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Name    [Toc]    [Back]

       floppycontrol - floppy driver configuration utility

Note    [Toc]    [Back]

       This  manpage  has  been automatically generated from fdutils's texinfo
       documentation.  However, this process is only approximative,  and  some
       items,  such as crossreferences, footnotes and indices are lost in this
       translation process.  Indeed, these items have no appropriate representation
  in  the	manpage  format.  Moreover, only the items specific to
       each command have been translated, and the  general  information  about
       fdutils	has  been  dropped  in	the  manpage version.  Thus I strongly
       advise you to use the original texinfo doc.

       *      To generate a printable copy from the texinfo doc, run the  following

		     ./configure; make dvi; dvips fdutils.dvi

       *      To generate a html copy,	run:

		     ./configure; make html

	      A       premade	    html       can	be	found	   at:

       *      To generate an info copy (browsable  using  emacs'  info	mode),

		     ./configure; make info

       The  texinfo doc looks most pretty when printed or as html.  Indeed, in
       the info version certain examples are difficult	to  read  due  to  the
       quoting conventions used in info.

Description    [Toc]    [Back]

	  floppycontrol [-p] [--pollstate] [--printfdstate]
	  [-a operation-abort-threshold] [-c read-track-threshold]
	  [-r recalibrate-threshold] [-R reset-threshold]
	  [-e reporting-threshold] [-f] [-x] [-d drive][-F] [-T]
	  [-reset condition] [--debug] [--nodebug] [--messages]
	  [--nomessages] [--broken_dcl] [--working_dcl] [--inverted_dcl]
	  [--no_inverted_dcl] [--silent_dcl_clear] [--noisy_dcl_clear]
	  [-ccmos-type] [-hlt hlt] [-hut hut] [-srt srt] [-o spindown]
	  [-u spinup] [-s select-delay] [-rps rotations-per-second]
	  [-O spindown-offset] [-track max-tracks] [-timeout seconds]
	  [-C check-interval] [-n native-format]
	  [-autodetect autodetection-sequence] [-P] [--clrwerror]
	  [--printwerror] [-h]

       The floppycontrol program is used to configure the floppy driver.

General Options    [Toc]    [Back]

       --help Print a help screen.

       -d drive
       --drive	drive
	      Selects	the  drive  to	configure.  The  default  is  drive  0

One time actions    [Toc]    [Back]

       The following floppycontrol options don't set a	configuration  parameter,
  but  perform a one-time action. They are available to anybody who
       has write access to the drive

	      Flushes (throws away) the dirty  data  buffers  associated  with
	      this drive.

	      Ejects  the disk out of the drive (Sparc). The dirty buffers are
	      first committed to disk before ejecting it. Fails if the disk is

       --reset	condition
	      Resets  the  FDC	under  condition . Condition may be one of the

	      0      resets the FDC only if a reset is needed anyways,

	      1      resets the FDC also if a raw command has  been  performed
		     since the last reset, and

	      2      resets the FDC unconditionally.

	      This  command  may be needed after some failed raw commands (see
	      section  fdrawcmd).

	      Issues an end format ioctl. This might be needed after exiting a
	      fdformat	in an unclean way. superformat is not subject to this.

Printing current settings    [Toc]    [Back]

       --type Print out the drive name of a floppy device. This is used by the
	      MAKEFLOPPIES  script. The drive name is a letter (describing the
	      drive type) followed by the capacity of the format in bytes. The
	      letter is E for 3.5 ED drives, H for 3.5 HD drives, D for 3.5 DD
	      drives, h for 5.25 HD drives and d for 5.25 DD drives. The drive
	      type  letter corresponds to the oldest drive type supporting the
	      format of this device node (not  necessarily  the  type  of  the
	      drive  refered  by  this	node.)	 For  the generic format nodes
	      (/dev/fd0 et al.)  the name of "native format" of the  drive  is
	      printed,	and  for  the default formats, if a generic format has
	      been redefined, its name becomes (null).

	      Prints out the configuration of the drive. The names of the various
 fields are the same as the names of the option to set them,
	      see below.

	      Prints out the cached internal state of the  driver.  The  first
	      line lists various attributes about the disk:

	      drive present
	      disk present
	      disk writable
		     These are only updated when the drive is accessed.

		     is  the  time  when  the motor became switched on for the
		     last time.

		     is the time when the drive became selected for  the  last

		     is  the  time  when the first read request after the last
		     spin up completed.

		     is the the  index	of  the  autodetected  format  in  the
		     autodetection sequence for this drive.

		     is  the cylinder where the drive head currently sits.  If
		     this number is negative, it has the following meaning:

		     *	    -1 means that the driver  doesn't  know,  but  the
			    controller does (a seek command must be issued).

		     *	    -2	means that the controller doesn't know either,
			    but is sure that it not  beyond  the  80th	track.
			    The drive needs a recalibration.

		     *	    -3	means  that  the  head	may be beyond the 80th
			    track.  The drive needs two successive  recalibrations,
  because  at  each  recalibration, the controller
 only issues  80  move  head  commands  per

		     is the highest block number that has been read.

		     is  a  boolean  which is set when a sector that is not on
		     cylinder 0/head 0 has been  read.	 These	are  used  for
		     smart  invalidation  of  the  buffer  cache  on  geometry
		     change.  The buffer cache of the drive  is  only  invalidated
  on	geometry  change  when	this  change  actually
		     implies that a block that has already been  read  changes
		     position.	This  optimization  is useful for mtools which
		     changes the geometry after reading the boot sector.

		     is roughly the number of disk changes noticed since boot.
		     Disk changes are noticed if the disk is actually changed,
		     or if a flush command is issued and for both cases if any
		     I/O  to/from the disk occurs. (i.e. if you insert several
		     disks, but don't do any I/O to them, the generation  number
 stays the same.)

	      refs   is  number of open file descriptors for this drive. It is
		     always  at  least	one,  because	floppycontrol's   file
		     descriptor is counted too.

		     is  format type (as derived from the minor device number)
		     which is currently being used.

		     is date (in jiffies) when the drive was last checked  for
		     a disk change, and a disk was actually in the drive.

	      Polls  the  drive  and then prints out the internal state of the
	      driver.(--Printstate only  prints  out  the  cached  information
	      without actually polling the drive for a disk change.)

	      Prints out the state of the controller where the target drive is
	      attached to.

	      spec2  are the current values of those registers.

	      rate   is current data transfer rate

		     is true if a raw command has been executed since the last
		     reset.  If  this  is  the case, a reset will be triggered
		     when a drive on the same FDC is next opened.

	      dor    is the value of the digital output register. The  4  high
		     bits are a bit mask describing which drives are spinning,
		     the 2 low bits describe the selected drive, bit 2 is used
		     to  reset	the  FDC, and bit 3 describes whether this FDC
		     has hold of the interrupt and the DMA. If	you  have  two
		     FDCs, bit 3 is only set on one of them.

		     is      the      version	   of	  the	  FDC.	   See
		     `linux/include/linux/fdreg.h' for a listing  of  the  FDC
		     version numbers.

	      reset  is  true  if a reset needs to be issued to the FDC before
		     processing the next request.

		     is true if this FDC needs configuration by the FD_CONFIGURE

		     is set if the FDC understands the FD_CONFIGURE command.

		     describes	the  perpendicular mode of this FDC. 0 is nonperpendicular
 mode, 2 is HD perpendicular mode, 3	is  ED
		     perpendicular mode, and 1 is unknown.

		     is  the  address  of the first I/O port of the FDC.  Normally,
 this is 0x3f0 for the first FDC and 0x370 for  the

Drive type configuration and autodetection    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  following options handle the different available drive types, such
       as double density vs. high density vs. extra density drives, and 5  1/4
       drives  vs  3  1/2  drives.  Usually the drive type is stored in a nonvolatile
 memory, called CMOS, under the form of an integer ranging from
       1 to 6.

       Different  drive types are able to handle and autodetect different formats
 (different autodetection lists). They also have different  "native
       format  name". The native format is the "usual" format with the highest
       capacity supported by the drive. (For example 720KB on a double density
       3 1/2 drive, and 1.2MB on a high density 5 1/4 drive.)

       These settings are only changeable by the super user.

       -c cmos-type
       --cmos  cmos-type
	      Set the virtual CMOS type of the floppy drive. This is useful if

	      *      the physical CMOS type is wrong  (this  may  happen  with
		     BIOSes which use a non-standard mapping),

	      *      you have more than two drives (the physical CMOS may only
		     describe up to two drives).

	      *      you have a BIOS that allows swapping drives A: and B: for

       Right  now,  this  CMOS parameter is not used by the kernel, except for
       feeding it back to other applications (for instance superformat,  floppymeter
 or MAKEFLOPPIES).  It is also possible to supply a virtual CMOS
       type with the cmos boot option (see section   Boottime  configuration).
       If  possible,  I recommend you use the boot option, rather than floppycontrol,
 because the boot option also sets any parameters derived  from
       the  CMOS  type,  such as the autodetection list and the native format,
       whereas floppycontrol does not.

       -A  autodetect-seq
       --autodetect  autodetect-seq
	      Set the autodetection sequence (see section  Autodetection)  The
	      autodetection  sequence  is  a  comma-separated  list of at most
	      eight format descriptors. Each format  descriptor  is  a	format
	      number  optionally  followed  by the letter t.  For drive 0, the
	      format number is the minor device  number  divided  by  4.   The
	      autodetection  sequence  is  used  by the driver to find out the
	      format of a newly inserted disk. The formats are tried one after
	      the  other,  and	the first matching format is retained. To test
	      the format, the driver tries to read the	first  sector  on  the
	      first  track on the first head when t is not given, or the whole
	      first track when t is given. Thus, autodetection	cannot	detect
	      the  number of tracks. However, this information is contained in
	      the boot sector, which is now accessible. The  boot  sector  can
	      then  be	used  by  mtools  to  configure  the correct number of



	      means to try out the formats whose minor device numbers  are  28
	      (1.44M),	16  (720KB),  96  (1.76MB),  and 100 (1.92MB), in this
	      order. For the 1.76MB format, try to read  the  whole  track  at

	      Reading  the  whole  track  at  once  allows  you to distinguish
	      between two formats which differ only in the number of  sectors.
	      (The  format with the most sectors must be tried first.)	If you
	      use mtools, you do not need this feature, as mtools  can	figure
	      out  the	number	of  sectors  without  any help from the floppy
	      driver, by looking at the boot sector.

	      Reading the whole track at once may also speed up the first read
	      by  200 milliseconds. However, if, on the other hand, you try to
	      read a disk which has less sectors than  the  format,  you  lose
	      some time.

	      I  suggest  that you put the most often used format in the first
	      place (barring other constraints), as each format that is  tried
	      out takes 400 milliseconds.

       -n native-format
       --native_format	native-format
	      Set  the	native	format	of  this drive. The native format of a
	      drive is the highest standard format available for  this	drive.
	      (Example:  For  a  5 1/4 HD drive it is the usual 1200K format.)
	      This is format is used to  make  up  the	format	name  for  the
	      generic  device  (which  is the name of the native format). This
	      drive name is read back from  the  kernel  by  the  MAKEFLOPPIES
	      script which uses it to decide which device nodes to create.

Configuration of the disk change line    [Toc]    [Back]

	      Assumes  that  the  disk change line of the drive is broken.  If
	      this is set, disk changes are assumed  to  happen  whenever  the
	      device  node  is	first opened. The physical disk change line is

	      This option should be  used  if  disk  changes  are  either  not
	      detected	at  all, or if disk changes are detected when the disk
	      was actually not changed.  If this option fixes the problem, I'd
	      recommend  that  you try to trace the root cause of the problem.
	      Indeed, this options results in reduced performance due to  spurious
 cache flushes.

	      The  following  hardware	problems may lead to a bad disk change

	      *      If the floppy cable is not inserted straight, or if it is
		     kinked,  the  disk change line is likely to suffer, as it
		     is on the edge of the cable.  Gently press on  both  connectors
  of  the  cable  (drive and controller) to insure
		     that all wires make contact.  Visually inspect the cable,
		     and  if it shows obvious traces of damage, get a new one.

	      *      On some drives, the locations disk  change  line  may  be
		     chosen  by  jumper. Make sure that your floppy controller
		     and your drive agree on which line  is  the  disk	change

	      *      Some  older  drives  (mostly double density 5 1/4 drives)
		     don't have a disk change line.  In this case, you have no
		     choice other than to leave the broken_dcl option on.

	      Assumes  that  the  disk	change line works all right. Switching
	      from broken to working may lead to unexpected results after  the
	      first disk change.

	      Assumes  that this disk drive uses an inverted disk change line.
	      Apparently this is the case for IBM thinkpads.

	      Assumes that this drive follows the standard convention for  the
	      disk change line.

	      Switches off silent disk change line clearing for this drive.

Timing Parameters    [Toc]    [Back]

       This  section  describes  how to configure drive timings.  To set these
       parameters, you need superuser privileges. All  times  are  in  "jiffy"
       units (10 milliseconds), unless otherwise specified.

       --hlt  hlt
	      Set  the head load time (in microseconds) for this floppy drive.
	      The head load time describes  how  long  the  floppy  controller
	      waits  after seeking or changing heads before allowing access to
	      a track.

       --hut  hut
	      Set the head unload  time  (in  microseconds)  for  this	floppy
	      drive.   The head unload time describes how long the floppy controller
 waits after an access before directing its attention  to
	      the other head, or before seeking.

       --srt  srt
	      Set  the step rate (in microseconds) for this floppy drive.  The
	      step rate describes how long the drive head stays on one	cylinder
  when  seeking.   Setting this value to low (too fast seeks)
	      may make seeks fail,  because  the  motor  doesn't  follow  fast

       -u spinup-time
       --spinup  spinup-time
	      Set  the spinup time of the floppy drive. In order to do read or
	      write to the floppy disk, it must spin. It takes a certain  time
	      for  the	motor  to  reach  enough  speed to read or write. This
	      parameter describes this time. The floppy driver doesn't try  to
	      access the drive before the spinup time has elapsed. With modern
	      controllers, you may set this time to zero,  as  the  controller
	      itself enforces the right delay.

       -o spindown-time
       --spindown  spindown-time
	      Set  the	spindown  time	of this floppy drive. The motor is not
	      stopped immediately after the operation completes, because there
	      might  be  more  operations  following. The spindown time is the
	      time the driver waits before switching off the motor.

       -O spindown-offset
       --spindown_offset  spindown-offset
	      Set the spindown offset of this floppy drive. This parameter  is
	      used to set the position in which the disk stops. This is useful
	      to minimize the next access time. (If the first sector  is  just
	      near  the  head at the very moment at which the disk has reached
	      enough speed, you win 200 milliseconds against the most unfavorable

	      This  is	done  by clocking the time where the first I/O request
	      completes, and using this time to calculate the current position
	      of the disk.

       -s select-delay
       --select_delay  select-delay
	      Set  the	select	delay  of this floppy drive. This is the delay
	      that the driver waits after selecting the drive and issuing  the
	      first  command to it. For modern controllers/drives, you may set
	      this to zero.

       -C check-interval
       --checkfreq  check-interval
	      Set the maximal disk change check  interval.   The  disk	change
	      line  is	checked  whenever  a  read  or	write to the device is
	      issued, and it has not  been  checked  for  more	than  interval

Debugging messages    [Toc]    [Back]

       This  subsection  describes  how to switch the available debugging messages
 on and off.

	      Switch debugging output on. The debugging  information  includes
	      timing information. This option might be useful to fine-tune the
	      timing options for your local setups. (But for most normal  purposes,
 the default values are good enough.)

	      Switch debugging output off.

	      Print   informational  messages  after  autodetection,  geometry
	      parameter clearing and dma over/underruns.

	      Don't print informational messages after these events.

Error Handling Options    [Toc]    [Back]

       The following options configure the behavior of the  floppy  driver  in
       case  of  read/write errors. They may be used by any user who has write
       privileges for the drive. Whenever  the	floppy	driver	encounters  an
       error,  a  retry  counter  is incremented. If the value of this counter
       gets bigger than the  thresholds  described  below,  the  corresponding
       actions	are performed at the next retry. The counter is reset when the
       read or write finally terminates, whether successfully or not.

       -a operation-abort-trshld
       --abort	operation-abort-trshld
	      Tell the floppy driver to stop trying  to  read/write  a	sector
	      after  operation-abort-trshld  retries, and signal the I/O error
	      to the user.

       -t read-track-trshld
       --readtrack  read-track-trshld
	      Tell the floppy driver to switch from track-reading mode to sector-at-a-time-mode
 after read-track-trshld retries.

       -r recalibrate-trshld
       --recalibrate  recalibrate-trshld
	      Tell  the  floppy  driver to recalibrate the drive after recali-
	      brate-trshld retries.

       -R reset-treshold
       --reset	reset-threshold
	      Tell the floppy driver to  reset	the  controller  after	reset-
	      threshold  retries.  After a controller reset, the floppy driver
	      also recalibrates all drives connected to that controller.

       -e error-report-trshld
       --reporting  error-report-trshld
	      Tell the floppy driver to start printing error messages  to  the
	      console after error-report-trshld retries.

Write error reporting    [Toc]    [Back]

       Due  to the buffer cache, write errors cannot always be reported to the
       writing user program as soon as the write system call returns.  Indeed,
       the  actual  writing  may  take	place  much later. If a write error is
       encountered, the floppy driver stores information about it in  its  per
       drive  write  error  structure.	This write error structure stays until
       explicitly cleared.  It can for example be queried by a backup  program
       which wants to make sure that the data has been written successfully.

	      Clears the write error structure.

	      Prints the contents of the write error structure:

		     is  a  count of how many write errors have occurred since
		     the structure was last cleared.

		     is the maximal number of retries that were needed to complete
 an operation (reads, writes and formats).

		     is   where   the	first  (chronologically)  write  error

		     is the disk change generation  in	which  did  the  first
		     write  error  occurred.   The disk change generation is a
		     number which is incremented at each disk change.


		     are similar.

Other drive configuration options    [Toc]    [Back]

       This subsection lists per drive configuration options, which don't  fit
       in any other category.  They are available only to the superuser:

       --tracks  max-tracks
	      Set  the	maximal numbers of physical tracks that this drive may
	      handle. If you have a drive which is  only  able	to  handle  80
	      tracks  (making  strange noises when you try to format or read a
	      disk with more than 80  tracks),	use  this  option  to  prevent
	      unprivileged  users of damaging your drive by repeatedly reading
	      disks with more than 80 tracks.

	      If you trust your users and your disks,  you  don't  need  this.
	      With  most  drives  you don't need to worry anyways. See section
	      More cylinders for details.

       -i sector-interleave
       --interleave sector-interleave
	      Set the number of sectors beyond which sector interleaving  will
	      be  used.   This option will only be used by the FDFMTTRK ioctl.
	      The fdformat command, which is  now  considered  obsolete,  uses
	      FDFMTTRK ioctl, but superformat does not.

See Also    [Toc]    [Back]

       Fdutils' texinfo doc

fdutils-5.3			    02Jul99		      floppycontrol(1)
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