forw - Forwards messages (only available within the message
handling system, mh)
forw [msgs] [+folder] [options]
The -annotate option annotates the message you are forwarding.
If you do not specify this option or specify the
-noannotate option, no annotation is done. The -annotate
option adds the following lines to the message that you
are forwarding: Forwarded: date Forwarded: address(es)
The first line records the time at which the message
was forwarded; the second records the
addresses of the recipients of the forwarded message.
The forw command annotates messages only when they
are successfully sent. If you do not send the message
immediately and file the unsent draft, it will
not be annotated. It is also possible to confuse
forw by using the push command to send the message,
and renumbering the message before it is sent (for
example, by using folder -pack to reorder the
folder). The -dashmunging option represents
default forw behavior, which adds an extra dash (-)
before any line that begins with a dash. This
behavior causes problems when forwarded messages
contain PostScript files because the extra characters
prevent those files from being printed.
Specify the -nodashmunging option when forwarding
messages that contain PostScript files. The
-nodashmunging option works only in combination
with the -format or -filter filterfile option. The
-draftfolder option specifies the folder in which
the draft message is created. If you do not send
the draft, the mail system will store it in this
The draft folder is usually specified as an option
in rather than through the -draftfolder option on
the command line. See the mh_profile(4) reference
page for more information.
If you specify a draft folder in can override it by
using the -nodraftfolder option on the command
line. Specifies the file in which the draft message
is created. If no absolute pathname is given,
the file is assumed to be in your Mail directory,
usually $HOME/Mail. If you do not send the message,
it is stored in the named file until you delete it,
or send it at a later date. Specifies the editor
that you want to use to edit your forwarded message.
You can supply the name of any approved editor.
Reformats (filters) the forwarded messages
prior to inclusion in the draft message. If you do
not specify -filter, the forwarded messages are
included in the draft exactly as they appear. This
option allows you to reformat them according to
instructions in a named filter file. This must be
an mhl file; see the mh-format(4) reference page
for more information.
The -format option also reformats messages before
encapsulating them in the draft. However, -format
always reformats according to the instructions in
the default mhl.forward file. The -filter option
allows you to use your own, named filter file to
format the messages. Specifies the message header
to be used in the draft message. If this option is
present, forw takes the header of the draft message
from the named file. If this option is not present,
the header is taken from the forwcomps file in your
Mail directory, or failing that, from the mail system
default header. However, the -form option overrides
both of these defaults. The -format option
reformats the messages to be forwarded before
enclosing them in the draft message. If this option
is not supplied or the -noformat option is used,
the forwarded messages are included in the draft
exactly as they appear. With the -format option,
the forwarded message is reformatted according to
the instructions in the mhl.forward file in your
Mail directory. If this file does not exist, the
message is formatted according to the system file
/usr/lib/mh/mhl.forward. The mhl.forward file is an
mhl file; see the mh-format(4) reference page for
You can also use the -filter filterfile option to
reformat messages. The difference is that -format
always takes its instructions from the mhl.forward
file. With -filter, you can specify the name of the
filter file you want to use. Prints a list of the
valid options for this command. These options
apply only when the -annotate option is also used.
The -inplace option causes annotation to be done in
place, to preserve links to the annotated message.
The -noinplace option specifies that annotation be
done without preserving links to the annotated message.
Suppresses editing of the draft message
altogether. The -whatnowproc option specifies an
alternative whatnow program. Normally, forw invokes
the default whatnow program. See the whatnow(1)
reference page for a discussion of available
options. You can specify your own alternative to
the default program by using the -whatnowproc program
option. If you do specify your own program,
you should not call it whatnow.
You can suppress the whatnow program entirely by
using the -nowhatnowproc option. However, as the
program normally starts the initial edit, the
-nowhatnowproc option prevents you from editing the
Specifies one or more numbers, or a range of numbers, to
identify the messages that you want to forward. By
default, forw forwards the current message. Identifies
the folder from which messages are to be forwarded. By
default, forw forwards messages from the current folder.
The forw command sends one or more messages on to recipients
who were not the original addressees. The command
encapsulates all messages to be forwarded and adds a message
header. Forwarded messages appear to originate from
the forwarder and not the sender of the original message.
The command invokes an editor so that you can edit the
forwarded message or add text before or after the encapsulated
message. When you exit from the editor, you receive
a prompt asking what you want to do with the completed
draft. This prompt usually takes the form What now?. See
the whatnow(1) reference page for more information on the
If you forward a number of messages, each forwarded message
is encapsulated separately. When received, the message
is suitable for expanding with the burst command (see
the burst(1) reference page).
By default, the mail system uses a standard message header
for forwarded messages. This is taken from the system file
/usr/lib/mh/forwcomps. You can supply your own header by
creating a file called forwcomps in your Mail directory.
If this file exists, forw automatically uses the header in
it when creating draft messages.
If you do not have a draft folder set up, forw creates
your new draft in a file called draft in your Mail directory,
usually $HOME/Mail. This file must be empty before
you can create a new draft, which means that you can store
only one draft at a time. If it is not empty, the mail
system will ask you what you want to do with the existing
contents. Your options are: To abort forw, leaving the
draft intact To replace the existing draft with the appropriate
message form To display the draft message To refile
the existing draft message in a specified folder.
This option provides a new message form for you to
If you want to keep more than one draft (unsent) message
available, you can set up a draft folder in your folder
allows you to keep as many unsent drafts as space allows
and still create new messages. To set up a draft folder,
make sure that the following line is in your file:
For more information on setting up folders, see the
mh_profile(4) reference page.
If you set up a draft folder, all draft messages are created
in that folder. If you decide not to send the draft,
by typing quit at the What now? prompt, the message is
stored in the draft folder. You can then re-edit the message,
or send it at a later date, by using the -use option
with the comp command.
If you use prompter as your editor, you can specify the
-prepend option to prompter in the file. If you do this,
any text you add is entered before the forwarded messages.
See the prompter(1) reference page for details on other
If you specify the forw command without any operands or
options, the following defaults apply: +folder defaults to
the current folder. msgs defaults to the current message.
-dashmunging -noannotate If a draft folder is specified in
the $HOME/.mh_profile file, that draft folder is used;
otherwise, -nodraftfolder is the default. -noformat
Profile Components [Toc] [Back]
The following entries in $HOME/.mh_profile can affect
operation of the forw command. Refer to mh_profile(4) for
a more complete description of these entries. Determines
your Mail directory. Finds the default draft folder.
Overrides the default editor. Sets the protection mode
when creating a new message (draft). Overrides the
default mail interchange code. Specifies a nondefault
program for refiling messages. Specifies a nondefault
program for filtering the messages being forwarded. Specifies
a nondefault program for asking the What now? questions.
The default system template for forwarded messages The
user-supplied alternative to the default system template.
The user-supplied alternative to the system message template
used with -digest The default message filter The
user-supplied alternative to the default system message
filter The user profile The draft file
Commands: comp(1), dist(1), refile(1), repl(1), send(1),
Files: mh-format(4), mh_profile(4)
Proposed Standard for Message Encapsulation (RFC 934)
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