imake - C preprocessor interface to the make utility
imake [-Ddefine] [-Idir] [-Ttemplate] [-f filename] [-C
filename] [-s filename] [-e] [-v]
The following command line options may be passed to imake:
This option is passed directly to cpp. It is typically
used to set directory-specific variables. For example,
the X Window System uses this option to set TOPDIR to the
name of the directory containing the top of the core distribution
and CURDIR to the name of the current directory,
relative to the top. This option is passed directly to
cpp. It is typically used to indicate the directory in
which the imake template and configuration files may be
found. This option specifies the name of the master template
file (which is usually located in the directory
specified with -I) used by cpp. The default is Imake.tmpl.
This option specifies the name of the per-directory input
file. The default is Imakefile. This option specifies
the name of the file that is constructed in the current
directory. The default is Imakefile.c. This option specifies
the name of the make description file to be generated
but make should not be invoked. If the filename is a
dash (-), the output is written to stdout. The default is
to generate, but not execute, a Makefile. This option
indicates the imake should execute the generated Makefile.
The default is to leave this to the user. This option
indicates that imake should print the cpp command line
that it is using to generate the Makefile.
Imake is used to generate Makefiles from a template, a set
of cpp macro functions, and a per-directory input file
called an Imakefile. This allows machine dependencies
(such as compiler options, alternate command names, and
special make rules) to be kept separate from the descriptions
of the various items to be built.
Imake invokes cpp with any -I or -D options passed on the
command line and passes the name of a file containing the
following 3 lines:
#define IMAKE_TEMPLATE "Imake.tmpl" #define INCLUDE_IMAKEFILE
<Imakefile> #include IMAKE_TEMPLATE
where Imake.tmpl and Imakefile may be overridden by the -T
and -f command options, respectively.
The IMAKE_TEMPLATE typically reads in a file containing
machine-dependent parameters (specified as cpp symbols), a
site-specific parameters file, a file defining variables,
a file containing cpp macro functions for generating make
rules, and finally the Imakefile (specified by
INCLUDE_IMAKEFILE) in the current directory. The Imakefile
uses the macro functions to indicate what targets
should be built; imake takes care of generating the appropriate
Imake configuration files contain two types of variables,
imake variables and make variables. The imake variables
are interpreted by cpp when imake is run. By convention
they are mixed case. The make variables are written into
the Makefile for later interpretation by make. By convention
make variables are upper case.
The rules file (usually named Imake.rules in the configuration
directory) contains a variety of cpp macro functions
that are configured according to the current platform.
Imake replaces any occurrences of the string "@@"
with a newline to allow macros that generate more than one
line of make rules. For example, the macro
#define program_target(program, objlist) @@\ program:
$(CC) -o $@ objlist $(LDFLAGS)
when called with
program_target(foo, foo1.o foo2.o)
will expand to
foo: foo1.o foo2.o
$(CC) -o $@ foo1.o foo2.o $(LDFLAGS)
Imake also replaces any occurrences of the word "XCOMM"
with the character "#" to permit placing comments in the
Makefile without causing "invalid directive" errors from
Some complex imake macros require generated make variables
local to each invocation of the macro, often because their
value depends on parameters passed to the macro. Such
variables can be created by using an imake variable of the
form XVARdefn, where n is a single digit. A unique make
variable will be substituted. Later occurrences of the
variable XVARusen will be replaced by the variable created
by the corresponding XVARdefn.
On systems whose cpp reduces multiple tabs and spaces to a
single space, imake attempts to put back any necessary
tabs (make is very picky about the difference between tabs
and spaces). For this reason, colons (:) in command lines
must be preceded by a backslash (\).
USE WITH THE X WINDOW SYSTEM [Toc] [Back]
The X Window System uses imake extensively, for both full
builds within the source tree and external software. As
mentioned above, two special variables, TOPDIR and CURDIR,
are set to make referencing files using relative path
names easier. For example, the following command is generated
automatically to build the Makefile in the directory
lib/X/ (relative to the top of the sources):
% ../.././config/imake -I../.././config \
When building X programs outside the source tree, a special
symbol UseInstalled is defined and TOPDIR and CURDIR
are omitted. If the configuration files have been properly
installed, the xmkmf script may be used.
Here is a summary of the files read by imake as used by X.
The indentation shows what files include what other files.
Imake.tmpl generic variables
site.def site-specific, BeforeVendorCF
*Lib.rules shared library rules
site.def site-specific, AfterVendorCF
Project.tmpl X-specific variables
*Lib.tmpl shared library variables
Library.tmpl library rules
Server.tmpl server rules
Threads.tmpl multi-threaded rules
Note that site.def gets included twice, once before the
*.cf file and once after. Although most site customizations
should be specified after the *.cf file, some, such
as the choice of compiler, need to be specified before,
because other variable settings may depend on them.
The first time site.def is included, the variable
BeforeVendorCF is defined, and the second time, the variable
AfterVendorCF is defined. All code in site.def
should be inside an #ifdef for one of these symbols.
ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES [Toc] [Back]
The following environment variables may be set, however
their use is not recommended as they introduce dependencies
that are not readily apparent when imake is run: If
defined, this should be a valid include argument for the C
preprocessor. E.g., "-I/usr/include/local". Actually, any
valid cpp argument will work here. If defined, this
should be a valid path to a preprocessor program. E.g.,
"/usr/local/cpp". By default, imake will use /lib/cpp. If
defined, this should be a valid path to a make program,
such as "/usr/local/make". By default, imake will use
whatever make program is found using execvp(2). This
variable is only used if the "-e" option is specified.
Temporary input file for cpp Temporary Makefile for -s"
Temporary Imakefile if specified Imakefile uses # comments
Default C preprocessor
S. I. Feldman, Make -- A Program for Maintaining Computer
Todd Brunhoff, Tektronix and MIT Project Athena; Jim Fulton,
MIT X Consortium
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