fcntl - manipulate file descriptor
int fcntl(int fd, int cmd);
int fcntl(int fd, int cmd, long arg);
int fcntl(int fd, int cmd, struct flock *lock);
fcntl performs one of various miscellaneous operations on fd. The
operation in question is determined by cmd:
F_DUPFD Find the lowest numbered available file descriptor greater
than or equal to arg and make it be a copy of fd. This is
different form dup2(2) which uses exactly the descriptor specified.
The old and new descriptors may be used interchangeably. They
share locks, file position pointers and flags; for example, if
the file position is modified by using lseek on one of the
descriptors, the position is also changed for the other.
The two descriptors do not share the close-on-exec flag, however.
The close-on-exec flag of the copy is off, meaning that
it will not be closed on exec.
On success, the new descriptor is returned.
F_GETFD Read the close-on-exec flag. If the FD_CLOEXEC bit is 0, the
file will remain open across exec, otherwise it will be
F_SETFD Set the close-on-exec flag to the value specified by the
FD_CLOEXEC bit of arg.
F_GETFL Read the descriptor's flags (all flags (as set by open(2)) are
F_SETFL Set the descriptor's flags to the value specified by arg.
Only O_APPEND, O_NONBLOCK and O_ASYNC may be set; the other
flags are unaffected.
The flags are shared between copies (made with dup(2),
fork(2), etc.) of the same file descriptor.
The flags and their semantics are described in open(2).
F_GETLK, F_SETLK and F_SETLKW are used to manage discretionary file
locks. The third argument lock is a pointer to a struct flock (that
may be overwritten by this call).
F_GETLK [Toc] [Back]
Return the flock structure that prevents us from obtaining the
lock, or set the l_type field of the lock to F_UNLCK if there is
F_SETLK [Toc] [Back]
The lock is set (when l_type is F_RDLCK or F_WRLCK) or cleared
(when it is F_UNLCK). If the lock is held by someone else, this
call returns -1 and sets errno to EACCES or EAGAIN.
F_SETLKW [Toc] [Back]
Like F_SETLK, but instead of returning an error we wait for the
lock to be released. If a signal that is to be caught is
received while fcntl is waiting, it is interrupted and (after
the signal handler has returned) returns immediately (with
return value -1 and errno set to EINTR).
F_GETOWN, F_SETOWN, F_GETSIG and F_SETSIG are used to manage I/O availability
F_GETOWN [Toc] [Back]
Get the process ID or process group currently receiving SIGIO
and SIGURG signals for events on file descriptor fd. Process
groups are returned as negative values.
F_SETOWN [Toc] [Back]
Set the process ID or process group that will receive SIGIO and
SIGURG signals for events on file descriptor fd. Process groups
are specified using negative values. (F_SETSIG can be used to
specify a different signal instead of SIGIO).
If you set the O_ASYNC status flag on a file descriptor (either
by providing this flag with the open(2) call, or by using the
F_SETFL command of fcntl), a SIGIO signal is sent whenever input
or output becomes possible on that file descriptor.
The process or process group to receive the signal can be
selected by using the F_SETOWN command to the fcntl function.
If the file descriptor is a socket, this also selects the recipient
of SIGURG signals that are delivered when out-of-band data
arrives on that socket. (SIGURG is sent in any situation where
select(2) would report the socket as having an "exceptional condition".)
If the file descriptor corresponds to a terminal
device, then SIGIO signals are sent to the foreground process
group of the terminal.
F_GETSIG [Toc] [Back]
Get the signal sent when input or output becomes possible. A
value of zero means SIGIO is sent. Any other value (including
SIGIO) is the signal sent instead, and in this case additional
info is available to the signal handler if installed with
F_SETSIG [Toc] [Back]
Sets the signal sent when input or output becomes possible. A
value of zero means to send the default SIGIO signal. Any other
value (including SIGIO) is the signal to send instead, and in
this case additional info is available to the signal handler if
installed with SA_SIGINFO.
By using F_SETSIG with a non-zero value, and setting SA_SIGINFO
for the signal handler (see sigaction(2)), extra information
about I/O events is passed to the handler in a siginfo_t structure.
If the si_code field indicates the source is SI_SIGIO,
the si_fd field gives the file descriptor associated with the
event. Otherwise, there is no indication which file descriptors
are pending, and you should use the usual mechanisms (select(2),
poll(2), read(2) with O_NONBLOCK set etc.) to determine which
file descriptors are available for I/O.
By selecting a POSIX.1b real time signal (value >= SIGRTMIN),
multiple I/O events may be queued using the same signal numbers.
(Queuing is dependent on available memory). Extra information
is available if SA_SIGINFO is set for the signal handler, as
Using these mechanisms, a program can implement fully asynchronous I/O
without using select(2) or poll(2) most of the time.
The use of O_ASYNC, F_GETOWN, F_SETOWN is specific to BSD and Linux.
F_GETSIG and F_SETSIG are Linux-specific. POSIX has asynchronous I/O
and the aio_sigevent structure to achieve similar things; these are
also available in Linux as part of the GNU C Library (Glibc).
For a successful call, the return value depends on the operation:
F_DUPFD The new descriptor.
F_GETFD Value of flag.
F_GETFL Value of flags.
F_GETOWN Value of descriptor owner.
F_GETSIG Value of signal sent when read or write becomes possible, or
zero for traditional SIGIO behaviour.
All other commands
On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.
EACCES Operation is prohibited by locks held by other processes.
EAGAIN Operation is prohibited because the file has been memorymapped
by another process.
EBADF fd is not an open file descriptor or command was F_SETLK or
F_SETLKW and file descriptor open mode doesn't match with type
of lock requested (eg: file descriptor was read only and the
lock requested was F_WRLCK).
EDEADLK It was detected that the specified F_SETLKW command would
cause a deadlock.
EFAULT lock is outside your accessible address space.
EINTR For F_SETLKW, the command was interrupted by a signal. For
F_GETLK and F_SETLK, the command was interrupted by a signal
before the lock was checked or acquired. Most likely when
locking a remote file (e.g. locking over NFS), but can sometimes
EINVAL For F_DUPFD, arg is negative or is greater than the maximum
allowable value. For F_SETSIG, arg is not an allowable signal
EMFILE For F_DUPFD, the process already has the maximum number of
file descriptors open.
ENOLCK Too many segment locks open, lock table is full, or a remote
locking protocol failed (e.g. locking over NFS).
EPERM Attempted to clear the O_APPEND flag on a file that has the
append-only attribute set.
The errors returned by dup2 are different from those returned by
SVr4, SVID, POSIX, X/OPEN, BSD 4.3. Only the operations F_DUPFD,
F_GETFD, F_SETFD, F_GETFL, F_SETFL, F_GETLK, F_SETLK and F_SETLKW are
specified in POSIX.1. F_GETOWN and F_SETOWN are BSDisms not supported
in SVr4; F_GETSIG and F_SETSIG are specific to Linux. The flags legal
for F_GETFL/F_SETFL are those supported by open(2) and vary between
these systems; O_APPEND, O_NONBLOCK, O_RDONLY, and O_RDWR are specified
in POSIX.1. SVr4 supports several other options and flags not documented
SVr4 documents additional EIO, ENOLINK and EOVERFLOW error conditions.
dup2(2), flock(2), open(2), socket(2)
Linux 1999-07-12 FCNTL(2)
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