cd - Changes the current working directory
The C shell has a built-in version of the cd command. If
you are using the C shell, and want to guarantee that you
are using the command described here, you must specify the
full path /usr/bin/cd. See the csh(1) reference page for
a description of the built-in command.
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The pathname (either full or relative) to be used as the
new working directory.
If (hyphen) is specified as the directory, the cd
command changes your current (working) directory to
the directory name saved in the environment variable
The cd command moves you from your present directory to
another directory. You must have execute (search) permission
in the specified directory.
If you do not specify a directory, cd moves you to your
login directory ($HOME in ksh and sh environments, or
$home in csh environment). If the specified directory
name is a full pathname, it becomes the current working
directory. A full pathname begins with a / (slash) for
the root directory, with a . (dot) for the current working
directory, or with a .. (dot dot) for the parent
directory. If the directory name is not a full pathname,
cd searches for it relative to one of the paths specified
by the $CDPATH shell variable (or $cdpath csh variable).
This variable has the same syntax as, and similar semantics
to, the $PATH shell variable (or $path csh variable).
The following exit values are returned:
The directory was successfully changed. An error
To change to your home directory, enter: cd To change to a
new directory, enter: cd /usr/include
This changes the current working directory to
/usr/include. Now file pathnames that do not begin
with / or ../ specify files located in
/usr/include. To go down one level of the directory
tree, enter: cd sys
If the current working directory is /usr/include
and if it contains a subdirectory named sys, then
/usr/include/sys becomes the current working directory.
To go up one level of the directory tree,
enter: cd ..
The special filename .. (dot dot) always refers to
the directory immediately above the current working
ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES [Toc] [Back]
The following environment variables affect the execution
of cd: A colon-separated list of pathnames that refer to
directories. If the directory operand does not begin with
a / (slash) character, and the first component is not
(dot) or cd command will search for directory relative to
each directory named in the CDPATH variable, in the order
listed. The new working directory will be set to the first
matching directory found. An empty string in place of a
directory pathname represents the current directory. If
CDPATH is not set, it will be treated as if it were an
empty string. The name of the home directory, used when
no directory operand is specified. Provides a default
value for the internationalization variables that are
unset or null. If LANG is unset or null, the corresponding
value from the default locale is used. If any of the
internationalization variables contain an invalid setting,
the utility behaves as if none of the variables had been
defined. If set to a non-empty string value, overrides
the values of all the other internationalization variables.
Determines the locale for the interpretation of
sequences of bytes of text data as characters (for example,
single-byte as opposed to multibyte characters in
arguments). Determines the locale for the format and contents
of diagnostic messages written to standard error.
Determines the location of message catalogues for the processing
of LC_MESSAGES. A pathname of the previous working
directory, used by the cd - form of the command. The
cd command sets this variable to your current working
directory before changing to a new current directory. A
pathname of the current working directory, set by the cd
command after it has changed to that directory.
Commands: csh(1), ksh(1), pwd(1), Bourne shell sh(1b),
POSIX shell sh(1p)
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