List one entry  per
       line.   List entries in a comma-separated series by specifying
 the -m option.

       [Tru64 UNIX]  The ls command uses ioctl() to determine the
       number of byte positions in the output line.  If ls cannot
       get this information, it  uses  a  default  value  of  80.
       Columns  may  not  be smaller than 20 bytes or larger than
       400 bytes.

   Modes    [Toc]    [Back]
       The mode displayed with the -l option  is  interpreted  by
       the  first character, as follows: Block special file Character
 special file Directory [Tru64  UNIX]  Symbolic  link
       First-In-First-Out (FIFO) special file [Tru64 UNIX]  Local
       socket Ordinary file

   Permissions    [Toc]    [Back]
       The next nine characters are divided into  three  sets  of
       three  characters  each.   The first three characters show
       the owner's permission.  The next set of three  characters
       show  the permission of the other users in the group.  The
       last set of three characters show the permission of everyone
  else.   The  three  characters in each set show read,
       write and execute permission of the file.  Execute permission
  of  a  directory  lets  you search a directory for a
       specified file.

       Permissions are indicated as follows: read  write  execute
       or search (directories) no access

       The  group-execute  permission  character is s if the file
       has set-group-ID mode. The user-execute permission character
  is s if the file has set-user-ID mode. The last character
 of the mode (normally x or -)  is  t  if  the  01000
       (octal)  bit of the mode is set; see the chmod command for
       the meaning of this mode. The indications  of  set-ID  and
       the  01000  bit  of  the  mode  are  capitalized (S and T,
       respectively) if the corresponding execute  permission  is
       not set.

       When  there  is an access control list (ACL) on the listed
       directory or file the group permissions displayed  by  the
       ls  command  are  the  maximum permissions allowed for the
       owning group and for any user or  group  identified  in  a
       qualified  "user"  or  "group"  ACL entry. A given user or
       member of a group can have more  restrictive  permissions.
       Use  the getacl command to see the ACL for a given file or

       When the sizes of the files in a directory are listed, the
       ls  command  displays  a  total  count in 1024-byte units,
       including indirect blocks.

       The LC_TIME environment variable controls  the  format  of
       the date and time.

   System V Compatibility    [Toc]    [Back]
       [Tru64 UNIX]  The root of the directory tree that contains
       the commands modified for SVID 2 compliance  is  specified
       in  the  file /etc/svid2_path. You can use /etc/svid2_profile
  as  the  basis  for,  or   to   include   in,   your
       /etc/svid2_profile  reads  /etc/svid2_path  and  sets  the
       first entries in the PATH environment variable so that the
       modified SVID 2 commands are found first.

       [Tru64  UNIX]  The SVID 2 compliant version of the ls command
 produces multicolumn output only if the -C option  is
       specified.  In  addition, the -s option of the SVID 2 compliant
  command  causes  file  sizes  to  be  reported  in
       512-byte units rather than in 1024-byte units.

EXIT STATUS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The following exit values are returned: Successful completion.
  An error occurred.

NOTE    [Toc]    [Back]

       [Tru64 UNIX]  Sparse files, such as quota files,  may  not
       be  using  as  much  on-disk  storage as the ls -l command
       reports.  Use the ls -s  command  to  obtain  an  accurate
       report of the on-disk storage used by a sparse file.

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  following example lists the quota.user file, a sparse
       file, two different ways.  The example shows that although
       the  last  byte  in the file is at logical offset 2097151,
       the file uses only 24 blocks of on-disk storage: #  ls  -l
       quota.user  -rw-r-----    1  root operator  2097152 Apr 29
       14:54 quota.user # ls -s quota.user 24 quota.user To  list
       all files in the current directory, enter: ls -a

              This  lists  all files, including . (dot), .. (dotdot),
 and other files with names beginning  with  a
              dot.  To display detailed information, enter: ls -l
              chap1 .profile

              This displays a long listing with detailed information
  about the files chap1 and To display detailed
              information about a directory, enter: ls  -d  -l  .
              manual manual/chap1

              This  displays  a  long listing for the directories
              and manual, and for the file manual/chap1.  Without
              the  -d option, this command lists the files in and
              manual instead of  providing  detailed  information
              about  the  directories  themselves.   To  list the
              files in the current directory in order of  modification
 time, enter: ls -l -t

              This displays a long listing of the files that were
              modified  most  recently,  followed  by  the  older


       The  following  environment variables affect the execution
       of ls: Determines the  user's  preferred  column  position
       width  for  writing  multiple  text-column output. If this
       variable contains a string representing a decimal integer,
       the  ls  utility calculates how many pathname text columns
       to write (see -C) based on the width provided. If  COLUMNS
       is  not set or invalid, an implementation-dependent number
       of column positions is assumed, based on  the  implementation's
  knowledge  of  the output device. The column width
       chosen to write the names of files in any given  directory
       will  be  constant. Filenames will not be truncated to fit
       into the multiple text-column output.  Provides a  default
       value  for  the  internationalization  variables  that are
       unset or null. If LANG is unset or null, the corresponding
       value  from  the  default  locale  is  used. If any of the
       internationalization variables contain an invalid setting,
       the  utility  behaves as if none of the variables had been
       defined.  If set to a non-empty  string  value,  overrides
       the  values  of  all  the other internationalization variables.
  Determines  the  locale  for  character  collation
       information   in   determining   the   pathname  collation
       sequence.  Determines the locale for the interpretation of
       sequences  of  bytes  of  text  data  as  characters  (for
       example, single-byte as opposed to multibyte characters in
       arguments).  Determines the locale for the format and contents
 of diagnostic messages written  to  standard  error.
       Determines  the  format and contents for the date and time
       strings written by ls.  Determines the location of message
       catalogues  for the processing of LC_MESSAGES.  Determines
       the timezone for date and time strings written by ls.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

       Contains user information.  Contains group information.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       Commands:  chmod(1), du(1), find(1), ln(1), stty(1)

       Functions:  ioctl(2)

       Files:  acl(4)

       Standards:  standards(5)

[ Back ]
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