xfsrestore - XFS filesystem incremental restore utility
xfsrestore [ options ] -f source [ -f source ... ] dest
xfsrestore [ options ] - dest
xfsrestore -I [ subopt=value ... ]
xfsrestore restores filesystems from dumps produced by xfsdump(1M). Two
modes of operation are available: simple and cumulative.
The default is simple mode. xfsrestore populates the specified
destination directory, dest, with the files contained in the dump media.
The -r option specifies the cumulative mode. Successive invocations of
xfsrestore are used to apply a chronologically ordered sequence of delta
dumps to a base (level 0) dump. The contents of the filesystem at the
time each dump was produced is reproduced. This can involve adding,
deleting, renaming, linking, and unlinking files and directories.
A delta dump is defined as either an incremental dump (xfsdump -l option
with level > 0) or a resumed dump (xfsdump -R option). The deltas must
be applied in the order they were produced. Each delta applied must have
been produced with the previously applied delta as its base.
The options to xfsrestore are:
Each invocation of xfsrestore creates a directory called
xfsrestorehousekeepingdir. This directory is normally created
directly under the dest directory. The -a option allows the
operator to specify an alternate directory, housekeeping, in which
xfsrestore creates the xfsrestorehousekeeping directory. When
performing a cumulative (-r option) restore, each successive
invocation of xfsrestore must specify the same alternate directory.
Specifies the blocksize to be used for the restore. This option is
specified only with the minimal rmt option (see the -m option
below). For a QIC drive , blocksize must always be 512. For other
drives such as DAT or 8 mm , the same blocksize used for the xfsdump
operation must be specified to restore the tape. When specified ,
this blocksize applies to all remote tape sources.
Use the specified program to alert the operator when a media change
is required. The alert program is typically a script to send a mail
or flash a window to draw the operator's attention.
-e Prevents xfsrestore from overwriting existing files in the dest
-f source [ -f source ... ]
Specifies a source of the dump to be restored. This can be the
pathname of a device (such as a tape drive), a regular file, or a
remote tape drive (see rmt(1M)). Up to 20 sources can be specified.
All sources are simultaneously applied to the restore. For example,
if the dump to be restored spanned three tapes, three tape drives
could be used to simultaneously restore the portions of the dump
contained on each tape. All other permutations are supported. This
option must be omitted if the standard input option (a lone -
preceding the dest specification) is specified.
-i Selects interactive operation. Once the on-media directory
hierarchy has been read, an interactive dialogue is begun. The
operator uses a small set of commands to peruse the directory
hierarchy, selecting files and subtrees for extraction. The
available commands are given below. Initially nothing is selected,
except for those subtrees specified with -s command line options.
ls [arg] List the entries in the current directory or the
specified directory, or the specified non-directory
file entry. Both the entry's original inode number
and name are displayed. Entries that are directories
are appended with a `/'. Entries that have been
selected for extraction are prepended with a `*'.
cd [arg] Change the current working directory to the specified
argument, or to the filesystem root directory if no
argument is specified.
pwd Print the pathname of the current directory, relative
to the filesystem root.
add [arg] The current directory or specified file or directory
within the current directory is selected for
extraction. If a directory is specified, then it and
all its descendents are selected. Entries that are
selected for extraction are prepended with a `*' when
they are listed by ls.
delete [arg] The current directory or specified file or directory
within the current directory is deselected for
extraction. If a directory is specified, then it and
all its descendents are deselected. The most
expedient way to extract most of the files from a
directory is to select the directory and then
deselect those files that are not needed.
extract Ends the interactive dialogue, and causes all
selected subtrees to be restored.
quit xfsrestore ends the interactive dialogue and
immediately exits, even if there are files or
subtrees selected for extraction.
help List a summary of the available commands.
-m Use the minimal rmt protocol for remote tape sources. This is used
when the remote machine is a non-SGI machine. With this option,
xfsrestore uses version 1 rmt protocol for all remote tape drives.
This option cannot be used without specifying a blocksize to be used
(see -b option above). If all rmt sources are SGI machines, it is
preferable not to specify this option.
Allows xfsrestore to restore only files newer than file. The
modification time of file (i.e., as displayed with the ls -l
command) is compared to the inode modification time of each file on
the source media (i.e., as displayed with the ls -lc command). A
file is restored from media only if its inode modification time is
greater than or equal to the modification time of file.
-o Restore file and directory owner/group even if not root. When run
with an effective user id of root, xfsrestore restores owner and
group of each file and directory. When run with any other effective
user id it does not, unless this option is specified.
Causes progress reports to be printed at intervals of interval
seconds. The interval value is approximate, xfsrestore will delay
progress reports to avoid undue processing overhead.
-r Selects the cumulative mode of operation.
Specifies a subtree to restore. Any number of -s options are
allowed. The restore is constrained to the union of all subtrees
specified. Each subtree is specified as a pathname relative to the
restore dest. If a directory is specified, the directory and all
files beneath that directory are restored.
-t Displays the contents of the dump, but does not create or modify any
files or directories. It may be desirable to set the verbosity
level to silent when using this option.
Specifies the level of detail used for messages displayed during the
course of the restore. The verbosity argument can be passed as
either a string or an integer. If passed as a string the following
values may be used: silent, verbose, trace, debug, or nitty. If
passed as an integer, values from 0-5 may be used. The values 0-4
correspond to the strings already listed. The value 5 can be used to
produce even more verbose debug output.
The first form of this option activates message logging across all
restore subsystems. The second form allows the message logging level
to be controlled on a per-subsystem basis. The two forms can be
combined (see the example below). The argument subsys can take one
of the following values: general, proc, drive, media, inventory, and
For example, to restore the root filesystem with tracing activated
for all subsystems:
# xfsrestore -v trace -f /dev/tape /
To enable debug-level tracing for drive and media operations:
# xfsrestore -v drive=debug,media=debug -f /dev/tape /
To enable tracing for all subsystems, and debug level tracing for
drive operations only:
# xfsrestore -v trace,drive=debug -f /dev/tape /
-A Do not restore extended file attributes. When restoring a
filesystem managed within a DMF environment this option should not
be used. DMF stores file migration status within extended attributes
associated with each file. If these attributes are not preserved
when the filesystem is restored, files that had been in migrated
state will not be recallable by DMF. Note that dumping of extended
file attributes is also optional.
-D Restore DMAPI (Data Management Application Programming Interface)
event settings. If the restored filesystem will be managed within
the same DMF environment as the original dump it is essential that
the -D option be used. Otherwise it is not usually desirable to
restore these settings.
-E Prevents xfsrestore from overwriting newer versions of files. The
inode modification time of the on-media file is compared to the
inode modification time of corresponding file in the dest directory.
The file is restored only if the on-media version is newer than the
version in the dest directory. The inode modification time of a
file can be displayed with the ls -lc command.
-F Inhibit interactive operator prompts. This option inhibits
xfsrestore from prompting the operator for verification of the
selected dump as the restore target and from prompting for any media
-I Causes the xfsdump inventory to be displayed (no restore is
performed). Each time xfsdump is used, an online inventory in
/var/xfsdump/inventory is updated. This is used to determine the
base for incremental dumps. It is also useful for manually
identifying a dump session to be restored (see the -L and -S
options). Suboptions to filter the inventory display are described
-J Inhibits inventory update when on-media session inventory
encountered during restore. xfsrestore opportunistically updates
the online inventory when it encounters an on-media session
inventory, but only if run with an effective user id of root and
only if this option is not given.
Specifies the label of the dump session to be restored. The source
media is searched for this label. It is any arbitrary string up to
255 characters long. The label of the desired dump session can be
copied from the inventory display produced by the -I option.
Insert the options contained in options_file into the beginning of
the command line. The options are specified just as they would
appear if typed into the command line. In addition, newline
characters (\n) can be used as whitespace. The options are placed
before all options actually given on the command line, just after
the command name. Only one -O option can be used. Recursive use is
ignored. The destination directory cannot be specified in
-Q Force completion of an interrupted restore session. This option is
required to work around one specific pathological scenario. When
restoring a dump session which was interrupted due to an EOM
condition and no online session inventory is available, xfsrestore
cannot know when the restore of that dump session is complete. The
operator is forced to interrupt the restore session. In that case,
if the operator tries to subsequently apply a resumed dump (using
the -r option), xfsrestore refuses to do so. The operator must tell
xfsrestore to consider the base restore complete by using this
option when applying the resumed dump.
-R Resume a previously interrupted restore. xfsrestore can be
interrupted at any time by pressing the terminal interrupt character
(see stty(1)). Use this option to resume the restore. The -a and
destination options must be the same.
Specifies the session UUID of the dump session to be restored. The
source media is searched for this UUID. The UUID of the desired
dump session can be copied from the inventory display produced by
the -I option.
-T Inhibits interactive dialogue timeouts. xfsrestore prompts the
operator for media changes. This dialogue normally times out if no
response is supplied. This option prevents the timeout.
Specifies a subtree to exclude. This is the converse of the -s
option. Any number of -X options are allowed. Each subtree is
specified as a pathname relative to the restore dest. If a
directory is specified, the directory and all files beneath that
directory are excluded.
Specify I/O buffer ring length. xfsrestore uses a ring of input
buffers to achieve maximum throughput when restoring from tape
drives. The default ring length is 3.
- A lone - causes the standard input to be read as the source of the
dump to be restored. Standard input can be a pipe from another
utility (such as xfsdump(1M)) or a redirected file. This option
cannot be used with the -f option. The - must follow all other
options, and precede the dest specification.
The dumped filesystem is restored into the dest directory. There is no
default; the dest must be specified.
A base (level 0) dump and an ordered set of delta dumps can be
sequentially restored, each on top of the previous, to reproduce the
contents of the original filesystem at the time the last delta was
produced. The operator invokes xfsrestore once for each dump. The -r
option must be specified. The dest directory must be the same for all
invocations. Each invocation leaves a directory named
xfsrestorehousekeeping in the dest directory (however, see the -a option
above). This directory contains the state information that must be
communicated between invocations. The operator must remove this
directory after the last delta has been applied.
xfsrestore also generates a directory named orphanage in the dest
directory. xfsrestore removes this directory after completing a simple
restore. However, if orphanage is not empty, it is not removed. This
can happen if files present on the dump media are not referenced by any
of the restored directories. The orphanage has an entry for each such
file. The entry name is the file's original inode number, a ".", and the
file's generation count modulo 4096 (only the lower 12 bits of the
generation count are used).
xfsrestore does not remove the orphanage after cumulative restores. Like
the xfsrestorehousekeeping directory, the operator must remove it after
applying all delta dumps.
Media Management [Toc] [Back]
A dump consists of one or more media files contained on one or more media
objects. A media file contains all or a portion of the filesystem dump.
Large filesystems are broken up into multiple media files to minimize the
impact of media dropouts, and to accommodate media object boundaries
A media object is any storage medium: a tape cartridge, a remote tape
device (see rmt(1M)), a regular file, or the standard input (currently
other removable media drives are not supported). Tape cartridges can
contain multiple media files, which are typically separated by (in tape
parlance) file marks. If a dump spans multiple media objects, the
restore must begin with the media object containing the first media file
dumped. The operator is prompted when the next media object is needed.
Media objects can contain more than one dump. The operator can select
the desired dump by specifying the dump label (-L option), or by
specifying the dump UUID (-S option). If neither is specified,
xfsrestore scans the entire media object, prompting the operator as each
dump session is encountered.
The inventory display (-I option) is useful for identifying the media
objects required. It is also useful for identifying a dump session. The
session UUID can be copied from the inventory display to the -S option
argument to unambiguously identify a dump session to be restored.
Dumps placed in regular files or the standard output do not span multiple
media objects, nor do they contain multiple dumps.
Inventory [Toc] [Back]
Each dump session updates an inventory database in
/var/xfsdump/inventory. This database can be displayed by invoking
xfsrestore with the -I option. The display uses tabbed indentation to
present the inventory hierarchically. The first level is filesystem.
The second level is session. The third level is media stream (currently
only one stream is supported). The fourth level lists the media files
sequentially composing the stream.
The following suboptions are available to filter the display.
(where n is 1, 2, or 3) limits the hierarchical depth of the
display. When n is 1, only the filesystem information from the
inventory is displayed. When n is 2, only filesystem and session
information are displayed. When n is 3, only filesystem, session and
stream information are displayed.
(where n is the dump level) limits the display to dumps of that
particular dump level.
The display may be restricted to media files contained in a specific
(where value is a media ID) specifies the media object by its media
(where value is a media label) specifies the media object by its
Similarly, the display can be restricted to a specific filesystem.
(that is, [hostname:]pathname), identifies the filesystem by
mountpoint. Specifying the hostname is optional, but may be useful
in a clustered environment where more than one host can be
responsible for dumping a filesystem.
identifies the filesystem by filesystem ID.
(that is, [hostname:]device_pathname) identifies the filesystem by
device. As with the mnt filter, specifying the hostname is
More than one of these suboptions, separated by commas, may be specified
at the same time to limit the display of the inventory to those dumps of
interest. However, at most four suboptions can be specified at once:
one to constrain the display hierarchy depth, one to constrain the dump
level, one to constrain the media object, and one to constrain the
For example, -I depth=1,mobjlabel="tape 1",mnt=host1:/test_mnt would
display only the filesystem information (depth=1) for those filesystems
that were mounted on host1:/test_mnt at the time of the dump, and only
those filesystems dumped to the media object labeled "tape 1".
Dump records may be removed (pruned) from the inventory using the
An additional media file is placed at the end of each dump stream. This
media file contains the inventory information for the current dump
session. This is currently unused.
Media Errors [Toc] [Back]
xfsdump is tolerant of media errors, but cannot do error correction. If
a media error occurs in the body of a media file, the filesystem file
represented at that point is lost. The bad portion of the media is
skipped, and the restoration resumes at the next filesystem file after
the bad portion of the media.
If a media error occurs in the beginning of the media file, the entire
media file is lost. For this reason, large dumps are broken into a
number of reasonably sized media files. The restore resumes with the
next media file.
Quotas [Toc] [Back]
When xfsdump dumps a filesystem with quotas, it creates a file in the
root of the dump called xfsdump_quotas. xfsrestore can restore this file
like any other file included in the dump. This file can be processed by
the edquota(1M) command to reactivate the quotas. However, the
xfsdump_quotas file contains information which may first require
modification; specifically the filesystem name and the user ids. If you
are restoring the quotas for the same users on the same filesystem from
which the dump was taken, then no modification will be necessary.
However, if you are restoring the dump to a different filesystem, you
will need to:
- ensure the new filesystem is mounted with the quota option
- modify the xfsdump_quotas file to contain the new filesystem name
- ensure the uids in the xfsdump_quotas file are correct
Once the quota information has been verified,
# /usr/etc/edquota -i xfsdump_quotas
will apply the quota limits to the filesystem.
Trusted IRIX Restrictions
In the Trusted IRIX environment, xfsrestore can only correctly restore
files of a multi-level directory from the dump file generated by xfsdump
when xfsrestore is run at a moldy process label and with the following
set of capabilities: CAP_MAC_READ , CAP_MAC_WRITE , and CAP_DEVICE_MGT.
Clustered Filesystems [Toc] [Back]
In a clustered environment where a CXFS filesystem may, over time, have
many metadata servers, it is recommended that the xfsdump(1M) inventory
be shared so that it is accessible from every machine in the cluster.
Therefore, xfsrestore should be used only on a machine which has access
to the shared inventory. Please refer to the xfsdump(1M) man page for
more information on this topic.
If xfsrestore abnormally exits causing a core dump, all its associated
processes which dump core will have core file names with their extensions
set to the pids of the processes. See prctl(2) and PR_COREPID for further
To restore the root filesystem from a locally mounted tape:
# xfsrestore -f /dev/tape /
To restore from a remote tape, specifying the dump session id:
# xfsrestore -L session_1 -f otherhost:/dev/tape /new
To restore the contents a of a dump to another subdirectory:
# xfsrestore -f /dev/tape /newdir
To copy the contents of a filesystem to another directory (see
# xfsdump -J - / | xfsrestore -J - /new
/var/xfsdump/inventory dump inventory database
edquota(1M), rmt(1M), xfsdump(1M), xfsinvutil(1M), attr_set(2),
The exit code is 0 on normal completion, and non-zero if an error
occurred or the restore was terminated by the operator.
For all verbosity levels greater than 0 (silent) the final line of the
output shows the exit status of the restore. It is of the form:
xfsdump: Restore Status: code
Where code takes one of the following values: SUCCESS (normal
completion), INTERRUPT (interrupted), QUIT (media no longer usable),
INCOMPLETE (restore incomplete), FAULT (software error), and ERROR
(resource error). Every attempt will be made to keep both the syntax and
the semantics of this log message unchanged in future versions of
xfsrestore. However, it may be necessary to refine or expand the set of
exit codes, or their interpretation at some point in the future.
Pathnames of restored non-directory files (relative to the dest
directory) must be 1023 characters (MAXPATHLEN) or less. Longer
pathnames are discarded and a warning message displayed.
There is no verify option to xfsrestore. This would allow the operator
to compare a filesystem dump to an existing filesystem, without actually
doing a restore.
The interactive commands (-i option) do not understand regular
When the minimal rmt option is specified, xfsrestore applies it to all
remote tape sources. The same blocksize (specified by the -b option) is
used for all these remote drives.
xfsrestore uses the alert program only when a media change is required.
Cumulative mode (-r option) requires that the operator invoke xfsrestore
for the base and for each delta to be applied in sequence to the base.
It would be better to allow the operator to identify the last delta in
the sequence of interest, and let xfsrestore work backwards from that
delta to identify and apply the preceding deltas and base dump, all in
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