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Opcode(3)							     Opcode(3)

NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     Opcode - Disable named opcodes when compiling perl	code

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       use Opcode;

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     Perl code is always compiled into an internal format before execution.

     Evaluating	perl code (e.g.	via "eval" or "do 'file'") causes the code to
     be	compiled into an internal format and then, provided there was no error
     in	the compilation, executed.  The	internal format	is based on many
     distinct opcodes.

     By	default	no opmask is in	effect and any code can	be compiled.

     The Opcode	module allow you to define an operator mask to be in effect
     when perl next compiles any code.	Attempting to compile code which
     contains a	masked opcode will cause the compilation to fail with an
     error. The	code will not be executed.

NOTE    [Toc]    [Back]

     The Opcode	module is not usually used directly. See the ops pragma	and
     Safe modules for more typical uses.

WARNING    [Toc]    [Back]

     The authors make no warranty, implied or otherwise, about the suitability
     of	this software for safety or security purposes.

     The authors shall not in any case be liable for special, incidental,
     consequential, indirect or	other similar damages arising from the use of
     this software.

     Your mileage will vary. If	in any doubt do	not use	it.

Operator Names and Operator Lists    [Toc]    [Back]

     The canonical list	of operator names is the contents of the array op_name
     defined and initialised in	file opcode.h of the Perl source distribution
     (and installed into the perl library).

     Each operator has both a terse name (its opname) and a more verbose or
     recognisable descriptive name. The	opdesc function	can be used to return
     a list of descriptions for	a list of operators.

     Many of the functions and methods listed below take a list	of operators
     as	parameters. Most operator lists	can be made up of several types	of
     element. Each element can be one of

     an	operator name (opname)
	     Operator names are	typically small	lowercase words	like
	     enterloop,	leaveloop, last, next, redo etc. Sometimes they	are

									Page 1

Opcode(3)							     Opcode(3)

	     rather cryptic like gv2cv,	i_ncmp and ftsvtx.

     an	operator tag name (optag)
	     Operator tags can be used to refer	to groups (or sets) of
	     operators.	 Tag names always being	with a colon. The Opcode
	     module defines several optags and the user	can define others
	     using the define_optag function.

     a negated opname or optag
	     An	opname or optag	can be prefixed	with an	exclamation mark,
	     e.g., !mkdir.  Negating an	opname or optag	means remove the
	     corresponding ops from the	accumulated set	of ops at that point.

     an	operator set (opset)
	     An	opset as a binary string of approximately 43 bytes which holds
	     a set or zero or more operators.

	     The opset and opset_to_ops	functions can be used to convert from
	     a list of operators to an opset and vice versa.

	     Wherever a	list of	operators can be given you can use one or more
	     opsets.  See also Manipulating Opsets below.

Opcode Functions    [Toc]    [Back]

     The Opcode	package	contains functions for manipulating operator names
     tags and sets. All	are available for export by the	package.

     opcodes In	a scalar context opcodes returns the number of opcodes in this
	     version of	perl (around 340 for perl5.002).

	     In	a list context it returns a list of all	the operator names.
	     (Not yet implemented, use @names =	opset_to_ops(full_opset).)

     opset (OP,	...)
	     Returns an	opset containing the listed operators.

     opset_to_ops (OPSET)
	     Returns a list of operator	names corresponding to those operators
	     in	the set.

     opset_to_hex (OPSET)
	     Returns a string representation of	an opset. Can be handy for

	     Returns an	opset which includes all operators.

	     Returns an	opset which contains no	operators.

									Page 2

Opcode(3)							     Opcode(3)

     invert_opset (OPSET)
	     Returns an	opset which is the inverse set of the one supplied.

     verify_opset (OPSET, ...)
	     Returns true if the supplied opset	looks like a valid opset (is
	     the right length etc) otherwise it	returns	false. If an optional
	     second parameter is true then verify_opset	will croak on an
	     invalid opset instead of returning	false.

	     Most of the other Opcode functions	call verify_opset
	     automatically and will croak if given an invalid opset.

     define_optag (OPTAG, OPSET)
	     Define OPTAG as a symbolic	name for OPSET.	Optag names always
	     start with	a colon	:.

	     The optag name used must not be defined already (define_optag
	     will croak	if it is already defined). Optag names are global to
	     the perl process and optag	definitions cannot be altered or
	     deleted once defined.

	     It	is strongly recommended	that applications using	Opcode should
	     use a leading capital letter on their tag names since lowercase
	     names are reserved	for use	by the Opcode module. If using Opcode
	     within a module you should	prefix your tags names with the	name
	     of	your module to ensure uniqueness and thus avoid	clashes	with
	     other modules.

     opmask_add	(OPSET)
	     Adds the supplied opset to	the current opmask. Note that there is
	     currently no mechanism for	unmasking ops once they	have been
	     masked.  This is intentional.

     opmask  Returns an	opset corresponding to the current opmask.

     opdesc (OP, ...)
	     This takes	a list of operator names and returns the corresponding
	     list of operator descriptions.

     opdump (PAT)
	     Dumps to STDOUT a two column list of op names and op
	     descriptions.  If an optional pattern is given then only lines
	     which match the (case insensitive)	pattern	will be	output.

	     It's designed to be used as a handy command line utility:

		     perl -MOpcode=opdump -e opdump
		     perl -MOpcode=opdump -e 'opdump Eval'

									Page 3

Opcode(3)							     Opcode(3)

Manipulating Opsets    [Toc]    [Back]

     Opsets may	be manipulated using the perl bit vector operators & (and), |
     (or), ^ (xor) and ~ (negate/invert).

     However you should	never rely on the numerical position of	any opcode
     within the	opset. In other	words both sides of a bit vector operator
     should be opsets returned from Opcode functions.

     Also, since the number of opcodes in your current version of perl might
     not be an exact multiple of eight,	there may be unused bits in the	last
     byte of an	upset. This should not cause any problems (Opcode functions
     ignore those extra	bits) but it does mean that using the ~	operator will
     typically not produce the same 'physical' opset 'string' as the
     invert_opset function.

TO DO (maybe)    [Toc]    [Back]

	 $bool = opset_eq($opset1, $opset2)  true if opsets are	logically eqiv

	 $yes =	opset_can($opset, @ops)	     true if $opset has	all @ops set

	 @diff = opset_diff($opset1, $opset2) => ('foo', '!bar', ...)

Predefined Opcode Tags    [Toc]    [Back]


	      null stub	scalar pushmark	wantarray const	defined	undef

	      rv2sv sassign

	      rv2av aassign aelem aelemfast aslice av2arylen

	      rv2hv helem hslice each values keys exists delete

	      preinc i_preinc predec i_predec postinc i_postinc	postdec	i_postdec
	      int hex oct abs pow multiply i_multiply divide i_divide
	      modulo i_modulo add i_add	subtract i_subtract

	      left_shift right_shift bit_and bit_xor bit_or negate i_negate
	      not complement

	      lt i_lt gt i_gt le i_le ge i_ge eq i_eq ne i_ne ncmp i_ncmp
	      slt sgt sle sge seq sne scmp

	      substr vec stringify study pos length index rindex ord chr

	      ucfirst lcfirst uc lc quotemeta trans chop schop chomp schomp

	      match split

	      list lslice splice push pop shift	unshift	reverse

									Page 4

Opcode(3)							     Opcode(3)

	      cond_expr	flip flop andassign orassign and or xor

	      warn die lineseq nextstate unstack scope enter leave

	      rv2cv anoncode prototype

	      entersub leavesub	return method -- XXX loops via recursion?

	      leaveeval	-- needed for Safe to operate, is safe without entereval

	  These	memory related ops are not included in :base_core because they
	  can easily be	used to	implement a resource attack (e.g., consume all
	  available memory).

	      concat repeat join range

	      anonlist anonhash

	  Note that despite the	existance of this optag	a memory resource
	  attack may still be possible using only :base_core ops.

	  Disabling these ops is a very	heavy handed way to attempt to prevent
	  a memory resource attack. It's probable that a specific memory limit
	  mechanism will be added to perl in the near future.

	  These	loop ops are not included in :base_core	because	they can
	  easily be used to implement a	resource attack	(e.g., consume all
	  available CPU	time).

	      grepstart	grepwhile
	      mapstart mapwhile
	      enteriter	iter
	      enterloop	leaveloop
	      last next	redo

	  These	ops enable filehandle (rather than filename) based input and
	  output. These	are safe on the	assumption that	only pre-existing
	  filehandles are available for	use.  To create	new filehandles	other
	  ops such as open would need to be enabled.

	      readline rcatline	getc read

	      formline enterwrite leavewrite

	      print sysread syswrite send recv

									Page 5

Opcode(3)							     Opcode(3)

	      eof tell seek sysseek

	      readdir telldir seekdir rewinddir

	  These	are a hotchpotch of opcodes still waiting to be	considered

	      gvsv gv gelem

	      padsv padav padhv	padany

	      rv2gv refgen srefgen ref

	      bless -- could be	used to	change ownership of objects (reblessing)

	      pushre regcmaybe regcomp subst substcont

	      sprintf prtf -- can core dump


	      tie untie

	      dbmopen dbmclose
	      sselect select
	      pipe_op sockpair

	      getppid getpgrp setpgrp getpriority setpriority localtime	gmtime

	      entertry leavetry	-- can be used to 'hide' fatal errors

	  These	ops are	not included in	:base_core because of the risk of them
	  being	used to	generate floating point	exceptions (which would	have
	  to be	caught using a $SIG{FPE} handler).

	      atan2 sin	cos exp	log sqrt

	  These	ops are	not included in	:base_core because they	have an	effect
	  beyond the scope of the compartment.

	      rand srand

	  A handy tag name for a reasonable default set	of ops.	 (The current
	  ops allowed are unstable while development continues.	It will

	      :base_core :base_mem :base_loop :base_io :base_orig

									Page 6

Opcode(3)							     Opcode(3)

	  If safety matters to you (and	why else would you be using the	Opcode
	  module?)  then you should not	rely on	the definition of this,	or
	  indeed any other, optag!


	      stat lstat readlink

	      ftatime ftblk ftchr ftctime ftdir	fteexec	fteowned fteread
	      ftewrite ftfile ftis ftlink ftmtime ftpipe ftrexec ftrowned
	      ftrread ftsgid ftsize ftsock ftsuid fttty	ftzero ftrwrite	ftsvtx

	      fttext ftbinary



	      ghbyname ghbyaddr	ghostent shostent ehostent	-- hosts
	      gnbyname gnbyaddr	gnetent	snetent	enetent		-- networks
	      gpbyname gpbynumber gprotoent sprotoent eprotoent	-- protocols
	      gsbyname gsbyport	gservent sservent eservent	-- services

	      gpwnam gpwuid gpwent spwent epwent getlogin	-- users
	      ggrnam ggrgid ggrent sgrent egrent		-- groups

	  A handy tag name for a reasonable default set	of ops beyond the
	  :default optag.  Like	:default (and indeed all the other optags) its
	  current definition is	unstable while development continues. It will

	  The :browse tag represents the next step beyond :default. It it a
	  superset of the :default ops and adds	:filesys_read the :sys_db.
	  The intent being that	scripts	can access more	(possibly sensitive)
	  information about your system	but not	be able	to change it.

	      :default :filesys_read :sys_db


	      sysopen open close
	      umask binmode

	      open_dir closedir	-- other dir ops are in	:base_io

									Page 7

Opcode(3)							     Opcode(3)


	      link unlink rename symlink truncate

	      mkdir rmdir

	      utime chmod chown

	      fcntl -- not strictly filesys related, but possibly as dangerous?


	      backtick system


	      wait waitpid

	      glob -- access to	Cshell via <`rm	*`>


	      exec exit	kill

	      time tms -- could	be used	for timing attacks (paranoid?)

	  This tag holds groups	of assorted specialist opcodes that don't
	  warrant having optags	defined	for them.

	  SystemV Interprocess Communications:

	      msgctl msgget msgrcv msgsnd

	      semctl semget semop

	      shmctl shmget shmread shmwrite


	      flock ioctl

	      socket getpeername ssockopt
	      bind connect listen accept shutdown gsockopt getsockname

									Page 8

Opcode(3)							     Opcode(3)

	      sleep alarm -- changes global timer state	and signal handling
	      sort -- assorted problems	including core dumps
	      tied -- can be used to access object implementing	a tie
	      pack unpack -- can be used to create/use memory pointers

	      entereval	-- can be used to hide code from initial compile
	      require dofile

	      caller --	get info about calling environment and args


	      dbstate -- perl -d version of nextstate(ment) opcode

	  This tag is simply a bucket for opcodes that are unlikely to be used
	  via a	tag name but need to be	tagged for completness and

	      syscall dump chroot

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     ops(3) -- perl pragma interface to	Opcode module.

     Safe(3) --	Opcode and namespace limited execution compartments

AUTHORS    [Toc]    [Back]

     Originally	designed and implemented by Malcolm Beattie,
     mbeattie@sable.ox.ac.uk as	part of	Safe version 1.

     Split out from Safe module	version	1, named opcode	tags and other changes
     added by Tim Bunce	<Tim.Bunce@ig.co.uk>.

									Page 9

Opcode(3)							     Opcode(3)

								       PPPPaaaaggggeeee 11110000
[ Back ]
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