systat - display system statistics on a CRT
systat [-n] [-w wait] [display] [refresh-interval]
systat displays various system statistics in a screen oriented fashion
using the curses screen display library, curses(3).
While systat is running the screen is usually divided into
(an exception is the vmstat display which uses the entire
upper window depicts the current system load average. The
displayed in the lower window may vary, depending on user
last line on the screen is reserved for user input and error
By default systat displays the processes getting the largest
of the processor in the lower window. Other displays show
swap space usage,
disk I/O statistics (a la iostat(8)), virtual memory
la vmstat(8)), network ``mbuf'' utilization, and network
Input is interpreted at two different levels. A ``global''
processes all keyboard input. If this command interpreter
fails to recognize a command, the input line is passed to a
command interpreter. This allows each display to have certain displayspecific
The options are as follows:
-n Do not try to reverse-map IP address.
-w wait Specifies the screen refresh time interval
This option is overridden by
refresh-interval, if given.
The default interval is 5 seconds.
display The display argument expects to be one of:
iostat, swap, mbufs, vmstat or netstat.
can also be requested interactively and
in full detail below.
refresh-interval The refresh-interval specifies the screen
interval in seconds. This is provided for
compatibility, and overrides the wait interval specified
with the -w flag. The default interval is 5 seconds.
Certain characters cause immediate action by systat. These
^L Refresh the screen.
^G Print the name of the current ``display'' being
shown in the
lower window and the refresh interval.
^Z Suspend systat.
: Move the cursor to the command line and interpret the input
line typed as a command. While entering a command the current
character erase, word erase, and line kill
may be used.
The following commands are interpreted by the ``global''
help Print the names of the available displays on the
load Print the load average over the past 1, 5, and
15 minutes on
the command line.
stop Stop refreshing the screen.
Start (continue) refreshing the screen. If a
argument is provided it is interpreted as a
(in seconds). Supplying only a number
will set the
refresh interval to this value.
quit Exit systat. (This may be abbreviated to q.)
The available displays are:
pigs Display, in the lower window, those processes
main memory and getting the largest portion of
(the default display). When less than 100% of
is scheduled to user processes, the remaining
time is accounted
to the ``idle'' process.
iostat Display, in the lower window, statistics about
and disk throughput. Statistics on processor
use appear as
bar graphs of the amount of time executing in
(``user''), in user mode running low priority
(``nice''), in system mode (``system''), and
Statistics on disk throughput show, for each
of data transferred, number of disk transactions
and time spent in disk accesses (in milliseconds). This information
may be displayed as bar graphs or as
rows of numbers
which scroll downward. Bar graphs are
shown by default.
The following commands are specific to the
the minimum unambiguous prefix may be supplied.
numbers Show the disk I/O statistics in numeric form.
Values are displayed in numeric
bars Show the disk I/O statistics in bar
secs Toggle the display of time in disk
default is to not display time).
split Toggle the display of separate
(the default is combined
swap Show information about swap space usage on all
the swap areas
compiled into the kernel. The first column is
name of the partition. The next column is the
available in the partition. The Used column indicates the
total blocks used so far; the graph shows the
space in use on each partition. If there is
more than one
swap partition in use, a total line is also
known to the kernel but not in use are shown as
mbufs Display, in the lower window, the number of
for particular uses, i.e., data, socket structures, etc.
vmstat Take over the entire display and show a (rather
of statistics related to virtual memory
scheduling, device interrupts, system name
caching, disk I/O etc.
The upper left quadrant of the screen shows the
users logged in and the load average over the
last 1, 5, and
15 minute intervals. Below this line are
statistics on memory
utilization. The first row of the table reports memory
usage only among active processes, that is, processes that
have run in the previous twenty seconds. The
second row reports
on memory usage of all processes. The
first column reports
on the number of physical pages claimed by
The second column reports the same figure for
that is, the number of pages that would be needed if all processes
had all of their pages. Finally, the
shows the number of physical pages on the free
Below the memory display is a list of the average number of
processes (over the last refresh interval) that
(`r'), in disk wait other than paging (`d'),
and swapped out but desiring to run (`w'). Below the queue
length listing is a numerical listing and a bar
the amount of system (shown as `='), user (shown
nice (shown as `-'), and idle time (shown as `
To the right of the Proc display are statistics
switches (``Csw''), Traps (``Trp''), Syscalls
(``Int''), Soft interrupts (``Sof''),
(``Flt'') which have occurred during the last
Below the CPU Usage graph are statistics on name
It lists the number of names translated
in the previous
interval, the number and percentage of the
that were handled by the system wide name translation cache,
and the number and percentage of the translations that were
handled by the per process name translation
At the bottom left is the disk usage display.
It reports the
number of seeks, transfers, number of kilobyte
per second averaged over the refresh period of the
display (by default, five seconds), and the time
Under the date in the upper right hand quadrant
on paging and swapping activity. The first
report the average number of pages brought in
and out per
second over the last refresh interval due to
page faults and
the paging daemon. The third and fourth columns
average number of pages brought in and out per
the last refresh interval due to swap requests
the scheduler. The first row of the display
shows the average
number of disk transfers per second over the
interval. The second row of the display shows
number of pages transferred per second over the
Running down the right hand side of the display
is a breakdown
of the interrupts being handled by the system. At the
top of the list is the total interrupts per second over the
time interval. The rest of the column breaks
down the total
on a device by device basis. Only devices that
at least once since boot time are shown.
Below the SWAPPING display and slightly to the
left of the
Interrupts display is a list of virtual memory
The abbreviations are:
forks process forks
fkppw forks where parent waits
fksvm forks where vmspace is shared
pwait fault had to wait on a page
relck fault relock called
rlkok fault relock is successful
noram faults out of ram
ndcpy number of times fault clears "need
fltcp number of times fault promotes
zfod fault promotes with zerofill
cow number of times fault anon cow
fmin min number of free pages
ftarg target number of free pages
itarg target number of inactive pages
wired wired pages
pdfre pages daemon freed since boot
pdscn pages daemon scanned since boot
The `%zfod' value is more interesting when observed over a
long period, such as from boot time (see the
boot option below).
The following commands are specific to the
the minimum unambiguous prefix may be supplied.
boot Display cumulative statistics since the
run Display statistics as a running total
from the point
this command is given.
time Display statistics averaged over the refresh interval
zero Reset running statistics to zero.
netstat Display, in the lower window, network connections. By default,
network servers awaiting requests are not
Each address is displayed in the format
each shown symbolically, when possible. It is
have addresses displayed numerically, limit the
display to a
set of ports, hosts, and/or protocols (the minimum unambiguous
prefix may be supplied):
all Toggle the displaying of server
awaiting requests (this is the
the -a flag to netstat(1)).
numbers Display network addresses numerically.
names Display network addresses symbolically.
protocol Display only network connections
using the indicated
protocol (currently either
Do not display information about
associated with the specified
hosts or ports.
Hosts and ports may be specified
(``vangogh'', ``ftp''), or numerically. Host
addresses use the Internet dot notation
(``18.104.22.168''). Multiple items
may be specified
with a single command by separating them
Display information about the connections associated
with the specified hosts or
for ignore, items may be names or
Show, on the command line, the
protocols, hosts, and
ports. Hosts and
ports which are being ignored are
a `!'. If ports or hosts is supplied as an argument
to show, then only the requested information
will be displayed.
reset Reset the port, host, and protocol
mechanisms to the default (any
Commands to switch between displays may be abbreviated to
the minimum unambiguous
prefix; for example, ``io'' for ``iostat''. Certain information
may be discarded when the screen size is insufficient
For example, on a machine with 10 drives the iostat bar
only 3 drives on a 24 line terminal. When a bar graph would
allotted screen space it is truncated and the actual value
``over top'' of the bar.
The following commands are common to each display which
about disk drives. These commands are used to select a set
of drives to
report on, should your system have more drives configured
than can normally
be displayed on the screen.
ignore [drives] Do not display information about the
Multiple drives may be specified, separated
display [drives] Display information about the drives
Multiple drives may be specified,
/etc/hosts host names
/etc/networks network names
/etc/services port names
kill(1), ps(1), top(1), renice(8)
The systat program appeared in 4.3BSD.
Takes 2-10 percent of the CPU. Certain displays presume a
minimum of 80
characters per line. The vmstat display looks out of place
because it is
(it was added in as a separate display rather than created
as a new program).
OpenBSD 3.6 December 30, 1993
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