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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       echo - Writes its arguments to standard output

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       echo [-n] [string...]

       [Tru64  UNIX]  The -n option is valid only if the environment
 variable CMD_ENV is set to bsd.


       The C shell has a built-in version of  the  echo  command.
       If  you  are using the C shell, and want to guarantee that
       you are using the command described here, you must specify
       the  full  path  /usr/bin/echo.   See the csh(1) reference
       page for a description of the built-in command.

STANDARDS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Interfaces documented on this reference  page  conform  to
       industry standards as follows:

       echo:  XCU5.0

       Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information
 about industry standards and associated tags.

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       [Tru64 UNIX]  No newline is added to the  output.  The  -n
       option  is  valid only if the environment variable CMD_ENV
       is set to bsd. Otherwise any -n operand is  treated  as  a
       string  rather  than as a option. See the printf(1) reference
 page for use in portable applications.

OPERANDS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The string to be displayed on standard  output.  The  echo
       command recognizes the following special characters in the
       string: Displays an alert character.  Displays a backspace
       character.   Suppresses the newline character. All characters
 following \c in the arguments are ignored.   Displays
       a formfeed character.  Displays a newline character.  Displays
 a carriage-return character.  Displays a tab character.
  Displays a vertical tab character.  Displays a backslash
 character.  Displays an 8-bit character whose  value
       is  the 1-, 2- or 3-digit octal number, number.  The first
       digit of number must be a 0 (zero).

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The echo command writes the specified string  to  standard
       output, followed by a newline character.

       The  arguments  are separated by spaces. Use the echo command
 to produce diagnostic messages in command  files  and
       to  send data into a pipe.  If there are no arguments, the
       echo command outputs a newline character.

       [Tru64 UNIX]  The echo command described here is the  program
 /usr/bin/echo.  Both csh and sh shells contain builtin
 echo subcommands, which do not necessarily work in  the
       same way as the /usr/bin/echo command.

EXIT STATUS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The following exit values are returned: Successful completion.
  An error occurred.

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

       To write a message to standard output, enter: echo  Please
       insert  diskette  .  .  .  To display a message containing
       special characters as listed in DESCRIPTION,  enclose  the
       message   in   quotes,  as  follows:  echo  "\n\n\nI'm  at
       lunch.\nI'll be back at 1 p.m."

              This skips three lines and  displays  the  message:
              I'm at lunch.  I'll be back at 1 p.m.


              You  must enclose the message in quotation marks if
              it contains escape sequences such  as  \n.   Otherwise,
  the  shell  treats  the  backslash (\) as an
              escape character.  The  previous  command  example,
              entered  without the quotes, results in the following
 output: nnnI'm at lunch.nI'll be back at 1 p.m.

              To   use  echo  with  pattern-matching  characters,
              enter: echo The back-up files are: *.bak

              This displays the message The  back-up  files  are:
              and  then  displays  the  file names in the current
              directory ending with To add a single line of  text
              to  a  file,  enter: echo Remember to set the shell
              search path to $PATH. >>notes

              This adds the message to the end of the file  notes
              after  the  shell substitutes the value of the PATH
              shell variable.  To write a message to the standard
              error  output  (sh  only),  enter: echo Error: file
              already exists. >&2

              Use this in shell procedures to  write  error  messages.
   If the >&2 is omitted, then the message is
              written to the standard output.


       The following environment variables affect  the  execution
       of  echo:  [Tru64 UNIX]  This variable must set to bsd for
       the -n option to be valid.  Otherwise any  -n  operand  is
       treated  as a string member.  Provides a default value for
       the internationalization variables that are unset or null.
       If LANG is unset or null, the corresponding value from the
       default locale is used.  If any of  the  internationalization
  variables  contain  an  invalid setting, the utility
       behaves as if none of the variables had been defined.   If
       set  to  a non-empty string value, overrides the values of
       all the other internationalization variables.   Determines
       the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of
       text data  as  characters  (for  example,  single-byte  as
       opposed to multibyte characters in arguments).  Determines
       the locale for the format and contents of diagnostic  messages
  written to standard error.  Determines the location
       of message catalogues for the processing of LC_MESSAGES.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       Commands:  csh(1), ksh(1), printf(1), Bourne shell sh(1b),
       POSIX shell sh(1p)

       Environment:  environ(5)

       Standards:  standards(5)

[ Back ]
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