*nix Documentation Project
·  Home
 +   man pages
·  Linux HOWTOs
·  FreeBSD Tips
·  *niX Forums

  man pages->IRIX man pages -> exstr (1)              


exstr(1)							      exstr(1)

NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     exstr - extract strings from source files

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     exstr file...
     exstr -e file...
     exstr -r [-d] file...

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The exstr utility is used to extract strings from C language source files
     and replace them by calls to the message retrieval	function [see
     gettxt(3C)].  This	utility	will extract all character strings surrounded
     by	double quotes, not just	strings	used as	arguments to the printf
     command or	the printf routine.  In	the first form,	exstr finds all
     strings in	the source files and writes them on the	standard output.  Each
     string is preceded	by the source file name	and a colon.  The meanings of
     the options are:

     -e	     Extract a list of strings from the	named C	language source	files,
	     with positional information.  This	list is	produced on standard
	     output in the following format:


		 file	   the name of a C language source file
		 line	   line	number in the file
		 position  character position in the line
		 msgfile   null
		 msgnum	   null
		 string	   the extracted text string

	     Normally you would	redirect this output into a file.  Then	you
	     would edit	this file to add the values you	want to	use for
	     msgfile and msgnum:

		 msgfile   the file that contains the text strings that	will
			   replace string.  A file with	this name must be
			   created and installed in the	appropriate place by
			   the mkmsgs(1) utility.

		 msgnum	   the sequence	number of the string in	msgfile.

	     The next step is to use exstr -r to replace strings in file.

     -r	     Replace strings in	a C language source file with function calls
	     to	the message retrieval function gettxt.

     -d	     This option is used together with the -r option.  If the message
	     retrieval fails when gettxt is invoked at run time, then the
	     extracted string is printed.

									Page 1

exstr(1)							      exstr(1)

     You would use the capability provided by exstr on an application program
     that needs	to run in an international environment and have	messages print
     in	more than one language.	 exstr replaces	text strings with function
     calls that	point at strings in a message database.	 The database used
     depends on	the runtime value of the LC_MESSAGES environment variable [see

     The first step is to use exstr -e to extract a list of strings and	save
     it	in a file.  Next, examine this list and	determine which	strings	can be
     translated	and subsequently retrieved by the message retrieval function.
     Then, modify this file by deleting	lines that can't be translated and,
     for lines that can	be translated, by adding the message file names	and
     the message numbers as the	fourth (msgfile) and fifth (msgnum) entries on
     a line.  The message files	named must have	been created by	mkmsgs(1) and
     exist in /usr/lib/locale/locale<b>/LC_MESSAGES.  The directory locale
     corresponds to the	language in which the text strings are written [see
     setlocale(3C)].  The message numbers used must correspond to the sequence
     numbers of	strings	in the message files.

     Now use this modified file	as input to exstr -r to	produce	a new version
     of	the original C language	source file in which the strings have been
     replaced by calls to the message retrieval	function gettxt.  The msgfile
     and msgnum	fields are used	to construct the first argument	to gettxt.
     The second	argument to gettxt is printed if the message retrieval fails
     at	run time.  This	argument is the	null string, unless the	-d option is

     This utility cannot replace strings in all	instances. For example,	a
     static initialized	character string cannot	be replaced by a function
     call, or a	string could be	in the form of an escape sequence that cannot
     be	translated.  In	order not to break existing code, the files created by
     invoking exstr -e must be examined	and lines containing strings not
     replaceable by function calls must	be deleted. In some cases the code may
     require modifications so that strings can be extracted and	replaced by
     calls to the message retrieval function.

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

     The following examples show uses of exstr.

     Assume that the file foo.c	contains two strings:

	       printf("This is an example\n");
	       printf("Hello world!\n");

     The exstr utility,	invoked	with the argument foo.c, extracts strings from
     the named file and	prints them on the standard output.

									Page 2

exstr(1)							      exstr(1)

     exstr foo.c produces the following	output:

	  foo.c:This is	an example\n
	  foo.c:Hello world!\n

     exstr -e foo.c > foo.stringsout produces the following output in the file

	  foo.c:3:8:::This is an example\n
	  foo.c:4:8:::Hello world!\n

     You must edit foo.stringsout to add the values you	want to	use for	the
     msgfile and msgnum	fields before these strings can	be replaced by calls
     to	the retrieval function.	 If UX is the name of the message file,	and
     the numbers 1 and 2 represent the sequence	number of the strings in the
     file, here	is what	foo.stringsout looks like after	you add	this

	  foo.c:3:8:UX:1:This is an example\n
	  foo.c:4:8:UX:2:Hello world!\n

     The exstr utility can now be invoked with the -r option to	replace	the
     strings in	the source file	by calls to the	message	retrieval function

     exstr -r foo.c <foo.stringsout >intlfoo.c produces	the following output:

	  extern char *gettxt();
	       printf(gettxt("UX:1", ""));
	       printf(gettxt("UX:2", ""));

     exstr -rd foo.c <foo.stringsout >intlfoo.c	uses the extracted strings as
     a second argument to gettxt.

	  extern char *gettxt();
	       printf(gettxt("UX:1", "This is an example\n"));
	       printf(gettxt("UX:2", "Hello world!\n"));

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

			      files created by mkmsgs(1)

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     gettxt(1),	mkmsgs(1), printf(1), srchtxt(1), gettxt(3C), printf(3S),
     setlocale(3C), environ(5).

									Page 3

exstr(1)							      exstr(1)

DIAGNOSTICS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The error messages	produced by exstr are intended to be self-explanatory.
     They indicate errors in the command line or format	errors encountered
     within the	input file.

									PPPPaaaaggggeeee 4444
[ Back ]
 Similar pages
Name OS Title
xstr OpenBSD extract strings from C programs to implement shared strings
xstr IRIX extract strings from C programs to implement shared strings
xstr NetBSD extract strings from C programs to implement shared strings
xstr FreeBSD extract strings from C programs to implement shared strings
xstr HP-UX extract strings from C programs to implement shared strings
mkstr HP-UX extract error messages from C source into a file
strtok Linux extract tokens from strings
strain IRIX extract errors from build log files.
tcpslice FreeBSD extract pieces of and/or glue together tcpdump files
xgettext Linux extract translatable string from given input files
Copyright © 2004-2005 DeniX Solutions SRL
newsletter delivery service