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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     systat - display system statistics on a CRT

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     systat [-n] [-w wait] [display] [refresh-interval]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     systat displays various system statistics in a  screen  oriented fashion
     using the curses screen display library, curses(3).

     While  systat  is running the screen is usually divided into
two windows
     (an exception is the vmstat display which  uses  the  entire
screen).  The
     upper  window  depicts the current system load average.  The
     displayed in the lower window may vary,  depending  on  user
commands.  The
     last line on the screen is reserved for user input and error

     By default systat displays the processes getting the largest
     of  the  processor in the lower window.  Other displays show
swap space usage,
 disk I/O statistics (a la  iostat(8)),  virtual  memory
statistics (a
     la  vmstat(8)),  network  ``mbuf''  utilization, and network
connections (a
     la netstat(1)).

     Input is interpreted at two different levels.  A  ``global''
command interpreter
 processes all keyboard input.  If this command interpreter
     fails to recognize a command, the input line is passed to  a
     command  interpreter.  This allows each display to have certain displayspecific

     The options are as follows:

     -n                Do not try to reverse-map IP address.

     -w wait           Specifies the screen refresh time interval
in seconds.
                       This     option     is    overridden    by
refresh-interval, if given.
  The default interval is 5 seconds.

     display           The display argument expects to be one of:
                       iostat,  swap,  mbufs,  vmstat or netstat.
These displays
                       can also be  requested  interactively  and
are described
                       in full detail below.

     refresh-interval   The refresh-interval specifies the screen
refresh time
                       interval in seconds.  This is provided for
                       compatibility,  and overrides the wait interval specified
 with the -w flag.  The default interval is 5 seconds.

     Certain  characters cause immediate action by systat.  These

     ^L          Refresh the screen.

     ^G          Print the name of the current ``display''  being
shown in the
                 lower window and the refresh interval.

     ^Z          Suspend systat.

     :            Move  the cursor to the command line and interpret the input
                 line typed as a command.  While entering a  command the current
  character erase, word erase, and line kill
                 may be used.

     The following commands are  interpreted  by  the  ``global''
command interpreter.

     help        Print the names of the available displays on the

     load        Print the load average over the past 1,  5,  and
15 minutes on
                 the command line.

     stop        Stop refreshing the screen.

     [start] [number]
                 Start  (continue)  refreshing  the screen.  If a
second, numeric,
 argument is provided it is interpreted as  a
refresh interval
  (in  seconds).   Supplying only a number
will set the
                 refresh interval to this value.

     quit        Exit systat.  (This may be abbreviated to q.)

     The available displays are:

     pigs        Display, in the lower  window,  those  processes
resident in
                 main  memory  and getting the largest portion of
the processor
                 (the default display).  When less than  100%  of
the processor
                 is  scheduled  to  user processes, the remaining
time is accounted
 to the ``idle'' process.

     iostat      Display, in the lower window,  statistics  about
processor use
                 and  disk  throughput.   Statistics on processor
use appear as
                 bar graphs of the amount of  time  executing  in
user mode
                 (``user''),  in  user  mode running low priority
                 (``nice''), in  system  mode  (``system''),  and
idle (``idle'').
                 Statistics  on  disk  throughput  show, for each
drive, kilobytes
                 of data transferred, number of disk transactions
                 and  time  spent  in disk accesses (in milliseconds).  This information
 may be displayed as bar graphs  or  as
rows of numbers
  which  scroll  downward.   Bar  graphs are
shown by default.

                 The  following  commands  are  specific  to  the
iostat display;
                 the  minimum unambiguous prefix may be supplied.

                 numbers     Show the disk I/O statistics in  numeric form.
                             Values   are  displayed  in  numeric
columns which
                             scroll downward.
                 bars        Show the disk I/O statistics in  bar
graph form
                 secs         Toggle  the display of time in disk
activity (the
                             default is to not display time).
                 split        Toggle  the  display  of   separate
read/write statistics
   (the   default   is  combined

     swap        Show information about swap space usage  on  all
the swap areas
                 compiled  into  the kernel.  The first column is
the device
                 name of the partition.  The next column  is  the
total space
                 available in the partition.  The Used column indicates the
                 total blocks used so far; the  graph  shows  the
percentage of
                 space  in  use  on  each partition.  If there is
more than one
                 swap partition in use,  a  total  line  is  also
shown.  Areas
                 known  to the kernel but not in use are shown as
not available.

     mbufs       Display, in the  lower  window,  the  number  of
mbufs allocated
                 for  particular  uses, i.e., data, socket structures, etc.

     vmstat      Take over the entire display and show a  (rather
crowded) compendium
  of statistics related to virtual memory
usage, process
 scheduling, device interrupts, system  name
                 caching, disk I/O etc.

                 The  upper left quadrant of the screen shows the
number of
                 users logged in and the load  average  over  the
last 1, 5, and
                 15   minute  intervals.   Below  this  line  are
statistics on memory
 utilization.  The first row of the table  reports memory
                 usage only among active processes, that is, processes that
                 have run in the previous  twenty  seconds.   The
second row reports
  on  memory  usage  of all processes.  The
first column reports
 on the number of physical pages claimed by
                 The  second  column  reports the same figure for
virtual pages,
                 that is, the number of pages that would be needed if all processes
  had  all  of  their pages.  Finally, the
last column
                 shows the number of physical pages on  the  free

                 Below  the memory display is a list of the average number of
                 processes (over the last refresh interval)  that
are runnable
                 (`r'),  in  disk  wait  other than paging (`d'),
sleeping (`s'),
                 and swapped out but desiring to run (`w').   Below the queue
                 length  listing is a numerical listing and a bar
graph showing
                 the amount of system (shown as `='), user (shown
as `>'),
                 nice  (shown  as `-'), and idle time (shown as `

                 To the right of the Proc display are  statistics
about Context
                 switches  (``Csw''),  Traps  (``Trp''), Syscalls
(``Sys''), Interrupts
 (``Int''), Soft  interrupts  (``Sof''),
and Faults
                 (``Flt'')  which  have  occurred during the last
refresh interval.

                 Below the CPU Usage graph are statistics on name
   It lists the number of names translated
in the previous
 interval, the number and percentage  of  the
                 that were handled by the system wide name translation cache,
                 and the number and percentage  of  the  translations that were
                 handled  by  the  per  process  name translation

                 At the bottom left is the  disk  usage  display.
It reports the
                 number  of  seeks, transfers, number of kilobyte
blocks transferred
 per second averaged over the refresh  period of the
                 display (by default, five seconds), and the time
spent in
                 disk accesses.

                 Under the date in the upper right hand  quadrant
are statistics
 on paging and swapping activity.  The first
two columns
                 report the average number of  pages  brought  in
and out per
                 second  over  the  last  refresh interval due to
page faults and
                 the paging daemon.  The third and fourth columns
report the
                 average  number  of pages brought in and out per
second over
                 the last refresh interval due to  swap  requests
initiated by
                 the  scheduler.   The  first  row of the display
shows the average
 number of disk transfers per second over the
last refresh
                 interval.   The  second row of the display shows
the average
                 number of pages transferred per second over  the
last refresh

                 Running  down the right hand side of the display
is a breakdown
 of the interrupts being handled by the system.  At the
                 top of the list is the total interrupts per second over the
                 time interval.  The rest of  the  column  breaks
down the total
                 on  a device by device basis.  Only devices that
have interrupted
 at least once since boot time are  shown.

                 Below  the  SWAPPING display and slightly to the
left of the
                 Interrupts display is a list of  virtual  memory
                 The abbreviations are:
                       forks   process forks
                       fkppw   forks where parent waits
                       fksvm   forks where vmspace is shared
                       pwait   fault had to wait on a page
                       relck   fault relock called
                       rlkok   fault relock is successful
                       noram   faults out of ram
                       ndcpy   number of times fault clears "need
                       fltcp   number  of  times  fault  promotes
with copy
                       zfod    fault promotes with zerofill
                       cow     number of times fault anon cow
                       fmin    min number of free pages
                       ftarg   target number of free pages
                       itarg   target number of inactive pages
                       wired   wired pages
                       pdfre   pages daemon freed since boot
                       pdscn   pages daemon scanned since boot

                 The  `%zfod'  value is more interesting when observed over a
                 long period, such as from  boot  time  (see  the
boot option below).

                 The  following  commands  are  specific  to  the
vmstat display;
                 the minimum unambiguous prefix may be  supplied.

                 boot     Display cumulative statistics since the
system was
                 run     Display statistics as  a  running  total
from the point
                         this command is given.
                 time    Display statistics averaged over the refresh interval
                         (the default).
                 zero    Reset running statistics to zero.

     netstat     Display, in the lower  window,  network  connections.  By default,
 network servers awaiting requests are not
                 Each  address  is  displayed   in   the   format
``host.port'', with
                 each  shown  symbolically, when possible.  It is
possible to
                 have addresses displayed numerically, limit  the
display to a
                 set of ports, hosts, and/or protocols (the minimum unambiguous
 prefix may be supplied):

                 all           Toggle the  displaying  of  server
                               awaiting  requests  (this  is  the
equivalent of
                               the -a flag to netstat(1)).

                 numbers       Display network addresses  numerically.

                 names         Display network addresses symbolically.

                 protocol      Display only  network  connections
using the indicated
 protocol (currently either
``tcp'' or

                 ignore [items]
                               Do not display  information  about
                               associated   with   the  specified
hosts or ports.
                               Hosts and ports may  be  specified
by name
                               (``vangogh'', ``ftp''), or numerically.  Host
                               addresses use the Internet dot notation
                               (``'').   Multiple items
may be specified
 with a single command by separating them
                               with spaces.

                 display [items]
                               Display information about the connections associated
 with the specified hosts or
ports.  As
                               for  ignore, items may be names or

                 show [ports|hosts]
                               Show, on  the  command  line,  the
currently selected
   protocols,   hosts,   and
ports.  Hosts and
                               ports which are being ignored  are
prefixed with
                               a  `!'.  If ports or hosts is supplied as an argument
 to show, then only the  requested information
 will be displayed.

                 reset         Reset the port, host, and protocol
                               mechanisms  to  the  default  (any
protocol, port,
                               or host).

     Commands  to  switch  between displays may be abbreviated to
the minimum unambiguous
 prefix; for example, ``io'' for ``iostat''.   Certain information
  may  be discarded when the screen size is insufficient
for display.
     For example, on a machine with  10  drives  the  iostat  bar
graph displays
     only 3 drives on a 24 line terminal.  When a bar graph would
overflow the
     allotted screen space it is truncated and the  actual  value
is printed
     ``over top'' of the bar.

     The  following  commands  are  common  to each display which
shows information
     about disk drives.  These commands are used to select a  set
of drives to
     report  on,  should  your system have more drives configured
than can normally
 be displayed on the screen.

     ignore [drives]         Do not display information about the
drives indicated.
  Multiple drives may be specified, separated
 by spaces.
     display [drives]        Display information about the drives
                             Multiple  drives  may  be specified,
separated by

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     /etc/hosts     host names
     /etc/networks  network names
     /etc/services  port names

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     kill(1), ps(1), top(1), renice(8)

HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

     The systat program appeared in 4.3BSD.

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     Takes 2-10 percent of the CPU.  Certain displays  presume  a
minimum of 80
     characters  per line.  The vmstat display looks out of place
because it is
     (it was added in as a separate display rather  than  created
as a new program).

OpenBSD      3.6                        December     30,     1993
[ Back ]
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