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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     help - help for new users and administrators

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     This document is meant to familiarize new users  and  system
     with OpenBSD and, if necessary, UNIX in general.

     Firstly,  a  wealth  of  information is contained within the
system manual
     pages.  In UNIX, the man(1) command is used  to  view  them.
Type man man
     for  instructions on how to use it properly.  Pay especially
close attention
 to the -k option.

     Other OpenBSD references include the FAQ  (Frequently  Asked
Questions) located
 at http://www.openbsd.org/faq, which is mostly intended for administrators
 and assumes the reader possesses a working  knowledge of UNIX.
     There  are  also  mailing lists in place where questions are
fielded by
     OpenBSD     developers     and     other     users;      see

     System  administrators  should  have already read the afterboot(8) man page
     which explains a variety of tasks that  are  typically  performed after the
     first  system boot.  When configuring any aspect of the system, first consider
 any possible security implications  your  changes  may

   The Unix shell    [Toc]    [Back]
     After  logging  in,  some system messages are typically displayed, and then
     the user is able to enter commands to be  processed  by  the
shell program.
     The  shell is a command-line interpreter that reads user input (normally
     from a terminal) and executes commands.  There are many different shells
     available;  OpenBSD  ships  with  csh(1), ksh(1), and sh(1).
Each user's
     shell is indicated by the last field of their  corresponding
entry in the
     system password file (/etc/passwd).

   Basic Unix commands    [Toc]    [Back]

     man      Interface  to  the system manual pages.  For any of
the commands
             listed below, type man <command> for detailed information on what
             it does and how to use it.

     pwd      Print  working directory.  Files are organized in a
hierarchy (see
             hier(7)) called a tree.  This command will  indicate
in which directory
 you are currently located.

     cd      Change working directory.  Use this command to navigate throughout
 the file hierarchy.  For example, type cd  /  to
change the
             working directory to the root.

     ls       List directory contents.  Type ls -l for a detailed

     cat     Although it has many more uses,  cat  filename  will
print the contents
 of a plain-text file to the screen.

     mkdir   Make a directory.  For example, mkdir foobar.

     rmdir   Remove a directory.

     rm      Remove files.  Files are generally only removable by
their owners.
  See the chmod(1) command  for  information  on
file permissions.

     chmod   Change file modes, including permissions.  It is not
             obvious how to use this  command;  please  read  its
manual page
             carefully, as proper file permissions, especially on
             files, are vital in  maintaining  security  and  integrity.

     cp      Copy files.

     mv      Move and rename files.

     ps       List  active  processes.  Most UNIX-based operating
systems, including
 OpenBSD, are multitasking, meaning many programs share
             system  resources  at the same time.  A common usage
is ps -auxw,
             which will display information about all active processes.

     kill     Kill  processes.   Used mostly for terminating runaway/unresponsive
 programs, but also used to signal programs  for
             certain  operations  (i.e., re-read their configuration).

     date    Print the current system date and time.

     mail    Access mailbox.

     logout  Log out of the system.

     When a command is entered, it is first checked to see if  it
is built-in
     to  the  shell.   If not, the shell looks for the command in
any directories
     contained within the PATH environment  variable  (see  environ(7)).  If the
     command  is  not found, an error message is printed.  Otherwise, the shell
     runs the command, passing it any arguments specified on  the
command line.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     man(1), whatis(1), whereis(1), afterboot(8)

HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

     This manual page was written by Aaron Campbell <aaron@openbsd.org> and
     first appeared in OpenBSD 2.6.

OpenBSD     3.6                        October      17,      1999
[ Back ]
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