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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       fc - Processes the command history list

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       fc [-r] [-e editor] [first[last]]

       fc -l  [-nr] [first[last]]

       fc [-s] [old=new] [first]

STANDARDS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Interfaces  documented  on  this reference page conform to
       industry standards as follows:

       fc:  XCU5.0

       Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information
 about industry standards and associated tags.

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Uses the editor named by editor to edit the commands.  The
       editor string is a utility name, subject to search via the
       PATH  variable.   The value in the FCEDIT variable is used
       as a default when -e is not specified.  If FCEDIT is  null
       or  unset,  ed  is used as the editor.  Lists the commands
       rather than invoking an editor on them.  The commands  are
       written  in  the  sequence indicated by the first and last
       parameters, as affected by -r, with each command  preceded
       by  the  command  number.  Suppresses command numbers when
       listing with -l.   Reverses  the  order  of  the  commands
       listed  (with  -l)  or  edited  (with  neither -l nor -s).
       Reexecutes the command without invoking an editor.

OPERANDS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Selects the commands to list or edit.  The number of  previous
  commands  that can be accessed is determined by the
       value of the HISTSIZE variable.  The  value  of  first  or
       last  or  both  is one of the following: A positive number
       representing a command number; command numbers can be displayed
 with the -l option.  A negative decimal number representing
 the command that was executed number of commands
       previously.   For  example, -1 is the immediately previous
       command.  A string indicating the  most  recently  entered
       command  that  begins  with  that  string.  If the old=new
       operand is not also specified with -s, the string form  of
       the first operand cannot contain an embedded equal sign.

              When the synopsis form with -s is used: If first is
              omitted, the previous command is used.

              For the synopsis forms without -s: If last is omitted,
  last defaults to the previous command when -l
              is specified; otherwise, it defaults to first.   If
              first  and  last  are both omitted, the previous 16
              commands are listed or the previous single  command
              is  edited  (based on the -l option).  If first and
              last are both present, all  of  the  commands  from
              first  to  last  are  edited (without -l) or listed
              (with -l).  Editing  multiple  commands  is  accomplished
 by presenting to the editor all of the commands
 at one time, each command starting on  a  new
              line.   If  first  represents  a newer command than
              last, the commands are listed or edited in  reverse
              sequence, equivalent to using -r.  For example, the
              following commands on the first line are equivalent
              to the corresponding commands on the second:

              fc -r 10 20                    fc    30 40 fc    20
              10                    fc -r 40 30 When a  range  of
              commands  is  used,  it  is not an error to specify
              first or last values that are not  in  the  history
              list;  fc  substitutes  the  value representing the
              oldest or newest command in the list, as  appropriate.
   For  example, if there are only ten commands
              in the history list, numbered 1 to 10, the  following
  commands  list and edit, respectively, all ten

              fc -l fc  1 99

              The first occurrence of string old in the  commands
              to be reexecuted is replaced by the string new.

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The fc utility lists or edits and reexecutes commands previously
 entered to an interactive shell.

       The command history list references  commands  by  number.
       The first number in the list is selected arbitrarily.  The
       relationship of a number to its command  does  not  change
       except  when  the  user  logs  in  and no other process is
       accessing the list, at which time the system may reset the
       numbering  to start the oldest retained command at another
       number (usually 1).  When  the  number  reaches  an  upper
       limit, either the value in HISTSIZE or 32767 (whichever is
       greater), the shell wraps the numbers, starting  the  next
       command  with  number  1.  However,  despite this optional
       wrapping  of  numbers,  fc  maintains  the   time-ordering
       sequence of the commands. For example, if four commands in
       sequence are given the numbers 32766, 32767, 1  (wrapped),
       and  2  as  they are executed, command 32767 is considered
       the command previous to  1,  even  though  its  number  is

       When commands are edited (when the -l option is not specified),
 the resulting lines are entered at the end  of  the
       history  list  and  then reexecuted by sh.  The fc command
       that caused the editing is not entered  into  the  history
       list.  If  the editor returns a non-zero exit status, this
       suppresses the entry into the history list and the command
       reexecution.  Any  command-line  variable  assignments  or
       redirection operators used with fc affect both the fc command
 itself as well as the command that results.  The following
 command reinvokes the previous command, suppressing
       standard error for both fc and the previous command: fc -s
       -- -1 2>/dev/null

NOTES    [Toc]    [Back]

       Users on windowing systems may want to have separate  history
 files for each window by setting HISTFILE to the following:

RESTRICTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Since editors sometimes use file descriptors  as  integral
       parts of their editing, redirecting their file descriptors
       as part of the fc command can produce unexpected  results.
       For  example,  if  vi  is the FCEDIT editor, the following
       command will not work correctly on many systems: fc  -s  |

EXIT STATUS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The following exit values are returned: Successful completion
 of the listing.  An error occurred.

       Otherwise, the exit status is that of  the  commands  executed
 by fc.


       The  following  environment variables affect the execution
       of fc: This variable, when expanded by the  shell,  determines
  the default value for the -e editor option's editor
       option-argument.  If FCEDIT is null or unset, ed  is  used
       as  the  editor.   Determines a path name naming a command
       history file. If the HISTFILE variable  is  not  set,  the
       shell  attempts  to  access  or create a file in your home
       directory. If the shell cannot obtain both read and  write
       access  to, or create, the history file, it uses a default
       mechanism that allows the  history  to  operate  properly.
       Changes  made  to HISTFILE after the history file has been
       initialized are not effective.  If more than one  instance
       of the shell is using the same history file, it is unspecified
 how updates to the history file  from  those  shells
       interact.  As  entries  are deleted from the history file,
       they will be deleted oldest first.  Determines  a  decimal
       number  representing  the  limit to the number of previous
       commands that are accessible. If this variable is unset, a
       default  of  128  is used.  Changes made to HISTSIZE after
       the history file has been initialized are  not  effective.
       Provides  a  default  value  for  the internationalization
       variables that are unset or null.  If  LANG  is  unset  or
       null,  the  corresponding value from the default locale is
       used.  If any of the internationalization  variables  contain
 an invalid setting, the utility behaves as if none of
       the variables had been defined.  If  set  to  a  non-empty
       string value, overrides the values of all the other internationalization
 variables.  Determines the locale for  the
       interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters
 (for example, single-byte as opposed  to  multibyte
       characters  in arguments and input files).  Determines the
       locale used to affect the format and contents of  diagnostic
  messages  written  to standard error.  Determines the
       location of  message  catalogues  for  the  processing  of

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       Commands:  sh(1p)

       Standards:  standards(5)

[ Back ]
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