NAME [Toc] [Back]
shutdown - shut down a socket
SYNOPSIS [Toc] [Back]
int shutdown(int s, int how);
DESCRIPTION [Toc] [Back]
The shutdown() system call is used to shut down a socket. In the case
of a full-duplex connection, shutdown() can be used to either
partially or fully shut down the socket, depending upon the value of
SHUT_RD or 0 Further receives are disallowed
SHUT_WR or 1 Further sends are disallowed
SHUT_RDWR or 2 Further sends and receives are disallowed
The s parameter is a socket descriptor for the socket to be shut down.
Once the socket has been shut down for receives, all further recv()
calls return an end-of-file condition. A socket that has been shut
down for sending causes further send() calls to return an [EPIPE]
error and send the SIGPIPE signal. After a socket has been fully shut
down, operations other than recv() and send() return appropriate
errors, and the only other thing that can be done to the socket is a
Multiple shutdowns on a connected socket and shutdowns on a socket
that is not connected may not return errors.
A shutdown() on a connectionless socket, such as SOCK_DGRAM, only
marks the socket as unable to do further send() or recv() calls,
depending upon the value of how. Once this type of socket has been
disabled for both sending and receiving data, it becomes fully shut
down. For SOCK_STREAM sockets, if how is 1 or 2, the connection
begins to be closed gracefully in addition to the normal actions.
However, the shutdown() call does not wait for the completion of the
graceful disconnection. The disconnection is complete when both sides
of the connection have done a shutdown() with how equal to 1 or 2.
Once the connection has been completely terminated, the socket becomes
fully shut down. The SO_LINGER option (see socket(2)) does not have
any meaning for the shutdown() call, but does for the close() call.
For more information on how the close() call interacts with sockets,
If a shutdown() is performed on a SOCK_STREAM socket that has a
listen() pending on it, that socket becomes fully shut down when how =
Hewlett-Packard Company - 1 - HP-UX 11i Version 2: August 2003
The how parameter behaves differently if the socket is of the AF_CCITT
address family. If how is set to 0 the specified socket can no longer
receive data. The SVC is not cleared and remains intact. However, if
data is subsequently received on the SVC, it is cleared. The
connection is not completely down until either side executes a close()
or shutdown() with how set to 1 or 2.
If how is set to 1 or 2, the SVC can no longer send or receive data
and the SVC is cleared. The socket's resources are maintained so that
data arriving prior to the shutdown() call can still be read.
RETURN VALUE [Toc] [Back]
Upon successful completion, shutdown() returns 0; otherwise it returns
-1 and errno is set to indicate the error.
ERRORS [Toc] [Back]
shutdown() fails if any of the following conditions are encountered:
[EBADF] s is not a valid file descriptor.
[ENOPROTOOPT] The remote system or an intermediate system in
the communications path does not support a
protocol option sent by the local system. This
option may have been set using a getsockopt or
setsockopt() call, or set as a system parameter.
[ENOTSOCK] s is a valid file descriptor, but it is not a
[EINVAL] HP-UX BSD Sockets only. The specified socket is
[ENOTCONN] _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED only. The specified
socket is not connected.
[EINVAL] _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED only. The how argument
FUTURE DIRECTION [Toc] [Back]
Currently, the default behavior is the HP-UX BSD Sockets; however, it
might be changed to X/Open Sockets in a future release. At that time,
any HP-UX BSD Sockets behavior that is incompatible with X/Open
Sockets might be obsoleted. Applications that conform to the X/Open
specification now will avoid migration problems (see
AUTHOR [Toc] [Back]
shutdown() was developed by HP and the University of California,
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SEE ALSO [Toc] [Back]
close(2), connect(2), socket(2), xopen_networking(7).
STANDARDS CONFORMANCE [Toc] [Back]
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