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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       MAKEDEV - create devices

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       cd dev; ./MAKEDEV -V
       cd dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] update
       cd dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] [ -d ] device ...

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       MAKEDEV is a script that will create the devices in /dev used to interface
 with drivers in the kernel.

       This man page is woefully out of date.  A large number of  devices  are
       supported that are not documented here.

       Note  that  programs  giving the error ``ENOENT: No such file or directory''
  normally  means	that  the  device  file  is  missing,  whereas
       ``ENODEV:  No such device'' normally means the kernel does not have the
       driver configured or loaded.

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       -V     Print out version (actually RCS version information) and exit.

       -n     Do not actually update the devices, just print the actions  that
	      would be performed.

       -d     Delete  the  devices.   The main use for this flag is by MAKEDEV

       -v     Be verbose.  Print out the actions as they are performed.   This
	      is the same output as produced by -n.

CUSTOMISATION    [Toc]    [Back]

       Since  there is currently no standardisation in what names are used for
       system users and groups, it is possible that you  may  need  to	modify
       MAKEDEV to reflect your site's settings.  Near the top of the file is a
       mapping from device type to user, group and permissions (e.g.  all  CDROM
  devices  are set from the $cdrom variable).  If you wish to change
       the defaults, this is the section to edit.

DEVICES    [Toc]    [Back]

       General Options

       update This only works on kernels which have  /proc/interrupts  (introduced
  during  1.1.x).  This file is scanned to see what devices
	      are currently configured into the kernel, and this  is  compared
	      with  the  previous  settings stored in the file called DEVICES.
	      Devices which are new since then or have a different major  number
  are	created,  and those which are no longer configured are

	      Create a generic	subset	of  devices.   This  is  the  standard
	      devices,	plus floppy drives, various hard drives, pseudo-terminals,
  console  devices,	basic  serial  devices,  busmice,  and
	      printer ports.

       std    Standard	devices.   These  are: mem - acess to physical memory;
	      kmem - access to kernel  virtual	memory;  null  -  null	device
	      (infinite  sink);  port  - access to I/O ports; zero - null byte
	      source (infinite source); core -	symlink  to  /proc/kcore  (for
	      kernel  debugging); full - always returns ENOSPACE on write; ram
	      - ramdisk; tty - to access the controlling tty of a process.

       local  This simply runs MAKEDEV.local.  This is a script that can  create
 any local devices.

       Virtual Terminals    [Toc]    [Back]

	      This  creates  the devices associated with the console.  This is
	      the virtual terminals ttyx, where x can be  from	0  though  63.
	      The device tty0 is the currently active vt, and is also known as
	      console.	For each vt, there are two  devices  vcsx  and	vcsax,
	      which  are  used to generate screen-dumps of the vt (the vcsx is
	      just the text, and vcsax includes the attributes).

       Serial Devices    [Toc]    [Back]

	      Serial ports  and  corresponding	dialout  device.   For	device
	      ttySx,  there  is also the device cuax which is used to dial out
	      with.  This can avoid the need for cooperative locks  in	simple

	      Dial-in  and  dial-out  devices for the cyclades intelligent I/O
	      serial card.  The dial in device is ttyCx and the  corresponding
	      dial-out device is cubx Devices for 32 lines are created.

       Pseudo Terminals    [Toc]    [Back]

	      Each possible argument will create a bank of 16 master and slave
	      pairs.  The current kernel (1.2) is limited to  64  such	pairs.
	      The master pseudo-terminals are pty[p-s][0-9a-f], and the slaves
	      are tty[p-s][0-9a-f].

       Parallel Ports    [Toc]    [Back]

       lp     Standard parallel ports.	The devices are created lp0, lp1,  and
	      lp2.   These  correspond	to  ports  at  0x3bc, 0x378 and 0x278.
	      Hence, on some machines, the first printer port may actually  be

       par    Alternative to lp.  Ports are named parx instead of lpx.

       Bus Mice    [Toc]    [Back]

	      The  various  bus  mice  devices.   This	creates  the following
	      devices: logimouse (Logitech  bus  mouse),  psmouse  (PS/2-style
	      mouse),  msmouse	(Microsoft Inport bus mouse) and atimouse (ATI
	      XL bus mouse) and jmouse (J-mouse).

       Joystick Devices    [Toc]    [Back]

       js     Joystick.  Creates js0 and js1.

       Disk Devices    [Toc]    [Back]

	      Floppy disk devices.  The device fdx is the device which autodetects
  the  format,  and the additional devices are fixed format
	      (whose size is indicated in the name).  The  other  devices  are
	      named  as  fdxLn.   The  single  letter L identifies the type of
	      floppy disk (d = 5.25" DD, h = 5.25" HD, D = 3.5" DD, H  =  3.5"
	      HD,  E = 3.5" ED).  The number n represents the capacity of that
	      format in K.  Thus the standard formats are  fdxd360,  fdxh1200,
	      fdxD720, fdxH1440, and fdxE2880.

	      For more information see Alain Knaff's fdutils package.

	      Devices  fd0*  through  fd3*  are floppy disks on the first controller,
 and devices fd4* through fd7* are floppy disks  on  the
	      second controller.

	      AT  hard	disks.	 The  device  hdx provides access to the whole
	      disk, with the partitions being  hdx[0-20].   The  four  primary
	      partitions  are  hdx1  through hdx4, with the logical partitions
	      being numbered from hdx5 though hdx20.  (A primary partition can
	      be  made	into  an  extended partition, which can hold 4 logical
	      partitions).  By default, only the devices for 4 logical	partitions
 are made.  The others can be made by uncommenting them.

	      Drives  hda  and	hdb  are  the two on the first controller.  If
	      using the new IDE driver (rather than the old HD	driver),  then
	      hdc  and	hdd  are  the  two drives on the secondary controller.
	      These devices can also be used to acess IDE CDROMs if using  the
	      new IDE driver.

	      XT hard disks.  Partitions are the same as IDE disks.

	      SCSI  hard  disks.  The partitions are similar to the IDE disks,
	      but there is a limit of  11  logical  partitions	(sdx5  through
	      sdx15).  This is to allow there to be 8 SCSI disks.

       loop   Loopback disk devices.  These allow you to use a regular file as
	      a block device.  This means that images of  filesystems  can  be
	      mounted,	and  used  as  normal.	 This  creates 8 devices loop0
	      through loop7.

       Tape Devices    [Toc]    [Back]

	      SCSI tapes.  This creates the rewinding tape device stx and  the
	      non-rewinding tape device nstx.

       qic    QIC-80  tapes.  The devices created are rmt8, rmt16, tape-d, and

       ftape  Floppy driver tapes (QIC-117).  There are 4  methods  of	access
	      depending  on the floppy tape drive.  For each of access methods
	      0, 1, 2 and 3, the devices  rftx	(rewinding)  and  nrftx  (nonrewinding)
  are  created.   For compatability, devices ftape and
	      nftape are symlinks to rft0 and nrft0 respectively.

       CDROM Devices    [Toc]    [Back]

	      SCSI CD players.

       sonycd Sony CDU-31A CD player.

       mcd    Mitsumi CD player.

       cdu535 Sony CDU-535 CD player.

       lmscd  LMS/Philips CD player.

	      Sound Blaster CD player.	The kernel is capable of supporting 16
	      CDROMs,  each  of which is accessed as sbpcd[0-9a-f].  These are
	      assigned in groups of 4 to each controller.  sbpcd is a  symlink
	      to sbpcd0.

       Scanner    [Toc]    [Back]

	      Logitech ScanMan32 & ScanMan 256.

	      Mustek M105 Handscanner.

       ac4096 A4Tek Color Handscanner.

       Audio    [Toc]    [Back]

       audio  This  creates the audio devices used by the sound driver.  These
	      include mixer, sequencer, dsp, and audio.

	      Devices for the PC Speaker sound	driver.   These  are  pcmixer.
	      pxsp, and pcaudio.

       Miscellaneous    [Toc]    [Back]

       sg     Generic  SCSI devices.  The devices created are sg0 through sg7.
	      These allow arbitary commands to be sent	to  any  SCSI  device.
	      This  allows  for querying information about the device, or controlling
 SCSI devices that are not one of disk,  tape  or  CDROM
	      (e.g. scanner, writeable CDROM).

       fd     To  allow an arbitary program to be fed input from file descriptor
 x, use /dev/fd/x as the file name.   This  also  creates  BR
	      /dev/stdin , BR /dev/stdout , and BR /dev/stderr .  (Note, these
	      are just symlinks into /proc/self/fd).

       ibcs2  Devices (and symlinks) needed by the IBCS2 emulation.

       apm    Devices for power management.

       dcf    Driver for DCF-77 radio clock.

	      Kernel modules demonstration device.  See the modules source.

       Network Devices    [Toc]    [Back]
	      Linux used to have  devices  in  /dev  for  controlling  network
	      devices,	but  that  is no longer the case.  To see what network
	      devices are known by the kernel, look at /proc/net/dev.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       Linux   Allocated    Devices,	maintained    by    H. Peter	Anvin,

AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]

       Nick Holloway, <Nick.Hollowa

Linux			       14th August 1994 		    MAKEDEV(8)
[ Back ]
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