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 ypfiles(4)                                                       ypfiles(4)

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      ypfiles - Network Information Service database and directory structure

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
                The Network Information Service (NIS) was formerly known as
                Yellow Pages (yp).  Although the name has changed, the
                functionality of the service remains the same.

      The Network Information Service (NIS) network lookup service uses
      databases in the directory hierarchy under /var/yp.  These databases
      exist only on machines that act as NIS servers.  A database consists
      of two files created by makedbm (see makedbm(1M)).  One has the
      filename extension .pag and the other has the filename extension .dir.
      For example, the database named netgroup is implemented by the pair of
      files netgroup.pag and netgroup.dir.  A database served by the NIS is
      called an NIS map.

      An NIS domain is a named set of Network Information Service maps.
      Each NIS domain is implemented as a subdirectory of /var/yp (whose
      name is the domain name) and contains the maps for that domain.  Any
      number of NIS domains can exist, and each can contain any number of

      Besides the databases contained in /var/yp/domain, master NIS servers
      have files named general_NIS_mapname.time that reside there, too.
      These files are merely empty files whose times of last modification
      are compared with those of the ASCII files from which the maps are
      built.  The ypmake script performs these comparisons to determine
      whether the maps are current (see ypmake(1M)).  The
      general_NIS_mapname designation is described further in the FILES
      section below.

      The NIS lookup service does not require maps, although maps may be
      required for the normal operation of other parts of the system.  The
      list of maps an NIS server provides access to is neither restricted
      nor must it be all-inclusive.  If a map exists in a given domain and a
      client asks about it, the NIS serves it.  For a map to be consistently
      accessible, it must exist on all NIS servers that serve the domain.
      To provide data uniformity between the replicated maps, make an entry
      to run ypxfr periodically in root's crontab file on each server (see
      ypxfr(1M) and crontab(1)).  More information on this topic is in
      yppush(1M) and ypxfr(1M).

      NIS maps contain two special key-value pairs.  The first key,
      NIS_LAST_MODIFIED, has a 10-character (ASCII) order number as a value.
      The order number is the time() in seconds when the map was built (see
      time(2)).  The second key is NIS_MASTER_NAME, whose value is the host
      name of the map's master NIS server.  The makedbm command generates
      both key-value pairs automatically.  The ypxfr command uses these
      values when it transfers a map from one NIS server to another.

 Hewlett-Packard Company            - 1 -   HP-UX 11i Version 2: August 2003

 ypfiles(4)                                                       ypfiles(4)

      Generate and modify NIS maps only on the master server.  They are
      copied to the slaves using ypxfr to avoid potential byte-ordering
      problems among NIS servers running on machines with different
      architectures, and to minimize the disk space required for the
      databases (see ypxfr(1M)).  NIS databases can be created initially for
      both masters and slaves by using ypinit (see ypinit(1M)).

      After servers' databases are created, the contents of some maps will
      change.  Generally, an ASCII source version of each database exists on
      the master, and is changed with a text editor.  The NIS map is rebuilt
      to include the changes, and propagated from the master to the slaves
      by running the ypmake shell script (see ypmake(1M)).

      All standard NIS maps are built by commands contained in the ypmake
      script or the NIS Makefile. If you add a non-standard NIS map, edit
      the ypmake script or Makefile to support the new map (standard NIS
      maps are discussed under FILES below).  ypmake and Makefile use
      makedbm to generate the NIS maps on the master and may run yppush to
      copy the rebuilt maps to the slaves (see yppush(1M)).  The yppush
      command reads the map named ypservers that contains the host names of
      all NIS servers for the specific domain.  For more information, see
      ypmake(1M), yppush(1M), and ypxfr(1M).

 DEPENDENCIES    [Toc]    [Back]
      If /var/yp is in a file system that does not allow file names longer
      than 14 characters and you want to create a new non-standard map for
      the Network Information Service, its name must not exceed 10
      characters in length.  This rule exists because makedbm adds the 4-
      character suffixes .dir and .pag to any mapname.

      The following table describes the translation of standard NIS mapnames
      to shorter names for storage on a 14-character filename file system.
      The standard mapnames should be used by NIS clients on HP machines
      when making requests, regardless of which machine is the NIS server.

 Hewlett-Packard Company            - 2 -   HP-UX 11i Version 2: August 2003

 ypfiles(4)                                                       ypfiles(4)

                    Standard NIS Mapname   Abbreviated Mapname
                   |mail.aliases         |     mail.alias      |
                   |mail.byaddr          |     mail.byad       |
                   |ethers.byaddr        |     ether.byad      |
                   |ethers.byname        |     ether.byna      |
                   |group.bygid          |     group.bygi      |
                   |group.byname         |     group.byna      |
                   |                     |                     |
                   |hosts.byaddr         |     hosts.byad      |
                   |hosts.byname         |     hosts.byna      |
                   |netgroup             |     netgroup        |
                   |netgroup.byhost      |     netgr.byho      |
                   |netgroup.byuser      |     netgr.byus      |
                   |netid.byname         |     netid.byn       |
                   |networks.byaddr      |     netwk.byad      |
                   |networks.byname      |     netwk.byna      |
                   |passwd.byname        |     passw.byna      |
                   |passwd.byuid         |     passw.byui      |
                   |protocols.byname     |     proto.byna      |
                   |protocols.bynumber   |     proto.bynu      |
                   |publickey.byname     |     pbkey.byna      |
                   |rpc.byname           |     rpc.byna        |
                   |rpc.bynumber         |     rpc.bynu        |
                   |services.byname      |     servi.byna      |
                   |auto.master          |     auto.mast       |
                   |ypservers            |     ypservers       |

 AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]
      ypfiles was developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc.

 FILES    [Toc]    [Back]
      The following table presents information about the standard Network
      Information Service maps.

      The General NIS Mapname column lists names for sets of NIS maps; the
      sets include adjacent entries from the Standard NIS Mapname column.

      The ASCII Source column lists the ASCII files from which the maps are
      usually built on HP master NIS servers.  The ypmake script permits the
      source directory, or file in the case of the passwd maps, to vary.

      The Standard NIS Mapname column lists names by which maps are stored
      on NIS servers and referred to by NIS clients.

 Hewlett-Packard Company            - 3 -   HP-UX 11i Version 2: August 2003

 ypfiles(4)                                                       ypfiles(4)

              |General NIS |                  | Standard NIS       |
              |Mapname     | ASCII Source     | Mapname            |
              |aliases     | /etc/mail/aliase | mail.aliases       |
              |            |                  | mail.byaddr        |
              |ethers      |    *             | ethers.byaddr      |
              |            |                  | ethers.byname      |
              |group       | /etc/group       | group.byname       |
              |            |                  | group.bygid        |
              |hosts       | /etc/hosts       | hosts.byname       |
              |            |                  | hosts.byaddr       |
              |netgroup    | /etc/netgroup    | netgroup           |
              |            |                  | netgroup.byhost    |
              |            |                  | netgroup.byuser    |
              |netid       | /etc/netid       | netid.byname       |
              |networks    | /etc/networks    | network.byaddr     |
              |            |                  | network.byname     |
              |passwd      | /etc/passwd      | passwd.byname      |
              |            |                  | passwd.byuid       |
              |protocols   | /etc/protocols   | protocols.byname   |
              |            |                  | protocols.bynumber |
              |publickey   | /etc/publickey   | publickey.byname   |
              |rpc         | /etc/rpc         | rpc.byname         |
              |            |                  | rcp.bynumber       |
              |services    | /etc/services    | servi.bynp         |
              |            |                  | services.byname    |
              |automounter | /etc/auto_master | auto.master        |
              |ypservers   |    ***           | ypservers          |

           *    These databases are not built on HP master Network
                Information Service servers.  However, if an HP machine is a
                slave to a master NIS server that creates and distributes
                these databases, the HP slave NIS server will store these
                databases.  It is suggested that if you have a non-HP
                machine that requires these maps, make that machine the
                master NIS server.  By doing this, the maps should be built
                as needed.

           ***  No ASCII source exists for the ypservers database.  It is
                created from responses provided by the user of ypinit on the
                master NIS server, and it has no matching ypservers.time

 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      domainname(1), makedbm(1M), rpcinfo(1M), ypinit(1M), ypmake(1M),
      yppoll(1M), yppush(1M), ypserv(1M), ypxfr(1M).

 Hewlett-Packard Company            - 4 -   HP-UX 11i Version 2: August 2003
[ Back ]
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