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xfsdump(1M)							   xfsdump(1M)

NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     xfsdump - XFS filesystem incremental dump utility

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     xfsdump -h
     xfsdump [ options ] -f dest [ -f dest ... ] filesystem
     xfsdump [ options ] - filesystem
     xfsdump -I	[ subopt=value ... ]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     xfsdump backs up files and	their attributes in a filesystem.  The files
     are dumped	to storage media, a regular file, or standard output.  Options
     allow the operator	to have	all files dumped, just files that have changed
     since a previous dump, or just files contained in a list of pathnames.

     The xfsrestore(1M)	utility	re-populates a filesystem with the contents of
     the dump.

     Each invocation of	xfsdump	dumps just one filesystem.  That invocation is
     termed a dump session.  The dump session splits the filesystem into one
     or	more dump streams, one per destination.	 The split is done in
     filesystem	inode number (ino) order, at boundaries	selected to equalize
     the size of each stream.  Furthermore, the	breakpoints between streams
     may be in the middle of very large	files (at extent boundaries) if
     necessary to achieve reasonable stream size equalization.	Each dump
     stream can	span several media objects, and	a single media object can
     contain several dump streams.  The	typical	media object is	a tape
     cartridge.	 The media object records the dump stream as one or more media
     files.  A media file is a self-contained partial dump.  The portion of a
     dump stream contained on a	media object can be split into several media
     files.  This minimizes the	impact of media	dropouts on the	entire dump
     stream, and speeds	subtree	restores.

     xfsdump maintains an online dump inventory	in /var/xfsdump/inventory.
     The -I option displays the	inventory contents hierarchically.  The	levels
     of	the hierarchy are:  filesystem,	dump session, stream, and media	file.

     The options to xfsdump are:

     -a	  Specifies that files for which the Data Migration Facility (DMF) has
	  complete offline copies (dual-state files) be	treated	as if they
	  were offline (OFL).  This means that the file	data will not be
	  dumped by xfsdump, resulting in a smaller dump file.	If the file is
	  later	restored the file data is still	accessible through DMF.

     -b	blocksize
	  Specifies the	blocksize to be	used for the dump. This	option is
	  specified only with the minimal rmt option (see the -m option
	  below). For a	QIC drive , blocksize must always be 512.  For other
	  drives such as DAT or	8 mm , a blocksize of 245760 bytes works well.
	  The same blocksize must be specified to restore the tape.  When
	  specified , this blocksize applies to	all remote tape	destinations.

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xfsdump(1M)							   xfsdump(1M)

     -c	progname
	  Use the specified program to alert the operator when a media change
	  is required. The alert program is typically a	script to send a mail
	  or flash a window to draw the	operator's attention.

     -d	filesize
	  Specifies the	size, in megabytes, of dump media files.  xfsdump will
	  dump data to tape in one or more media files.	 It will attempt to
	  estimate the ideal media file	size based on the tape device being
	  used,	and the	amount of data to be written.  The media file size may
	  need to be adjusted if, for example, xfsdump cannot fit a media file
	  onto a single	tape.

     -f	dest [ -f dest ... ]
	  Specifies a dump destination.	 A dump	destination can	be the
	  pathname of a	device (such as	a tape drive), a regular file, or a
	  remote tape drive (see rmt(1M)).  Up to 20 dump destinations can be
	  specified, in	which case each	destination receives an	equal portion
	  of the filesystem.  This option must be omitted if the standard
	  output option	(a lone	- preceding the	source filesystem
	  specification) is specified.

     -l	level
	  Specifies a dump level of 0 to 9.  The dump level determines the
	  base dump to which this dump is relative.  The base dump is the most
	  recent dump at a lesser level.  A level 0 dump is absolute - all
	  files	are dumped.  A dump level where	1 <= level <= 9	is referred to
	  as an	incremental dump.  Only	files that have	been changed since the
	  base dump are	dumped.	 Subtree dumps (see the	-s option below)
	  cannot be used as the	base for incremental dumps.

     -m	  Use the minimal rmt protocol for remote tape destinations. This is
	  used when the	remote machine is a non-SGI machine. With this option,
	  xfsdump uses version 1 rmt protocol for all remote tape drives. This
	  option cannot	be used	without	specifying a blocksize to be used (see
	  -b option above). If all rmt destinations are	SGI machines, it is
	  preferable not to specify this option.

     -o	  Overwrite the	tape. With this	option,	xfsdump	does not read the tape
	  first	to check the contents. This option may be used if xfsdump is
	  unable to determine the block	size of	a tape .

     -p	interval
	  Causes progress reports to be	printed	at the specified interval.
	  interval is given in seconds.	 The progress report indicates how
	  many files have been dumped, the total number	of files to dump, the
	  percentage of	data dumped, and the elapsed time.

     -s	pathname [ -s pathname ... ]
	  Restricts the	dump to	files contained	in the specified pathnames
	  (subtrees).  Up to 100 pathnames can be specified.  A	pathname must
	  be relative to the mount point of the	filesystem.  For example, if a

									Page 2

xfsdump(1M)							   xfsdump(1M)

	  filesystem is	mounted	at /d2,	the pathname argument for the
	  directory /d2/users is ``users''.  A pathname	can be a file or a
	  directory; if	it is a	directory, the entire hierarchy	of files and
	  subdirectories rooted	at that	directory is dumped.  Subtree dumps
	  cannot be used as the	base for incremental dumps (see	the -l option

     -v	verbosity
     -v	subsys=verbosity[,subsys=verbosity,...]
	  Specifies the	level of detail	used for messages displayed during the
	  course of the	dump. The verbosity argument can be passed as either a
	  string or an integer.	If passed as a string the following values may
	  be used:  silent, verbose, trace, debug, or nitty.  If passed	as an
	  integer, values from 0-5 may be used.	The values 0-4 correspond to
	  the strings already listed. The value	5 can be used to produce even
	  more verbose debug output.

	  The first form of this option	activates message logging across all
	  dump subsystems. The second form allows the message logging level to
	  be controlled	on a per-subsystem basis. The two forms	can be
	  combined (see	the example below). The	argument subsys	can take one
	  of the following values: general, proc, drive, media,	inventory, and

	  For example, to dump the root	filesystem with	tracing	activated for
	  all subsystems:

	       # xfsdump -v trace -f /dev/tape /

	  To enable debug-level	tracing	for drive and media operations:

	       # xfsdump -v drive=debug,media=debug -f /dev/tape /

	  To enable tracing for	all subsystems,	and debug level	tracing	for
	  drive	operations only:

	       # xfsdump -v trace,drive=debug -f /dev/tape /

     -z	size
	  Specifies the	maximum	size, in kilobytes, of files to	be included in
	  the dump.  Files over	this size, will	be excluded from the dump.
	  The size is an estimate based	on the number of disk blocks actually
	  used by the file, and	so does	not include holes.  In other words,
	  size refers to the amount of space the file would take in the
	  resulting dump.  On an interactive restore, the skipped file is
	  visable with xfsrestore's 'ls' and while you can use the 'add' and
	  'extract' commands, nothing will be restored.

     -A	  Do not dump extended file attributes.	 When dumping a	filesystem
	  managed within a DMF environment this	option should not be used. DMF
	  stores file migration	status within extended attributes associated

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xfsdump(1M)							   xfsdump(1M)

	  with each file. If these attributes are not preserved	when the
	  filesystem is	restored, files	that had been in migrated state	will
	  not be recallable by DMF. Note that dumps containing extended	file
	  attributes cannot be restored	with older versions of xfsrestore(1M).

     -B	session_id
	  Specifies the	ID of the dump session upon which this dump session is
	  to be	based.	If this	option is specified, the -l (level) and	-R
	  (resume) options are not allowed.  Instead, xfsdump determines if
	  the current dump session should be incremental and/or	resumed, by
	  looking at the base session's	level and interrupted attributes.  If
	  the base session was interrupted, the	current	dump session is	a
	  resumption of	that base at the same level.  Otherwise, the current
	  dump session is an incremental dump with a level one greater than
	  that of the base session.  This option allows	incremental and
	  resumed dumps	to be based on any previous dump, rather than just the
	  most recent.

     -E	  Pre-erase media.  If this option is specified, media is erased prior
	  to use.  The operator	is prompted for	confirmation, unless the -F
	  option is also specified.

     -F	  Don't	prompt the operator.  When xfsdump encounters a	media object
	  containing non-xfsdump data, xfsdump normally	asks the operator for
	  permission to	overwrite.  With this option the overwrite is
	  performed, no	questions asked.  When xfsdump encounters end-of-media
	  during a dump, xfsdump normally asks the operator if another media
	  object will be provided.  With this option the dump is instead

     -I	  Displays the xfsdump inventory (no dump is performed).  xfsdump
	  records each dump session in an online inventory in
	  /var/xfsdump/inventory.  xfsdump uses	this inventory to determine
	  the base for incremental dumps.  It is also useful for manually
	  identifying a	dump session to	be restored.  Suboptions to filter the
	  inventory display are	described later.

     -J	  Inhibits the normal update of	the inventory.	This is	useful when
	  the media being dumped to will be discarded or overwritten.

     -L	session_label
	  Specifies a label for	the dump session.  It can be any arbitrary
	  string up to 255 characters long.

     -M	label [	-M label ... ]
	  Specifies a label for	the first media	object (for example, tape
	  cartridge) written on	the corresponding destination during the
	  session.  It can be any arbitrary string up to 255 characters	long.
	  Multiple media object	labels can be specified, one for each

									Page 4

xfsdump(1M)							   xfsdump(1M)

     -O	options_file
	  Insert the options contained in options_file into the	beginning of
	  the command line.  The options are specified just as they would
	  appear if typed into the command line.  In addition, newline
	  characters (\n) can be used as whitespace.  The options are placed
	  before all options actually given on the command line, just after
	  the command name.  Only one -O option	can be used.  Recursive	use is
	  ignored.  The	source filesystem cannot be specified in options_file.

     -R	  Resumes a previously interrupted dump	session.  If the most recent
	  dump at this dump's level (-l	option)	was interrupted, this dump
	  contains only	files not in the interrupted dump and consistent with
	  the incremental level.  However, files contained in the interrupted
	  dump that have been subsequently modified are	re-dumped.

     -T	  Inhibits interactive dialogue	timeouts.  When	the -F option is not
	  specified, xfsdump prompts the operator for labels and media
	  changes.  Each dialogue normally times out if	no response is
	  supplied.  This option prevents the timeout.

     -Y	length
	  Specify I/O buffer ring length.  xfsdump uses	a ring of output
	  buffers to achieve maximum throughput	when dumping to	tape drives.
	  The default ring length is 3.

     -	  A lone - causes the dump stream to be	sent to	the standard output,
	  where	it can be piped	to another utility such	as xfsrestore(1M) or
	  redirected to	a file.	 This option cannot be used with the -f
	  option.  The - must follow all other options and precede the
	  filesystem specification.

     The filesystem, filesystem, can be	specified either as a mount point or
     as	a special device file (for example, /dev/dsk/dks0d1s0).	 The
     filesystem	must be	mounted	to be dumped.

NOTES    [Toc]    [Back]

   Dump	Interruption
     A dump can	be interrupted at any time and later resumed.  To interrupt,
     type control-C (or	the current terminal interrupt character).  The
     operator is prompted to select one	of several operations, including dump
     interruption.  After the operator selects dump interruption, the dump
     continues until a convenient break	point is encountered (typically	the
     end of the	current	file).	Very large files are broken into smaller
     subfiles, so the wait for the end of the current file is brief.

   Dump	Resumption
     A previously interrupted dump can be resumed by specifying	the -R option.
     If	the most recent	dump at	the specified level was	interrupted, the new
     dump does not include files already dumped, unless	they have changed
     since the interrupted dump.

									Page 5

xfsdump(1M)							   xfsdump(1M)

   Media Management    [Toc]    [Back]
     A single media object can contain many dump streams.  Conversely, a
     single dump stream	can span multiple media	objects.  If a dump stream is
     sent to a media object already containing one or more dumps, xfsdump
     appends the new dump stream after the last	dump stream.  Media files are
     never overwritten.	 If end-of-media is encountered	during the course of a
     dump, the operator	is prompted to insert a	new media object into the
     drive.  The dump stream continuation is appended after the	last media
     file on the new media object.

   Inventory    [Toc]    [Back]
     Each dump session updates an inventory database in
     /var/xfsdump/inventory.  xfsdump uses the inventory to determine the base
     of	incremental and	resumed	dumps.

     This database can be displayed by invoking	xfsdump	with the -I option.
     The display uses tabbed indentation to present the	inventory
     hierarchically.  The first	level is filesystem.  The second level is
     session.  The third level is media	stream (currently only one stream is
     supported).  The fourth level lists the media files sequentially
     composing the stream.

     The following suboptions are available to filter the display.

     -I	depth=n
	  (where n is 1, 2, or 3) limits the hierarchical depth	of the
	  display. When	n is 1,	only the filesystem information	from the
	  inventory is displayed. When n is 2, only filesystem and session
	  information are displayed. When n is 3, only filesystem, session and
	  stream information are displayed.

     -I	level=n
	  (where n is the dump level) limits the display to dumps of that
	  particular dump level.

     The display may be	restricted to media files contained in a specific
     media object.

     -I	mobjid=value
	  (where value is a media ID) specifies	the media object by its	media

     -I	mobjlabel=value
	  (where value is a media label) specifies the media object by its
	  media	label.

     Similarly,	the display can	be restricted to a specific filesystem.

     -I	mnt=mount_point
	  (that	is, [hostname:]pathname), identifies the filesystem by
	  mountpoint.  Specifying the hostname is optional, but	may be useful
	  in a clustered environment where more	than one host can be

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xfsdump(1M)							   xfsdump(1M)

	  responsible for dumping a filesystem.

     -I	fsid=filesystem_id
	  identifies the filesystem by filesystem ID.

     -I	dev=device_pathname
	  (that	is, [hostname:]device_pathname)	identifies the filesystem by
	  device. As with the mnt filter, specifying the hostname is optional.

     More than one of these suboptions,	separated by commas, may be specified
     at	the same time to limit the display of the inventory to those dumps of
     interest.	However, at most four suboptions can be	specified at once:
     one to constrain the display hierarchy depth, one to constrain the	dump
     level, one	to constrain the media object, and one to constrain the

     For example, -I depth=1,mobjlabel="tape 1",mnt=host1:/test_mnt would
     display only the filesystem information (depth=1) for those filesystems
     that were mounted on host1:/test_mnt at the time of the dump, and only
     those filesystems dumped to the media object labeled "tape	1".

     Dump records may be removed (pruned) from the inventory using the
     xfsinvutil	program.

     An	additional media file is placed	at the end of each dump	stream.	 This
     media file	contains the inventory information for the current dump
     session.  This is currently unused.

     When operating in the miniroot environment, xfsdump does not create and
     does not reference	the inventory database.	 Thus incremental and resumed
     dumps are not allowed.

   Labels    [Toc]    [Back]
     The operator can specify a	label to identify the dump session and a label
     to	identify a media object.  The session label is placed in every media
     file produced in the course of the	dump, and is recorded in the

     The media label is	used to	identify media objects,	and is independent of
     the session label.	 Each media file on the	media object contains a	copy
     of	the media label.  An error is returned if the operator specifies a
     media label that does not match the media label on	a media	object
     containing	valid media files.  Media labels are recorded in the

   UUIDs    [Toc]    [Back]
     UUIDs (Universally	Unique Identifiers) are	used in	three places:  to
     identify the filesystem being dumped (using the filesystem	UUID, see
     xfs(4) for	more details), to identify the dump session, and to identify
     each media	object.	 The inventory display (-I) includes all of these.

									Page 7

xfsdump(1M)							   xfsdump(1M)

   Dump	Level Usage
     The dump level mechanism provides a structured form of incremental	dumps.
     A dump of level level includes only files that have changed since the
     most recent dump at a level less than level.  For example,	the operator
     can establish a dump schedule that	involves a full	dump every Friday and
     a daily incremental dump containing only files that have changed since
     the previous dump.	 In this case Friday's dump would be at	level 0,
     Saturday's	at level 1, Sunday's at	level 2, and so	on, up to the Thursday
     dump at level 6.

     The above schedule	results	in a very tedious restore procedure to fully
     reconstruct the Thursday version of the filesystem; xfsrestore would need
     to	be fed all 7 dumps in sequence.	 A compromise schedule is to use level
     1 on Saturday, Monday, and	Wednesday, and level 2 on Sunday, Tuesday, and
     Thursday.	The Monday and Wednesday dumps would take longer, but the
     worst case	restore	requires the accumulation of just three	dumps, one
     each at level 0, level 1, and level 2.

   Quotas    [Toc]    [Back]
     If	the filesystem being dumped contains quotas, xfsdump will use
     repquota(1M) to store the quotas in a file	called xfsdump_quotas in the
     root of the filesystem to be dumped. This file will then be included in
     the dump.	Upon restoration, edquota(1M) can be used to reactivate	the
     quotas for	the filesystem.	 Note, however,	that the xfsdump_quotas	file
     will probably require modification	to change the filesystem or UIDs if
     the filesystem has	been restored to a different partition or system.

   Miniroot Restrictions    [Toc]    [Back]
     xfsdump is	subject	to the following restrictions when operated in the
     miniroot environment:  non-restartable, no	incrementals, no online
     inventory,	synchronous I/O, no quotas.

   Trusted IRIX	Restrictions
     In	the Trusted IRIX environment, xfsdump must be run at the dbadmin label
     and with the following set	of capabilities:  CAP_DAC_READ_SEARCH ,

     Also, the following directories and files must be labeled as dbadmin :

     For example, run xfsdump using suattr command.

	  # suattr -M dbadmin -C "CAP_MAC_READ,	CAP_DEVICE_MGT,\
	    CAP_DAC_READ_SEARCH+ep" -c "xfsdump	..."

     If	quotas are enabled, xfsdump also needs the CAP_QUOTA_MGT capability.

   Clustered Filesystems    [Toc]    [Back]
     In	a clustered environment, a CXFS	filesystem may be directly accessed
     simultaneously by many client nodes and a metadata	server node.  However,
     it	is a restriction of xfsdump that it may	only be	run on a filesystem's

									Page 8

xfsdump(1M)							   xfsdump(1M)

     metadata server.  With failover or	simply server reassignment, a
     filesystem	may, over time,	have a number of metadata servers.  Therefore,
     in	order for xfsdump to maintain a	consistent inventory, it must access
     the inventory for past dumps, even	if this	information is located on
     another node.  It is recommended that the inventory be made accessible by
     all nodes in the cluster using one	of the following methods:

     Relocate the inventory to a shared	filesystem, for	example:

     - On the node currently containing	the inventory:

	  # cp -r /var/xfsdump /shared_filesystem
	  # mv /var/xfsdump /var/xfsdump.bak
	  # ln -s ../shared_filesystem /var/xfsdump

     - On all other nodes in the cluster:

	  # mv /var/xfsdump /var/xfsdump.bak
	  # ln -s ../shared_filesystem /var/xfsdump

     Export the	directory using	an NFS shared filesystem, for example:

     - On the node currently containing	the inventory, add /var/xfsdump	to
     /etc/exports and then enter the following:

	  # exportfs -a

     - On all other nodes in the cluster:

	  # mv /var/xfsdump /var/xfsdump.bak
	  # ln -s /hosts/hostname/var/xfsdump /var/xfsdump

     Note: It is the /var/xfsdump directory that should	be shared, rather than
	  the /var/xfsdump/inventory directory.	 If there are currently
	  inventories stored on	various	nodes, xfsinvutil(1M) can be used to
	  merge	them into a single common inventory, prior to sharing the
	  inventory among the cluster.

   Core	Files
     If	xfsdump	abnormally exits causing a core	dump, all its associated
     processes which dump core will have core file names with their extensions
     set to the	pids of	the processes. See prctl(2) and	PR_COREPID for further

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

     To	perform	a level	0, single stream dump of the root filesystem to	a
     locally mounted tape drive, prompting for session and media labels	when

	  # xfsdump -f /dev/tape /

									Page 9

xfsdump(1M)							   xfsdump(1M)

     To	specify	session	and media labels explicitly:

	  # xfsdump -L session_1 -M tape_0 -f /dev/tape	/

     To	perform	a dump to a remote tape	using the minimal rmt protocol and a
     set blocksize of 64k:

	  # xfsdump -m -b 65536	-f otherhost:/dev/tape /

     To	perform	a level	0, multi-stream	dump to	two locally mounted tape

	  # xfsdump -L session_2 -f /dev/rmt/tps4d6v -M	tape_1 \
		    -f /dev/rmt/tps5d6v	-M tape_2 /

     To	perform	a level	1 dump relative	to the last level 0 dump recorded in
     the inventory:

	  # xfsdump -l 1 -f /dev/tape /

     To	copy the contents of a filesystem to another directory (see

	  # xfsdump -J - / | xfsrestore	-J - /new

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     /var/xfsdump/inventory   dump inventory database

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     repquota(1M), rmt(1M), xfsinvutil(1M), xfsrestore(1M), attr_get(2),

DIAGNOSTICS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The exit code is 0	on normal completion, non-zero if an error occurs or
     the dump is terminated by the operator.

     For all verbosity levels greater than 0 (silent) the final	line of	the
     output shows the exit status of the dump. It is of	the form:

	  xfsdump: Dump	Status:	code

     Where code	takes one of the following values:  SUCCESS (normal
     completion), INTERRUPT (interrupted), QUIT	(media no longer usable),
     INCOMPLETE	(dump incomplete), FAULT (software error), and ERROR (resource
     error).  Every attempt will be made to keep both the syntax and the
     semantics of this log message unchanged in	future versions	of xfsdump.
     However, it may be	necessary to refine or expand the set of exit codes,
     or	their interpretation at	some point in the future.

								       Page 10

xfsdump(1M)							   xfsdump(1M)

     The message ``xfsdump: WARNING: unable to open directory: ino N: Invalid
     argument''	can occur with filesystems which are actively being modified
     while xfsdump is running.	This can happen	to either directory or regular
     file inodes - affected files will not end up in the dump, files below
     affected directories will be placed in the	orphanage directory by

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     xfsdump does not dump unmounted filesystems.

     The dump frequency	field of /etc/fstab is not supported.

     xfsdump uses the alert program only when a	media change is	required.

     xfsdump requires root privilege (except for inventory display).

     xfsdump can only dump XFS filesystems.

     The media format used by xfsdump can only be understood by	xfsrestore.

     xfsdump does not know how to manage CD-ROM	or other removable disk

     When the minimal rmt option is specified, xfsdump applies it to all
     remote tape destinations. The same	blocksize (specified by	the -b option)
     is	used for all these remote drives.

     xfsdump can become	confused when doing incremental	or resumed dumps if on
     the same machine you dump two XFS filesystems and both filesystems	have
     the same filesystem identifier (UUID).  Since xfsdump uses	the filesystem
     identifier	to identify filesystems, xfsdump maintains one combined	set of
     dump inventories for both filesystems instead of two sets of dump
     inventories.  This	scenario can happen only if dd or some other blockby-block
 copy program was used to make a copy of an XFS filesystem.  See
     xfs_copy(1M) and xfs(4) for more details.

								       PPPPaaaaggggeeee 11111111
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