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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       as - assembler

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       as [option]... file

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Options  described  in  this  section are divided into the
       following categories.  Options Common to as  and  cc  (see
       cc(1)  for  complete  information)  Options Specific to as
       Assembler Development Options (not generally used)

   Options Common to as and cc    [Toc]    [Back]
       Produce no symbol table information  for  symbolic  debugging.
  This  is  the  default.   Produce additional symbol
       table information for accurate but limited symbolic debugging
 of partially optimized code.  Produce additional symbol
 table information for full symbolic debugging and  not
       do  optimizations  that  limit  full  symbolic  debugging.
       Turns gprof profiling on or off when assembling and  linking
  the file immediately following this option. The gprof
       profiler produces a call graph showing the execution of  a
       C program.

              When  this  option  is turned on, the standard runtime
 startup routine is  replaced  by  the  gcrt0.o
              routine.  Programs  that  are  linked  with the -pg
              option and then run will produce, in file gmon.out,
              a  dynamic  call  graph  and  profile. You then run
              gprof on the gmon.out file to display  the  output.
              When  you  use  the -pg option together with either
              the -pthread option or  the  -threads  option,  the
              profiling library libprof1_r.a is used.

              For  more  information,  see the gprof(1) reference
              page.  Produce a compressed object as output.  Performs
 no optimization.  Runs the instruction scheduler.
  Controls the display of messages as well  as
              the actions that occur as a result of the messages.
              The value of n can be one of  the  following:  Displays
 assembler messages for less important issues.
              Suppresses warning and informational  messages  and
              displays  error and fatal messages. This is equivalent
 to specifying -w.  If the assembler encounters
              an  error that generates a warning-level diagnostic
              message, the assembler  displays  the  message  and
              then  aborts.   Does  not  print  warning messages.
              However, when warnings occur,  exits  with  nonzero
              status.   Run only the C macro preprocessor and put
              the result in a file with the suffix of the  source
              file changed to or if the file has no suffix then a
              i is added to the source file name. The file has no
              # lines in it. This sets the -cpp option.  Run only
              the C macro preprocessor on the file and  send  the
              result  to  the standard output. This sets the -cpp
              option.  These three options are passed directly to
              cpp(1).   See  cpp(1) for details.  Set the default
              exception  handling  runtime  procedure  descriptor
              flags  (see  <pdsc.h>) to the number specified.  If
              you provide a directive  in  a  procedure  in  your
              source  code, the -eflag option is ignored for that
              procedure.  Name the final output file  output.  If
              this option is used, the file a.out is undisturbed.
              "-Dname" Define the name to the C macro  preprocessor,
  as  if by #define. If no definition is given,
              the name is defined as  "1".   Remove  any  initial
              definition of name.  The #include files whose names
              do not begin with `/' are always  sought  first  in
              the  directory of the file argument, then in directories
 specified in -I options, and finally in  the
              standard  directory  (/usr/include).   This  option
              will cause #include files never to be searched  for
              in  the  standard  directory (/usr/include).  Print
              the passes as they execute with their arguments and
              their input and output files.  Print the version of
              the driver and the versions of all passes. This  is
              done  with the what(1) command.  Determines whether
              to run the C macro preprocessor on assembly  source
              files  before  assembling.  The  default  is  -cpp.
              Specifies which version of the  Alpha  architecture
              to  generate instructions for. All Alpha processors
              implement a core set of instructions and,  in  some
              cases,  the  following  extensions: BWX (byte/wordmanipulation
  extension),  MVI  (multimedia  extension),
  FIX (square root and floating-point convert
              extension), and CIX (count extension).  (The  Alpha
              Architecture  Reference Manual describes the extensions
 in detail.)

              The option argument can be one  of  the  following,
              which  determines  the instructions that the assembler
 can generate (for details, see cc(1)):  Generate
 instructions that are appropriate for all Alpha
              processors. This option is the  default.   Generate
              instructions  for  the processor that the assembler
              is running on (for example, EV6 instructions on  an
              EV6  processor).   Instructs  the optimizer to tune
              the application for a specific version of the Alpha
              hardware.  This  will  not  prevent the application
              from running correctly on other versions  of  Alpha
              but  it  may run more slowly than generically-tuned
              code on those versions.

              The option argument can be one  of  the  following,
              which  selects  instruction  tuning appropriate for
              the listed processor(s) (for details,  see  cc(1)):
              Tune instructions for all Alpha processors. This is
              the default.  Tune instructions for  the  processor
              on which the code is assembeled.

              See  also the -arch option in cc(1) for an explanation
 of the differences between -tune and -arch.

   Options Specific to as    [Toc]    [Back]
       When specified with optimization (the default, unless  -O0
       is  specified),  the  register manager will not attempt to
       perform any  register  optimizations  involving  float  or
       integer  constants.  When specified with optimization (the
       default, unless -O0 is specified), stops all register manager
  optimizations from being performed by the assembler.

   Assembler Development Options    [Toc]    [Back]
       The options described below primarily aid assembler development
  and  are  not generally used: Pass the argument[s]
       argi to the assembler pass[es] c[c..]. The c can be one of
       [  pab].  The c selects the assembler pass in the same way
       as the -t option.

       The options -t[ hpa], -h path, and -Bstring select a  name
       to  use  for  a  particular pass. These arguments are processed
 from left to right so their order  is  significant.
       When  the -B option is encountered, the selection of names
       takes place using the last -h and -t  options.  Therefore,
       the  -B  option  is  always  required when using -h or -t.
       Sets of these options can be used to select  any  combination
  of  names.  Select the names. The names selected are
       those designated by the characters following the -t option
       according to the following table:

              Name      Character
              include   h (see note following table)
              cpp       p
              adu       a

              If  the  character  `h'  is  in  the -t argument, a
              directory is added to the list of directories to be
              used  in  searching for #include files. This directory
    name     has     the     form     COMP_TARGET_ROOT/usr/include/string.
   This directory is to
              contain the include files for the string release of
              the  assembler.  The  standard  directory  is still

              For compatibility, -tb is  equivalent  to  -ta  Use
              path  rather  than  the directory where the name is
              normally found.  Append string to all names  specified
  by  the  -t  option. If no -t option has been
              processed before the -B, the -t option  is  assumed
              to be "hpab".  This list designates all names.

       Invoking  the  assembler  with a name of the form asstring
       has the same effect as using a -Bstring option on the command

       If  the  environment  variable  COMP_HOST_ROOT is set, the
       value is used as the root directory for all paths  to  the
       pass names other than the default root directory ( /).  If
       the environment  variable  COMP_TARGET_ROOT  is  set,  the
       value is used as the root directory for the #include files
       other than the default root directory (/).

       If the environment variable ROOTDIR is set, the  value  is
       used  as  the root directory for all names rather than the
       default /usr/. This also affects  the  standard  directory
       for #include files, /usr/include.

       If  the  environment  variable TMPDIR is set, the value is
       used as the directory to place any temporary files  rather
       than the default /tmp/.

       Other arguments are ignored.

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  assembler, as, produces object code files in extended
       coff format. The as command never  runs  the  link  editor
       (ld(1)). The as command accepts one type of argument.

       The  argument  file  is  assumed to be a symbolic assembly
       language source program. It  is  assembled,  producing  an
       object file.

       The  assembler  always  defines  the C preprocessor macros
       unix, and LANGUAGE_ASSEMBLY to the C  macro  preprocessor.
       To see a list of predefined macros, use the -v option.

ERRORS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  diagnostics produced by the assembler are intended to
       be self-explanatory.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

       object file assembler output temporary C macro  preprocessor
  assembly  source  file  to  extended COFF object file
       translator standard directory for #include files

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       Commands:  cc(1), what(1)

       Programmer's Guide, Assembly Language Programmer's Guide

[ Back ]
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