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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       cdrecord  - Records audio or data compact discs (CDs) from
       a master

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       cdrecord  [-general  options]   [-dev=device]...   [-track
       options] [track1 . . . trackn]

GENERAL OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       General options must be entered before any track file name
       or track option.  Retrieves and prints out the ATIP (absolute
  time in pregroove) information of a CD recordable or
       CD rewritable media. With this option, cdrecord  tries  to
       retrieve  the ATIP info. If the actual drive does not support
 to read the ATIP info, it may be that only a  reduced
       set  of  information records or even nothing is displayed.
       Only a limited number  of  MMC  compliant  drives  support
       reading the ATIP info.

              If  cdrecord  is able to retrieve the lead-in start
              time for the first session, it tries to decode  and
              print  the manufacturer information from the media.
              Blanks a CD-RW and exits or blanks a  CD-RW  before
              writing.  The  blanking type may be one of the following:
 Blanks the entire disk.  This  may  take  a
              long time.  Minimally blanks the disk. This results
              in erasing the PMA, the TOC and the  pregap.   Displays
  a  list  of possible blanking types.  Blanks
              the last session.  Blanks a track.  Blanks the tail
              of  a  track.  Uncloses last session.  Unreserves a
              reserved track.

              If used together with the -force flag, this  option
              may  be  used  to  blank CD-RW disks that otherwise
              cannot be blanked. Note that you may need to  specify
  -blank=all because some drives do not continue
              with certain types of bad CD-RW disks.   Note  also
              that  cdrecord  does its best if the -force flag is
              used,  but  it  finally  depends  on  the   drive's
              firmware whether the blanking operation succeeds or
              not.  Checks if a driver for the current  drive  is
              present  and  exits. If the drive is a known drive,
              cdrecord uses exit code 0.  Sets disk-at-once mode.
              This currently only works with MMC drives that support
 non-raw Session At Once mode.  Set  the  debug
              value  to  # (with -debug=#) or increment the debug
              level by one (with -d). Specifying -dd is equal  to
              -debug=2.  This  may  help  to  find problems while
              opening a driver for libscg as well as with  sector
              sizes and sector types. Using -debug slows down the
              process and may be the reason for a  buffer  underrun.
   Sets  the default pregap size for all tracks
              except track number 1. This option  currently  only
              makes  sense  with  the  TEAC  drive  when creating
              track-at-once disks without the  2  second  silence
              before  each  track.  This option may not be available
 in future.  Sets the SCSI target for  the  CDRecorder
 (see notes above).  A typical device specification
 is -dev=6,0.  If a filename must be  provided
 together with the numerical target specification,
 the filename is implementation-specific.  The
              correct  filename  in this case can be found in the
              system-specific manuals  of  the  target  operating
              system.   On  a FreeBSD system without CAM support,
              you need  to  use  the  control  device  (that  is,
              /dev/rcd0.ctl).  A  correct device specification in
              this case may be -dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@.

              On Linux,  drives  connected  to  a  parallel  port
              adapter are mapped to a virtual SCSI bus. Different
              adapters are mapped to different  targets  on  this
              virtual SCSI bus.

              If  no dev option is present, cdrecord tries to get
              the device from the CDR_DEVICE environment.

              'If the argument to the -dev= option does not  contain
 the characters ,, /, @ or :, it is interpreted
              as an label name that may  be  found  in  the  file
              /etc/default/cdrecord.  See  the  FILES section for
              more information.  Uses a user-supplied driver name
              for  the  device. To get a list of possible drivers
              use -driver=help. The reason for the  existence  of
              this  option is to allow users to use cdrecord with
              drives that are similar to supported drives but not
              known  directly  by  cdrecord. Use this option with
              extreme care. If a  wrong  driver  is  used  for  a
              device, the possibility of creating corrupted disks
              is high. The minimum problem  related  to  a  wrong
              driver  is that the -speed or -dummy does not work.

              There is  a  special  driver  entry  in  the  list:
              cdr_simul.  This  driver is designed to make timing
              tests at any speed or timing tests for drives  that
              do  not  support  the -dummy option. The simulation
              driver implements a drive with a buffer size of 1MB
              that  can  be  changed  with  the CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE
              environment variable. The  simulation  driver  correctly
  simulates even a buffer underrun condition.
              If the -dummy option is present, the simulation  is
              not  aborted  in  case  of a buffer underrun.  Sets
              driver-specific options. The options are  specified
              with a comma-separated list. To get a list of valid
              options  use  -driveropts=help  together  with  the
              checkdrive  option.  Currently  only  the burnproof
              option is implemented to  support  Buffer  Underrun
              Proof  writing with drives that use the Sanyo BURNProof
 technology.  The CD-Recorder goes through all
              steps  of  the  recording process, but the laser is
              turned off during this procedure. It is recommended
              to  run  several tests before actually writing to a
              compact disk if the timing and load response of the
              system  is  not known.  Ejects disk after doing the
              work. Some devices (such as Philips) need to  eject
              the  medium  before  creating  a  new disk. Doing a
              -dummy test and immediately creating  a  real  disk
              would  not work on these devices.  The disk is only
              fixated (that is, a TOC for a  CD-Reader  is  written).
  This may be used if for some reason the disk
              has been written but not fixated. This option  currently
  does not work with old TEAC drives (CD-R50S
              and CD-R55S).  Does not fixate the disk after writing
 the tracks. This may be used to create an audio
              disk in steps.  An unfixated disk usually cannot be
              used  on  a  non CD-writer type drive but there are
              audio CD players that are able to play such a disk.
              Forces  command  to  continue  on some errors. This
              option currently implements some tricks that  allow
              you  to  blank  out bad CD-RW disks.  Sets the fifo
              (ring buffer) size to  #.  You  may  use  the  same
              method  as  in  dd(1).  The number representing the
              size is taken in bytes unless otherwise  specified.
              If  a  number is followed directly by the letter b,
              k, m, s or f, the size is multiplied by 512,  1024,
              1024*1024,  2048  or 2352 respectively. If the size
              consists of numbers separated by x or *,  multiplication
  of  the  two  numbers  is  performed.  Thus
              -fs=10x63k species a fifo size of 630 kBytes.

              The size specified by the  -fs=  argument  includes
              the  shared  memory  that is needed for administration.
 This is at least one page of  memory.  If  no
              -fs=  option  is present, cdrecord tries to get the
              fifo size value from the -CDR_FIFOSIZE environment.
              The default fifo size is currently 4 MB.

              The  fifo  is  used  to  increase buffering for the
              real-time writing process.  It allows the system to
              run  a pipe from mkisofs directly into cdrecord. If
              the fifo is active and a  pipe  from  mkisofs  into
              cdrecord  is  used  to create a CD, cdrecord aborts
              prior to doing any modifications  on  the  disk  if
              mkisofs  dies  before it starts writing. The recommended
 fifo size is between 4 and 32 MBytes.  As  a
              rule  of  thumb,  the  fifo size should be at least
              equal to the size of the internal buffer of the CDRecorder
  and  no  more  than  half of the physical
              amount of RAM available in the machine. If the fifo
              size  is  big  enough, the fifo statistics prints a
              fifo empty count of zero and the fifo min  fill  is
              not below 20%. It is not wise to use too much space
              for the fifo. If you need more than 8 MB to write a
              CD  on  an  idle  machine,  your  machine is either
              underpowered, has hardware problems or  is  misconfigured.
   If  you have buffer underruns or similar
              problems and observe a zero fifo empty  count,  you
              have  hardware problems. The fifo size in this case
              is sufficient.   Ignores  the  known  size  of  the
              medium.  This  option  should  be used with extreme
              care; it exists only  for  debugging  purposes  and
              should  not  be  used  for other reasons. It is not
              needed to write disks with more  than  the  nominal
              capacity.   Does  an  inquiry for the drive, prints
              the inquiry information, and exits.  Tells the -scg
              driver  to modify the kernel debug value while SCSI
              commands are running.  Loads the media  and  exits.
              This  only  works with a tray loading mechanism but
              seems to be useful when using the Kodak disk transporter.
  Sets the Media Catalog Number of the CD to
              med_cat_nr.  Retrieves multisession information  in
              a form suitable for mkisofs 1.10 or later.

              This  option  only  makes sense with a CD that contains
 at least one closed session and is appendable
              (not  yet finally closed). Some drives create error
              messages if you try to get the multisession  information
  for  a  disk  that is not suitable for this
              operation.  Allows multisession  CDs  to  be  made.
              Use  only for recording multisession CDs. This flag
              needs to be present on all sessions of a  multisession
 disk, except when you want to create a session
              that is the last session on the media. The fixation
              allows   the   CD-Recorder   to  append  additional
              sessions later. This is done by generating a  table
              of  contents  with a link to the next program area.
              Media generated in this way is not 100%  compatible
              to manufactured CDs, except for CDplus.

              If  this  option is present, the default track type
              is CD-ROM XA mode 2. The Sony drives have no  hardware
  support  for  -CD-ROM  XA mode 2. You have to
              specify the -data option in order to create  multisession
 disks on these drives.

              Because cdrecord does not have a coder for converting
 data sectors to  audio  sectors,  you  need  to
              force  CD-ROM sectors by including the -data option
              if you  want  to  record  a  multisession  disk  in
              DAO/SAO mode. Not all drives allow multisession CDs
              in DAO/SAO mode.  Sets packet writing  mode.   This
              is an experimental interface.  Sets the packet size
              to #, which forces fixed-packet mode.  This  is  an
              experimental interface.  Prints the drive capabilities
 for SCSI-3/mmc compliant  drives  as  obtained
              from  mode  page  0x2A.   Values marked with kB use
              1000 bytes as kilobyte, values marked with  KB  use
              1024  bytes as Kilobyte.  Scans all SCSI devices on
              all SCSI busses and  prints  the  inquiry  strings.
              This option may be used to find the SCSI address of
              the CD-Recorder on a system.  The  numbers  printed
              out  as  labels  are computed as bus * 100 + target
              Does not print out a status report for failed  SCSI
              commands.   Sets  the  speed  factor of the writing
              process to #, an integer, representing  a  multiple
              of  the audio speed. This is about 150 KB/s for CDROM
 and about 172 KB/s for CD-Audio. If  no  -speed
              option  is present, cdrecord tries to get the speed
              value from the CDR_SPEED environment. If your drive
              has  problems with -speed=2 or -speed=4, you should
              try -speed=0.  Sets the default SCSI command  timeout
  value  to  # seconds. The default SCSI command
              timeout is the minimum  timeout  used  for  sending
              SCSI  commands.  If  a  SCSI command fails due to a
              timeout, you may try to raise the default SCSI command
  timeout above the timeout value of the failed
              command. If  the  command  runs  correctly  with  a
              raised  command  timeout, report the better timeout
              value and the corresponding command to  the  author
              of the program. If no -timeout option is present, a
              default timeout of 40 seconds is  used.   Retrieves
              and  prints  out  the table of contents or PMA of a
              CD. With this  option,  cdrecord  works  with  CD-R
              drives and with CD-ROM drives.  Uses *.inf files to
              overwrite audio options. If this  option  is  used,
              the  pregap size information is read from the *.inf
              file that is associated with the file that contains
              the  audio  data for a track.  Increments the level
              of general verbosity  by  one.  This  displays  the
              progress of the write process.  Increments the verbose
 level in the SCSI command  transport  by  one.
              This  helps to debug problems that occur in the CDRecorder
 during  the  write  process.  If  you  get
              incomprehensible  error  messages,  use this option
              for more detailed output.  -VV  shows  data  buffer
              content.  Using the -V or -VV option slows down the
              process and may cause a  buffer  underrun.   Prints
              version  information and exits.  Waits for input to
              become available on standard input before trying to
              open  the SCSI driver. This allows cdrecord to read
              its input from a pipe even when writing  additional
              sessions  to  a  multisession  disk.  When  writing
              another session to  a  multisession  disk,  mkisofs
              needs  to  read  the  old  session  from the device
              before writing  output.  This  cannot  be  done  if
              cdrecord opens the SCSI driver at the same time.

TRACK OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Track options may be mixed with track file names.  If this
       flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in  CDDA
 (similar to Red Book) audio format.  The file with data
       for these tracks should  contain  stereo,  16-bit  digital
       audio  with  44100 samples/s. The byte order should be the
       following: MSB left, LSB left, MSB right, LSB  right,  MSB
       left  and  so  on.  The track should be a multiple of 2352
       bytes. It is not possible to put the master  image  of  an
       audio track on a raw disk because data is read in multiple
       of 2352 bytes during the recording process.

              If a filename ends in or the file is considered  to
              be  a structured audio data file. The cdrecord command
 assumes that  the  file  in  this  case  is  a
              Microsoft file and extracts the audio data from the
              files by skipping over the non-audio header  information.
  In  all  other  cases, cdrecord only works
              correctly if the audio data stream  does  not  have
              any header. Because many structured audio files are
              not an integral number of blocks (1/75th second) in
              length,  it  is often necessary to specify the -pad
              option as well.  The  cdrecord  command  recognizes
              that  audio data in a file is stored in Intel (little-endian)
 byte  order,  and  automatically  byteswaps
  the  data  if  the CD recorder requires bigendian
 data. The cdrecord command rejects any audio
              file  that does not match the Red Book requirements
              of 16-bit stereo samples in  pcm  coding  at  44100

              Using  other structured audio data formats as input
              to cdrecord usually works if the structure  of  the
              data is the structure described above (raw pcm data
              in big-endian byte order).  However,  if  the  data
              format  includes  a header, you hear a click at the
              start of a track.

              If neither -data nor -audio  have  been  specified,
              cdrecord  defaults to -audio for all filenames that
              end in or and to -data for  all  other  files.   If
              this  flag  is  present,  all subsequent tracks are
              written in CDI format. The data is  a  multiple  of
              2048  bytes.   If  this flag is present, all subsequent
 tracks are written in CD-ROM mode  1  (Yellow
              Book) format. The data is a multiple of 2048 bytes.
              The  file  with  track  data  should   contain   an
              ISO-9660"  or  "Rock  Ridge"  filesystem image (see
              mkisofs for more details). If the track data is  an
              UFS  filesystem  image, fragment size should be set
              to 2 KB or more to allow CR-drives with 2 KB sector
              size to be used for reading.

              If  no other flag is present, -data is the default.

              If neither -data nor -audio  have  been  specified,
              cdrecord  defaults to -audio for all filenames that
              end in or and to -data for all other  files.   Sets
              an  index list for the next track. An index list is
              a comma separated list  of  numbers  counting  from
              index  1. The first entry in this list must contain
              a 0; the following numbers  must  be  an  ascending
              list  of  numbers  (counting  in 1/75 seconds) that
              represent the start of the indices.  An index  list
              in the form: 0,7500,15000 sets index 1 to the start
              of the track, index 2 to 100 seconds from the start
              of  the  track  and index 3 to 200 seconds from the
              start of the track.  Uses the ISO-9660 file  system
              size  as the size of the next track. This option is
              needed if you want to read the  image  of  a  track
              from  a  raw  disk partition or on a master CD.  In
              the first case the option  -isosize  is  needed  to
              limit  the  size  of  the CD to the size of the ISO
              filesystem. In the second case the option  -isosize
              is  needed to prevent cdrecord from reading the two
              run-out  blocks  that  are  appended  by  each  CDrecorder
  in  track-at-once mode. These two run-out
              blocks cannot be read  and  would  cause  a  buffer
              underrun  that would cause a defective copy. Do not
              use this option if cdrecord reads  the  track  data
              from stdin. This option currently cannot be used to
              determine the size of a file system if  the  multisession
  option is present.  Sets the International
              Standard Recording Number for  the  next  track  to
              Circumambulate.   If this flag is present, all subsequent
 tracks are written in CD-ROM mode 2 format.
              The data is a multiple of 2048 bytes.  If the track
              is a data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data is added
              to  the end of this and each subsequent data track.
              In this case, the -pad option is superseded by  the
              -padsize=  option. It remains, however, as a shorthand
 for -padsize=15s.  If the -pad  option  refers
              to  an audio track, cdrecord pads the audio data to
              be a multiple of 2352 bytes. The audio data padding
              is  done with binary zeroes which is equal to absolute

              The -pad option remains  valid  until  disabled  by
              -nopad.  Does not pad the following tracks. This is
              the  default.   Sets  the  amount  of  data  to  be
              appended as padding to the next track to #. Opposed
              to the behavior of the -pad option, the  value  for
              -padsize=  is reset to zero for each new track. See
              the -fs= option for possible arguments.   Use  this
              option  if  your  CD-drive  is not able to read the
              last sectors of a track or if you want to  be  able
              to  read the CD on a Linux system with the ISO-9660
              filesystem read-ahead bug. If an empty file is used
              for track data, this option may be used to create a
              disk that is entirely made  of  padding.   If  this
              flag  is  present,  all  TOC entries for subsequent
              audio tracks indicate that the audio data has  been
              sampled with 50/15 usec preemphasis. The data, however
 is not modified during the process  of  transferring
  from  file  to  disk.  This  option has no
              affect on data tracks.  If this  flag  is  present,
              all  TOC  entries for subsequent audio tracks indicates
 that the audio data has  been  mastered  with
              linear data. This is the default.  Sets the  pregap
              size for the next track. This option currently only
              makes  sense  with  the  TEAC  drive  when creating
              track-at-once disks without the  2  second  silence
              before  each  track.  This  option  may  go away in
              future.  Allows all subsequent  tracks  to  violate
              the Read Book track-length standard, which requires
              a minimum track length of 4 seconds. This option is
              only  useful when used in DAO mode.  Not all drives
              support this feature. The  drive  must  accept  the
              resulting  CUE  sheet.   Enforces  to  the Red Book
              track length standard. Tracks must be  at  least  4
              seconds.   If  this  flag is present, audio data is
              assumed  to  be  in  byte-swapped   (little-endian)
              order.   Some  types  of  CD-Writers,  for example,
              Yamaha, Sony  and  the  SCSI-3/mmc  drives  require
              audio  data to be presented in little-endian order,
              while other writers require audio data to  be  presented
  in the big-endian (network) byte order normally
 used by the SCSI protocol. The cdrecord  command
  knows  if  a  CD-Recorder needs audio data in
              big- or little-endian order, and corrects the  byte
              order  of the data stream to match the needs of the
              recorder. You only need the swab flag if your  data
              stream is in Intel (little-endian) byte order.

              Note  that the verbose output of cdrecord shows you
              if swapping is necessary to make the byte order  of
              the  input  data fit the required byte order of the
              recorder. The cdrecord command does not show you if
              the swab flag was actually present for a track.  If
              the master image for the next track has been stored
              on a raw disk, use this option to specify the valid
              amount of data on this disk. If the  image  of  the
              next track is stored in a regular file, the size of
              that file is taken to determine the length of  this

              If  the track contains an ISO 9660 filesystem image
              use the -isosize option to determine the length  of
              that  filesystem  image.   In disk-at-once mode and
              with some drives  that  use  the  TEAC  programming
              interface,  even  in  track-at-once  mode, cdrecord
              needs to know the size of each track before  starting
  to  write  the  disk. The cdrecord command now
              checks this and aborts before starting to write. If
              this  happens  you  need to run mkisofs -print-size
              and use the output as an argument  to  the  -tsize=
              option  of cdrecord. See the -fs= option for possible
 arguments.  If this flag is present, all subsequent
  tracks  are written in CD-ROM XA mode 1 format.
 The data is a multiple of 2048 bytes.  If this
              flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written
              in CD-ROM XA mode 2 format. The data is a  multiple
              of 2048 bytes.

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  cdrecord command is used to record data or audio compact
 discs on an Orange Book CD-Recorder.

       The  device  refers  to  scsibus/target/lun  of  the   CDRecorder.
  Operating  systems  use a library simulation of
       the SCSI general driver. Possible syntax is:  -dev=  scsibus,target,lun
  or  -dev=  target,lun. In the latter case,
       the CD-Recorder has to be connected to  the  default  SCSI
       bus of the machine. The parameters scsibus, target and lun
       are integer numbers. Some operating systems or SCSI transport
  implementations may require to specify a filename in
       addition.  In this case the correct syntax for the  device
       is:  -dev=  devicename:scsibus,target,lun or -dev= devicename:target,lun.
 If the name of the device node  that  has
       been specified on such a system refers to exactly one SCSI
       device, a shorthand in  the  form  -dev=  devicename:@  or
       -dev= devicename:@,lun may be used.

       To  access  remote  SCSI  devices, prepend the SCSI device
       name by a remote-device indicator. The remote device indicator
  is  either  -REMOTE:user@host:  or  -REMOTE:host: A
       valid remote SCSI device name may be -REMOTE:user@host: to
       allow  remote SCSI bus scanning or -REMOTE:user@host:1,0,0
       to access the SCSI device at host connected to SCSI bus  #
       1,target 0, lun 0.

       To  make cdrecord portable to all UNIX platforms, the syntax
 -dev= devicename:scsibus,target,lun is preferred as it
       hides  operating-system  specific  knowledge  about device
       names from the user. A specific operating system must  not
       necessarily  support  a  way to specify a real device file
       name nor a way to specify scsibus,target,lun.

       The default SCSI bus on the machine is scsibus  0.   Watch
       the  boot  messages  or look at-/var/adm/messages for more
       information about the SCSI configuration of your  machine.
       If  you  have  problems figuring out what values for scsibus,target,lun
 should be used, try the -scanbus option  of

       If  a  file /etc/default/cdrecord exists, the parameter to
       the -dev= option may also be a drive name  label  in  said
       file (see FILES section).

       On  SVr4  compliant  systems,  cdrecord uses the real time
       class to get the highest scheduling priority that is  possible
  (higher than all kernel processes). On systems with
       POSIX realtime scheduling, cdrecord also  uses  real  time
       scheduling  but may not be able to gain a priority that is
       higher than all kernel processes.

       In track-at-once mode, each track corresponds to a  single
       file  that  contains  the prepared data for that track. If
       the argument is -, standard input is used for that  track.
       Only one track may be taken from stdin.

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

       For  all  examples  below,  it  is be assumed that the CDRecorder
 is connected to  the  primary  SCSI  bus  of  the
       machine. The SCSI target id is set to 2.

       To  record  a  pure CD-ROM at double speed using data from
       the file cdimage.raw:  #  cdrecord  -v  speed=2  dev=2,4,0

       To  create  an  image  for a ISO 9660 filesystem with Rock
       Ridge   extensions:   #   mkisofs   -R   -o    cdimage.raw

       To check the resulting file before writing to CD on Linux:
       # mount cdimage.raw -r -t iso9660 -o loop /mnt  #  ls  -lR
       /mnt     umount /mnt # umount /mnt

       If  the  overall speed of the system is sufficient and the
       structure of the filesystem is not too  complex,  cdrecord
       runs without creating an image of the ISO 9660 filesystem.
       Simply run the  pipeline:  #  mkisofs  -R  /master/tree  |
       cdrecord -v fs=6m speed=2 dev=2,4,0 -

       The   recommended  minimum  fifo  size  for  running  this
       pipeline is 4 MBytes.  As the default fifo size is  4  MB,
       the -fs= option needs only be present if you want to use a
       different fifo size. If your system is loaded, you  should
       run  mkisofs in the real-time class. To raise the priority
       of mkisofs replace the command # mkisofs -R /master/tree

       To record a pure CD-DA (audio) at single speed  with  each
       track   contained   in   a   file  named  track01.cdaudio,
       track02.cdaudio, etc:  #  cdrecord  -v  speed=1  dev=2,4,0
       -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  check  if  you  can  use  double speed for the example
       above, use the dummy write option: #  cdrecord  -v  -dummy
       speed=2 dev=2,4,0 -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  handle  drives  that  need to know the size of a track
       before starting to  write,  first  run  #  mkisofs  -R  -q
       -print-size /master/tree

       and  then run # mkisofs -R /master/tree | cdrecord speed=2
       dev=2,4,0 tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by the output of the previous run of

       To  copy an audio CD in the most accurate way, first run #
       cdda2wav -v255 -D2,4,0 -B -Owav

       and then run # cdrecord -v dev=2,4,0 -dao -useinfo *.wav

ENVIRONMENT    [Toc]    [Back]

       This may either hold a device identifier that is  suitable
       to  the open call of the SCSI transport library or a label
       in the file /etc/default/cdrecord.  Sets the default  size
       of  the fifo (see also the -fs= option).  Sets the default
       speed value for writing (see also the -speed option).

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

       Default values can be set for  the  following  options  in
       /etc/default/cdrecord.   This  may  either  hold  a device
       identifier that is suitable to the open call of  the  SCSI
       transport    library    or    a    label   in   the   file
       /etc/default/cdrecord that it allows to  identify  a  specific
  drive  on the system.  Sets the default speed value
       for writing (see also the  -speed  option).  For  example,
       CDR_SPEED=2.   Sets the default size of the fifo (see also
       the -fs= #option). For example,  CDR_FIFOSIZE=8m.   is  an
       identifier  for  a  specific  drive on the system. Such an
       identifier may not contain the four characters comma  (,),
       slash (/), at (@), or colon (:).

              Each line that follows a label contains a TAB-separated
 list of items.  Currently,  three  items  are
              recognized:  the  SCSI ID of the drive, the default
              speed that should be used for this  drive  and  the
              default  fifo  size  that  should  be used for this
              drive. The values for -speed and -fifosize  may  be
              set  to  -1  to  tell  cdrecord  to  use the global
              defaults. A typical  line  may  look  this  way:  #
              teac1= 0,5,0 4    8m # yamaha= 1,6,0     -1   -1

              This  tells cdrecord that a drive named teac1 is at
              scsibus 0, target 5, lun 0 and should be used  with
              -speed=4  and  a  -fs=8  MB.  A second drive may be
              found at scsibus 1, target 6, lun 0  and  uses  the
              default speed and the default fifo size.

NOTES    [Toc]    [Back]

       Disks  made in track-at-once mode are not suitable as masters
 for direct mass production by CD  manufacturers.  You
       need  the disk-at-once option to record such disks. Nevertheless
 the disks made in track-at-once mode normally  are
       read  in all CD players. Some old audio CD players however
       may produce a two second click between two audio tracks.

       The minimal size of a track is 4 seconds or  300  sectors.
       If  you  write  smaller tracks, the CD-Recorder adds dummy
       blocks. This is not an error, even though  the  SCSI-error
       message looks this way.

       The  cdrecord  command  has  been  tested  on  an upgraded
       Philips CDD-521 recorder at single and double speed  on  a
       SparcStation 20/502 with no problems; slower computer systems
  should  work  also.   The   newer   Philips/HP/Plasmon/Grundig
  drives  as well as Yamaha CDR-100 and CDR-102
       work also. The Plasmon RF-4100  works  but  has  not  been
       tested  in  multisession.  A  Philips CDD-521 that has not
       been upgraded does not work. The  Sony  CDU-924  has  been
       tested,  but  does  not  support XA-mode2 in hardware. The
       Sony  therefore  cannot  create  conforming   multisession
       disks.  The  Ricoh RO-1420C works, but some people seem to
       have problems using them with -speed=2;  try  -speed=0  in
       this case.

       The  Yamaha  CDR-400  and  all  new  SCSI-3/mmc conforming
       drives are supported in single and multisession.

       You should run several tests in all  supported  speeds  of
       your  drive  with  the  -dummy option turned on if you are
       using cdrecord on an unknown system. Writing  a  CD  is  a
       realtime  process.  NFS does not always deliver constantly
       the needed data rates. If you want to  use  cdrecord  with
       CD-images  that  are located on an NFS mounted filesystem,
       be sure that the fifo size is big  enough.  It  is  recommended
 that you leave the system as lightly loaded as possible
 while writing a CD. If you want to  make  sure  that
       buffer  underruns  are not caused by your source disk, use
       the command:

       # cdrecord -dummy dev=2,4,0 padsize=600m /dev/null

       to create a disk that is entirely made of dummy data.  The
       cdrecord command needs to run as root to get access to the
       /dev/scg?  device nodes and to be able to lock itself into

       If  you  do not want to allow users to become root on your
       system, cdrecord may safely be installed suid  root.  This
       allows  all  users or a group of users with no root privileges
 to use cdrecord.  The cdrecord command in this  case
       checks  to determine if the real user would have been able
       to read the specified files. To give all  user  access  to
       use  cdrecord, enter: # chown root /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
       # chmod 4711 /usr/local/bin/cdrecord

       To give a restricted group of users  access  to  cdrecord,
       enter:   #  chown  root  /usr/local/bin/cdrecord  #  chgrp
       cdburners    /usr/local/bin/cdrecord    #    chmod    4710

       and add a group cdburners on your system.

       Never give write permissions for the /dev/scg?  devices to
       nonroot  users  unless  you   would   allow   anybody   to
       read/write/format all your disks.

       Do  not  connect  old  drives  that do not support disconnect/reconnect
 to either the SCSI bus that is connected to
       the CD-Recorder or the source disk.

       A compact disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When  creating a disc with both audio and data tracks, the
       data should be on track 1 otherwise you  should  create  a
       CDplus  disk  which  is a multisession disk with the first
       session containing the audio tracks and the following session
 containing the data track.

       Many  operating  systems  are not able to read more than a
       single data track or need special software to do so.

       More information on the SCSI  command  set  of  a  HP  CDRecorder
 can be found at:


       If  you  have more information or SCSI command manuals for
       currently  unsupported  CD-Recorders  please  contact  the

       The Philips CDD 521 CD-Recorder (even in the upgraded version)
 has several firmware bugs. Some of them force you to
       power cycle the device or to reboot the machine.

       When  using  cdrecord  with  the broken Linux SCSI generic
       (sg) driver. You should note that  cdrecord  uses  a  hack
       that  tries to emulate the functionality of the sg driver.
       Unfortunately, the sg driver on Linux has  several  severe
       bugs: It cannot see if a SCSI command could not be sent at
       all.  It cannot get the SCSI  status  byte.  The  cdrecord
       command  for  that  reason cannot report failing SCSI commands
 in some situations.  It cannot get a real DMA  count
       of transfer. The cdrecord command cannot tell you if there
       is an DMA residual count.  It cannot  get  the  number  of
       bytes valid in auto sense data.  The cdrecord command cannot
 tell you if device transfers no sense data at all.  It
       fetches   too   little   data   in   auto   request  sense
       (CCS/SCSI-2/SCSI-3 needs >= 18).

       The fifo percent output is computed just after a block  of
       data has been written to the CD-Recorder. For this reason,
       there is never 100% fifo fill while the fifo is in streaming

DIAGNOSTICS    [Toc]    [Back]

       You  have 9 seconds to type ^C to abort cdrecord after you
       see the message: Starting to write CD at speed  %d  in  %s
       mode for %s session.

       A  typical error message for a SCSI command looks like the
       following: cdrecord: I/O  error.  test  unit  ready:  scsi
       sendcmd:  no  error  CDB:   00  20 00 00 00 00 status: 0x2
       (CHECK CONDITION) Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0A  00
       00 00 00 25 00 00 00 00 00 Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request,
       Segment 0 Sense Code: 0x25 Qual  0x00  (logical  unit  not
       supported) Fru 0x0 Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid) cmd finished
 after 0.002s timeout 40s

       The first line gives information about  the  transport  of
       the  command.   The  text  after the first colon gives the
       error text for the system call from the view of  the  kernel.
 It usually is I/O error unless other problems happen.
       The next words contain a short description  for  the  SCSI
       command  that  fails.  The  rest  of the line tells you if
       there were any problems for the transport of  the  command
       over  the  SCSI  bus. The output fatal error means that it
       was not possible to transport the  command  (that  is,  no
       device is present at the requested SCSI address).

       The  second  line prints the SCSI command descriptor block
       for the failed command.

       The third line gives information on the SCSI  status  code
       returned  by  the  command if the transport of the command
       succeeds. This is error information from the SCSI  device.

       The  fourth line is a hexadecimal dump of the auto-request
       sense information for the command.

       The fifth line is the error text  for  the  sense  key  if
       available,  followed  by  the  segment number that is only
       valid if the command was a copy command. If the error message
  is  not directly related to the current command, the
       text deferred error is appended.

       The sixth line is the error text for the  sense  code  and
       the  sense  qualifier,  if  available.  If the type of the
       device is known, the sense data is decoded from tables  in
       scsierrs.c.  The text is followed by the error value for a
       field-replaceable unit.

       The seventh line prints the block number that  is  related
       to  the  failed  command and text for several error flags.
       The block number may not be valid.

       The eighth line reports the timeout set up for  this  command
  and  the  time  that the command really needed to be

       The following message is not an  error:  Track  01:  Total
       bytes  read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).  cdrecord: I/O
       error. flush cache: scsi sendcmd: no error CDB:  35 00  00
       00  00  00 00 00 00 00 status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION) Sense
       Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27 0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00 00  00
       00  Sense  Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0 Sense Code:
       0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy data blocks  added)  Fru  0x0  Sense
       flags:  Blk  -2147483609 (valid) cmd finished after 0.002s
       timeout 40s

       It simply notifies that a track that is smaller  than  the
       minimum size has been expanded to 300 sectors.

RESTRICTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  cdrecord  currently only warns if the input data does
       not fit on the disk. If you do not abort the  command  you
       get unpredictable results.

AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]

       This page has been adapted from information provided by:

       Joerg Schilling

       Seestr. 110 D-13353

       Berlin Germany

       Additional     information     can     be     found     at

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       Commands: mkisofs(8)

[ Back ]
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