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 gprof(1)                                                           gprof(1)

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      gprof - display call graph profile data

 SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]
      gprof [options] [a.out [gmon.out...]]

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      The gprof command produces an execution profile of C++, C and FORTRAN
      programs.  The effect of called routines is incorporated into the
      profile of each caller.  Profile data is taken from the call graph
      profile file (gmon.out default) that is created by programs compiled
      with the -G option of aCC, cc, and f90.  The -G option also links in
      versions of the library routines that are compiled for profiling.

      On Itanium(R)-based systems, gprof supports multiple shared libraries
      profiling.  On PA-RISC systems, gprof supports single shared library
      profiling.  For details on this see the section below, Shared Library

      The symbol table for the load modules being profiled are read and
      correlated with the call graph profile file (gmon.out).  To have the
      full call graph, no load module symbol table may be chopped; that is,
      no compiles may use the -x option.  If more than one profile file is
      specified, gprof output shows the sum of the profile information in
      the given profile files.

      First, a flat profile is given, similar to that provided by prof (see
      prof(1)).  This listing gives the total execution times and call
      counts for each function in the load modules being profiled, sorted by
      decreasing time.  On Itanium-based systems, the module index is also
      reported for each function signifying the load module in which the
      function is defined.

      Next, these times are propagated along the edges of the call graph.
      gprof discovers all cycles in the call graph.  All calls made into the
      cycle share the time of that cycle.  A second listing shows the
      functions sorted according to the time they represent including the
      time of their call graph descendants.  Below each function entry is
      shown its (direct) call graph children, and how their times are
      propagated to this function.  A similar display above the function
      shows how the time of this function and the time of its descendants
      are propagated to its (direct) call graph parents.

      Cycles are also shown, with an entry for the cycle as a whole and a
      listing of the members of the cycle, each with their contributions to
      the time and call counts of the cycle.

      On Itanium-based systems, in the end a mapping of all module indices
      to module names is given.  The modules not being profiled are reported
      at the top of output.

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 gprof(1)                                                           gprof(1)

    Shared Library Profiling    [Toc]    [Back]
      Support for gprof profiling of shared libraries is available both on
      32-bit and 64-bit Itanium-based systems.  On PA-RISC systems only 32-
      bit shared library profiling is supported.

      On Itanium-based systems    [Toc]    [Back]

           The environment variable LD_PROFILE determines what load modules
           get profiled.  Set LD_PROFILE=ALL to profile all load modules;
           that is, report timing and call count information for all
           loadable modules, including a.out.  Set LD_PROFILE=ldm1:ldm2 to
           profile only loadable modules ldm1 and ldm2.  ldm1 and ldm2 are
           not full pathnames; they are the names recorded in the
           executables, which can be displayed using chatr(1).  If
           LD_PROFILE is not set, gprof behaves as though LD_PROFILE=ALL.

           The environment variable LD_PROFILEBUCKET_SIZE controls the size
           of profiling counters.  The acceptable value for this variable is
           16 or 32.  Counter size can also be specified at compile time
           using the +profilebucketsize option.  The runtime value overrides
           the compile time value.  A warning is issued if the counter size
           is set to a value other than 16 or 32; in this case the value
           specified at compile time is used.  The default value of the
           counter is 16, which is used if a valid value is not specified.
           See the description of the +profilebucketsize option in cc(1) for
           more details.

           At program termination the gprof library dumps all profiling
           information on a per-module basis in gmon.out, which the gprof
           command reads and matches to corresponding functions in the load

      On PA-RISC systems    [Toc]    [Back]

           To profile a shared library, set the environment variable
           LD_PROFILE to the path of the shared library to be profiled.
           (See HP-UX Linker and Libraries Online User's Guide for details.)
           Do not use the -G option to compile programs for shared library
           profiling.  Do not link the executable gcrt0.o or mcrt0.o.  This
           turns on profiling of a.out, which is not compatible with
           profiling of shared libraries.  You can either profile your
           executable or a shared library, but not both.

           Set LD_PROFILE to the exact string with which you call shl_load.
           If the library is implicitly loaded, LD_PROFILE must match the
           path encoded in the a.out.  You can find this value by running
           the ldd command on the executable.

           At the termination of the program, a profile file with the name
           of the shared library prepended to it is generated by a run-time
           library.  To get the complete listing, provide the gprof command

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 gprof(1)                                                           gprof(1)

           with names of the shared library and the profile file for the
           shared library as arguments.

    Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      The gprof command recognizes the following options:

           -a             Suppress printing statically declared functions.
                          If this option is given, all relevant information
                          about the static function (such as time samples,
                          calls to other functions, and calls from other
                          functions) belongs to the function loaded just
                          before the static function in the a.out file.

           -b             Suppress printing a description of each field in
                          the profile.

           -e name        Suppress printing the graph profile entry for
                          routine name and all its descendants (unless they
                          have other ancestors that are not suppressed).
                          More than one -e option can be given.  Only one
                          name can be given with each -e option.

           -E name        Suppress printing the graph profile entry for
                          routine name (and its descendants) as -e above,
                          and also exclude the time spent in name (and its
                          descendants) from the total and percentage time
                          computations.  -E mcount -E mcleanup is the

           -f name        Print only the graph profile entry of the
                          specified routine name and its descendants.  More
                          than one -f option can be given.  Only one name
                          can be given with each -f option.

           -F name        Print only the graph profile entry of the routine
                          name and its descendants (as -f above) and also
                          use only the times of the printed routines in
                          total time and percentage computations.  More than
                          one -F option can be given.  Only one name can be
                          given with each -F option.  The -F option
                          overrides the -E option.

           -p             Produce just the flat profile output exactly
                          similar to one given by prof (see prof(1)).

           -s             Produce a profile file gmon.sum that represents
                          the sum of the profile information in all
                          specified profile files.  This summary profile
                          file can be given to subsequent executions of
                          gprof (probably also with a -s option) to
                          accumulate profile data across several runs of an

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 gprof(1)                                                           gprof(1)

                          a.out file.  LD_PROFILE should be set to the same
                          string for all the runs.

           -t             Produce just the static output in gprof.  This is
                          used for testing purposes.  It eliminates all the
                          timing information from normal gprof output and
                          reports only the call count part.

           -z             Display routines that have zero usage (as
                          indicated by call counts and accumulated time).

      The environment variable GPROFDIR controls the name of the file
      created by a profiled program.  If GPROFDIR is not set, gmon.out is
      produced in the current directory when the program terminates.  If
      GPROFDIR=string, string/pid.progname is produced, where progname is
      argv[0] with any path prefix removed, and pid is the program's process
      ID.  If GPROFDIR is set to a null string, no profiling output is

    Environment Variables
      LD_PROFILE               determines the modules to be profiled.

      LD_PROFILEBUCKET_SIZE    controls the size of profiling counters.

      GPROFDIR                 controls the path and name of the file
                               created by a profiled program.

 EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]
      To profile a.out and libtest.so on Itanium-based systems:

           $ cat > test.c
           void a()
                   printf("I in a\n");

           $ cc -c +Z -G test.c
           $ ld -b -o libtest.so.1 test.o
           $ ln -s ./libtest.so.1 libtest.so
           $ cat > main.c
           extern void a();
                   printf("Hello world\n");

           $ cc -G main.c  -L. -ltest
           $ export LD_PROFILE=a.out:libtest.so
           $ export LD_PROFILEBUCKET_SIZE=16

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 gprof(1)                                                           gprof(1)

           $ ./a.out
           hello world
           I in a

           $ unset LD_PROFILE
           $ unset LD_PROFILEBUCKET_SIZE
           $ ls gmon.out

           $ gprof

      To profile libc.sl on PA-RISC systems:

           $ cat > test.c
                   printf("hello world\n");

           $ cc test.c -lc
           $ ldd a.out
                   /usr/lib/libc.2 =>      /usr/lib/libc.2
                   /usr/lib/libdld.2 =>    /usr/lib/libdld.2
                   /usr/lib/libc.2 =>      /usr/lib/libc.2

           $ export LD_PROFILE=/usr/lib/libc.2
           $ ./a.out
           hello world

           $ unset LD_PROFILE
           $ ls libc.2.profile

           $ gprof /usr/lib/libc.2 libc.2.profile

 WARNINGS    [Toc]    [Back]
      Beware of quantization errors.  The granularity of the sampling is
      shown, but remains statistical at best.  It is assumed that the time
      for each execution of a function can be expressed by the total time
      for the function, divided by the number of times the function is
      called.  Thus the time propagated along the call graph arcs to parents
      of that function is directly proportional to the number of times that
      arc is traversed.

      Parents that are not profiled have the time of their profiled children
      propagated to them, but they appear to be spontaneously invoked in the
      call graph listing, and do not have their time propagated further.
      Similarly, signal catchers, even though profiled, appear to be
      spontaneous (although for more obscure reasons).  Any profiled
      children of signal catchers should have their times propagated
      properly unless the signal catcher was invoked during the execution of

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 gprof(1)                                                           gprof(1)

      the profiling routine, in which case all is lost.

      The following limitations exist for gprof shared library profiling on
      PA-RISC systems:

      +    Local, static, and hidden functions are not profiled.

      +    Shared libraries built with -B symbolic are not profiled.

      +    Any function calls made from library initializers are not

 DEPENDENCIES    [Toc]    [Back]
      gprof cannot be used with dynamically linked executables (built with
      ld -A in pre-HP-UX 10.20 releases).

 AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]
      gprof was developed by the University of California, Berkeley.

 FILES    [Toc]    [Back]
      a.out*                             Default object file.
      gmon.out*                          Default dynamic call graph and
      gmon.sum*                          Summarized dynamic call graph and
      /usr/lib/gprof.callg*              Call graph description.
      /usr/lib/gprof.flat*               Flat profile description.
      /usr/lib/hpux32/libgprof.so        gprof 32-bit shared library on
                                         Itanium-based systems.
      /usr/lib/hpux64/libgprof.so        gprof 64-bit shared library on
                                         Itanium-based systems.
      /usr/lib/libgprof32.sl             gprof 32-bit shared library on PARISC
      /usr/lib/pa20_64/libgprof.sl       gprof 64-bit shared library on PARISC

 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      aCC(1), cc(1), cc_bundled(1), f90(1), ld(1), prof(1), exit(2),
      profil(2), sprofil(2), monitor(3C), smonitor(3C), crt0(3).

      gprof: A Call Graph Execution Profiler; Graham, S.L., Kessler, P.B.,
      McKusick, M.K.

      Proceedings of the SIGPLAN '82 Symposium on Compiler Construction;
      SIGPLAN Notices; Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 120-126, June 1982.

      HP-UX Linker and Libraries Online User's Guide (See the ld +help

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