pwd_mkdb - generate the password databases
pwd_mkdb [-c] [-p | -s] [-d directory] [-u username] file
pwd_mkdb creates db(3) style secure and insecure databases
for the specified
file. These databases are then installed into
/etc/pwd.db, respectively. The file argument is installed
/etc/master.passwd by renaming file. The file must be in
format (see passwd(5)). It is important to note that the
format used in
this system is different from the historic Version 7 style
The options are as follows:
-c Check if the password file is in the correct format.
change, add, or remove any files.
-p Create a Version 7 style password file and install
-s Only update the secure version of the database.
This is most
commonly used in conjunction with the -u flag during
change. Because the insecure database doesn't contain the password
there is no reason to update it if the only
change is in the
password field. Cannot be used in conjunction with
the -p flag.
Operate in a base directory other than the default
of /etc. All
absolute paths (including file) will be made relative to
directory. Any directories specified as a part of
file will be
stripped off. This option is used to create password databases
in directories other than etc; for instance in a chroot(8) jail.
Only update the record for the specified user.
operate on a single user can use this option to
avoid the overhead
of rebuilding the entire database. This option
be used if the line number of the user's record in
/etc/master.passwd has changed.
file The absolute path to a file in master.passwd format,
The two databases differ in that the secure version contains
encrypted password and the insecure version has an asterisk
The databases are used by the C library password routines
pwd_mkdb exits zero on success, non-zero on failure.
/etc/master.passwd current password file
/etc/passwd a Version 7 format password file
/etc/pwd.db insecure password database file
/etc/pwd.db.tmp temporary file
/etc/spwd.db secure password database file
/etc/spwd.db.tmp temporary file
chpass(1), passwd(1), db(3), getpwent(3), passwd(5), vipw(8)
Previous versions of the system had a program similar to
mkpasswd, which built dbm(3) style databases for the password file but
depended on the calling programs to install them. The program was renamed
in order that previous users of the program not be
surprised by the
changes in functionality.
Because of the necessity for atomic update of the password
pwd_mkdb uses rename(2) to install them. This, however, requires that
the file specified on the command line live on the same file
the /etc directory.
There are the obvious races with multiple people running
pwd_mkdb on different
password files at the same time. The front-ends to
chpass(1), passwd(1), and vipw(8) handle the locking necessary to avoid
OpenBSD 3.6 June 6, 1993
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