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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     wicontrol - configure WaveLAN/IEEE devices

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     wicontrol [interface] [-olL] [-e 0|1] [-k key [-v  1|2|3|4]]
[-x 0|1]
               [-t  tx  rate] [-n network name] [-s station name]
[-c 0|1]
               [-q SSID] [-p port type] [-a access point density]
               [-m  MAC  address]  [-d  max  data length] [-r RTS
               [-f frequency] [-A 1|2|3] [-D 0|1|2] [-E  0|1|2|3]
[-F 0|1]
               [-M 0|1] [-P 0|1] [-R 1|3] [-S max sleep duration]
[-T 1|2|3|4]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The wicontrol command controls the operation of WaveLAN/IEEE
     networking  devices  via the wi(4) and awi(4) drivers.  Most
of the parameters
 that can be changed relate to the IEEE 802.11  protocol
which the
     WaveLAN implements.  This includes the station name, whether
the station
     is operating in ad-hoc (point to point) or BSS (service set)
mode, and
     the network name of a service set to join (IBSS) if BSS mode
is enabled.
     The wicontrol command can also be used to view  the  current
settings of
     these  parameters  and  to dump out the values of the card's

     The interface argument given to wicontrol should be the logical interface
     name  associated  with  the  WaveLAN/IEEE  device (wi0, wi1,
etc...).  If none
     is given, wi0 is assumed.

     The wicontrol command given without any additional flags retrieves the
     current card settings from the driver and prints them out.

     The options are as follows:

     -o       Display  the  statistics counters for the specified
             interface.  The statistics are updated about once  a

     -l       [Prism2  only] List associated stations if the card
is in Host AP

     -L      List all available access points.  Only the superuser may use
             this option.

     -e  0|1  Enable or disable WEP encryption.  Permitted values
are 0 (encryption
 disabled) or 1 (encryption  enabled).   Encryption is off
             by default.

     -k key [ -v 1|2|3|4 ]
             Set WEP encryption keys.  There are four default encryption keys
             that can be programmed.  A specific key can  be  set
using the -v
             flag.   If  the  -v flag is not specified, the first
key will be
             set.  Encryption keys  can  either  be  normal  text
(i.e., "hello")
             or   a   series   of   hexadecimal   digits   (i.e.,
"0x1234512345").  For
             WaveLAN Silver cards, the key is  restricted  to  40
bits, hence the
             key  can  be  either a 5-character text string or 10
             digits.  For WaveLAN Gold cards, the key can  be  up
to 104 bits,
             which  means  the  key  can be specified as either a
             text string or 26 hexadecimal digits.   Either  way,
the key will
             be  concatenated  with  a  24-bit IV to generate the
seed for RC4.
             Note that wicontrol has no way to determine  whether
or not a card
             is  capable of using 104 bit WEP.  Some cards accept
a 104 bit key
             even though they only support 40 bit keys, in  which
case WEP encryption
 will simply fail to work.

     -T 1|2|3|4
             Specify  which  of the four WEP encryption keys will
be used to encrypt
 transmitted packets.

     -x 0|1  [Prism2/Symbol only] Select  between  firmware-based
(0) and software-based
  (1)  WEP.  Firmware-based WEP is the default.

     -t tx rate
             Set the transmit rate of  the  specified  interface.
The legal values
  for  the  transmit  rate  vary depending on the
adapter type.
             The standard WaveLAN/IEEE  NICs  support  a  maximum
transmit rate of
             2Mbps,  and the `Turbo' NICs support a maximum speed
of 5.5Mbps.
             The  WaveLAN/IEEE   `Turbo   11Mb',   Prism-II   and
Prism-2.5 NICs support
 a maximum speed of 11Mbps.  The following table
shows the
             legal transmit rate settings and  the  corresponding

                   TX rate    NIC speed
                   1          Fixed Low (1Mbps)
                   2          Fixed Standard (2Mbps)
                   3          Auto Rate Select (High)
                   4          Fixed Medium (4Mbps)
                   5          Fixed High (5.5Mbps)
                   6          Auto Rate Select (Standard)
                   7          Auto Rate Select (Medium)
                   11         Fixed Turbo (11Mbps)

             The standard NICs support only settings 1 through 3.
Turbo NICs
             support all the above listed  speed  settings.   The
default driver
             setting is 3 (auto rate select).

     -n network name
             Set the name of the service set (BSS or IBSS) or adhoc network
             that this station wishes to join.  The network  name
can be any
             text  string up to 30 characters in length.  The default name is
             the empty string which should allow the  station  to
connect to the
             first available access point.

     -s station name
             Sets  the  station name for the specified interface.
The station
             name is used for diagnostic  purposes.   The  Lucent
             software can poll the names of remote hosts.

     -c  0|1   Allow  the station to create a service set (IBSS).
Permitted values
 are 0 (do not create IBSS) and  1  (enable  creation of IBSS).
             The default is 0.

             Note:  Symbol  cards and older Lucent/Prism firmware
revisions do
             not support the creation of a service set.

     -q SSID
             Specify the name (SSID) of an IBSS to  create  on  a
given interface.
   The  SSID  can  be  any text string up to 32
characters long.
             If the card is in IBSS creation or hostap mode,  the
IBSS name is
             automatically  set  to  be  the  same as the network

     -p port type
             Set the port type for a  specified  interface.   The
legal values
             for  port  type are 1 (BSS mode), 3 (ad-hoc mode), 4
(IBSS mode)
             and 6 (hostap mode).  The symbolic  values  ``bss'',
             ``ibss'',  and  ``hostap''  may  also  be used.  The
hostap mode is
             only available on Prism-II and Prism-2.5-based NICs.
See below
             for an explanation of the various port types.

     -a access_point_density
             Specify  the access point density for a given interface.  Legal
             values are 1 (low), 2 (medium) and 3  (high).   This
setting influences
 some of the radio modem threshold settings.

     -m MAC address
             Set the station address for the specified interface.
             address is specified as a series of six  hexadecimal
values separated
 by colons, e.g.: 00:60:1d:12:34:56.  This programs the new
             address into the card and updates the  interface  as

     -d max_data_length
             Set  the maximum receive and transmit frame size for
a specified
             interface.  The max data length can  be  any  number
from 350 to
             2304.  The default is 2304.

     -r RTS threshold
             Set  the  RTS/CTS  threshold  for a given interface.
This controls
             the number of bytes used for the  RTS/CTS  handshake
boundary.  The
             RTS  threshold  can be any value between 0 and 2047.
The default
             is 2047.

     -f frequency
             Set the radio frequency of a given  interface.   The
             should  be specified as a channel ID as shown in the
table below.
             The list of available frequencies  is  dependent  on
radio regulations
 specified by regional authorities.  Recognized
             authorities include the FCC  (United  States),  ETSI
             France  and  Japan.   Frequencies  in  the table are
specified in MHz.

                   Channel   FCC       ETSI      France    Japan
                   1         2412      2412      -         2412
                   2         2417      2417      -         2417
                   3         2422*     2422*     -         2422
                   4         2427      2427      -         2427
                   5         2432      2432      -         2432
                   6         2437      2437      -         2437
                   7         2442      2442      -         2442
                   8         2447      2447      -         2447
                   9         2452      2452      -         2452
                   10        2457*     2457      2457      2457
                   11        2462*     2462      2462*     2462
                   12        -         2467      2467      2467
                   13        -         2472      2472      2472
                   14        -         -         -         2484*

             If an illegal channel is specified, the NIC will revert to its
             default  channel,  normally  one  of those indicated
above with a *.
             Note that two stations must be set to the same channel in order
             to  communicate.   Note  also  that  the channels do
overlap; the
             bandwidth required for each channel is about  20MHz.
When using
             multiple channels in close proximity it is suggested
that channels
 be separated by at least  25MHz.   In  the  US,
this means that
             only channels 1, 6, and 11 may be used simultaneously without interference.

     -A 1|2|3
             [Prism2/Symbol only] Sets  the  authentication  type
for a given interface.
   Permitted  values  are 1 (Open System Authentication), 2
             (Shared Key Authentication) and  3  (104-bit  Shared
Key Authentication).
   The  104-bit Shared Key Authentication mode
is only available
 on Symbol cards.

             When Open System Authentication is used, any station
may associate
 with an access point.  In effect, no authentication is done.
             Note, however, that if WEP is enabled on the  access
point, stations
  will  be  able  to  associate with the access
point but will be
             unable to send and receive data packets unless  they
have the correct
 WEP key.
             With  Shared  Key Authentication, on the other hand,
only stations
             that have the same WEP key as the access  point  may
associate with
             The default is 1 (Open System Authentication).

             Note: It is not valid to enable Shared Key Authentication when no
             valid WEP keys have been defined.

     -D 0|1|2
             [Symbol only] Select the antenna diversity.   Symbol
cards have
             both a primary and auxiliary antenna.  Either antenna may be used
             or the card can choose the antenna with the best reception.

                   Value    Diversity
                   0        Autoselect
                   1        Primary
                   2        Auxiliary

             The default is 0 (Autoselect).

     -E 0|1|2|3
             [Prism  only]  Sets  the  enhanced security mode.  A
value of 0 disables
 enhanced security mode.  A value  of  1  hides
the SSID name
             in  beacon  frames (defeats passive AP scanning).  A
value of 2
             prevents responses to probe packets with an unspecified SSID.  A
             value  of  3  enables  both enhanced security modes.
This option is
             only available on Prism cards with station  firmware
>= 1.6.3 and
             is  really  only useful in HostAP mode.  The default
is 0.

     -F 0|1   [Prism2  only]  Enable  or  disable  processing  of
802.11b frames.
             When  enabled,  the wi(4) driver will process entire
frames instead
             of stripping off the 802.11b header that is provided
by the card.
             Only the superuser may use this option.

     -M 0|1  Enable or disable ``microwave oven robustness'' on a
given interface.
  When enabled, smaller packets are used to reduce the impact
 of consumer microwave ovens that operate in the
2.4Ghz frequency
 range.  This option may also be  useful  when
there are
             2.4Ghz  cordless telephones in the area.  Only works
in BSS mode
             and requires access point support.  Requires  Lucent
firmware version
 >= 7.28.

     -P 0|1  Enable or disable power management on a given interface.  Enabling
  power   management   uses   an   alternating
sleep/wake protocol
             to  help  conserve  power on mobile stations, at the
cost of some
             increased receive latency.  Power management is  off
by default.
             Note  that power management requires the cooperation
of an access
             point in order to function; it is not functional  in
ad-hoc mode.
             Also, power management is only implemented in Lucent
             firmware version 2.03 or later, and in WaveLAN  PCMCIA adapter
             firmware   2.00  or  later.   Older  revisions  will
silently ignore the
             power management setting.  Legal values for this parameter are 0
             (off) and 1 (on).

     -R 1|3  Enable or disable roaming function on a given interface.  The legal
 values are 1 (Roaming handled by firmware) and 3
             Disabled).   The  default  is 1.  This option is not
available on
             Symbol cards.

     -S max sleep interval
             Specify the sleep interval to use when power management is enabled.
   The max sleep interval is specified in milliseconds.  The
             default is 100.

   Explanation of port types    [Toc]    [Back]
     There are five modes the NIC can operate in:

           BSS mode
                   Also known as  infrastructure  mode,  this  is
used when associating
  with  an  access point, through which
all traffic
                   passes.  If no service set  is  specified  via
the -n flag,
                   the  NIC  will associate with whichever access
point has the
                   strongest signal.  In general, it  is  a  good
idea to specify
                   a service set to prevent possible hijacking of
the association.

           ad-hoc mode
                   More accurately known as ``ad-hoc demo mode''.
This mode
                   does not require an access point; the NIC communicates with
                   other ad-hoc stations within range on a  peerto-peer basis.
                   This  mode is not specified by the IEEE 802.11
standard and
                   there may be problems interoperating with NICs
                   by different vendors.

           IBSS mode
                   Also known as IEEE ad-hoc mode or peer-to-peer
mode.  This
                   is the standardized method of operating  without an access
                   point.   Stations associate with a service set
created by an
                   IBSS master (see below).  However, actual connections between
  stations  are peer-to-peer as in ad-hoc
mode.  Lucent
                   firmware  version  6.06  or   higher,   Prism2
firmware 0.8.0 or
                   higher,  or  Symbol  firmware version 2.0.0 or
higher is required
 for IBSS mode.

           IBSS master
                   Also know as Host IBSS mode.   In  this  mode,
the station
                   takes  on part of the role of an access point,
however traffic
 does not pass through it to reach the other stations.
                   When a group of stations are operating in IBSS
mode, one of
                   them must be the master, specifying  the  network name of the
                   service  set.  Symbol cards do not support operating as an
                   IBSS master.

           Host AP
                   In this  mode,  which  is  only  available  on
Prism2 cards, the
                   NIC  acts  as  an access point (base station).
Some tasks,
                   such as beaconing and  frame  acknowledgement,
are handled
                   automatically by the card firmware.  Authentication and
                   general management of the associated stations,
however, is
                   performed  by  the  wi(4) driver itself.  Note
that there are
                   bugs in Host AP mode in Prism  firmware  revisions prior to

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     an(4),  awi(4),  wi(4), hostname.if(5), ancontrol(8), ifconfig(8)

HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

     The wicontrol command first appeared in OpenBSD 2.6.

AUTHORS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The   wicontrol   command   was   written   by   Bill   Paul

OpenBSD      3.6                           June      7,      2001
[ Back ]
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