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 dig(1M)                                                             dig(1M)

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      dig - domain information groper

 SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]
      dig [@server] [options] domain [query-type] [query-class]

      dig [@global-server] [global-d-options] domain [@server] [options] [q-
           options] [q-type] [q-class] [domain [@server ][options] [q-
           options] [q-type] [q-class] [...]]

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      dig (domain information groper) is a flexible tool for interrogating
      Domain Name System (DNS) servers.  It performs DNS lookups and
      displays the answers that are returned from the name server(s) that
      were queried.  Most DNS administrators use dig to troubleshoot DNS
      problems because of its flexibility, ease of use, and clarity of
      output.  The dig command has two modes: simple command-line mode for
      single or multiple queries and batch mode for reading lookup requests
      from a file.

    Arguments    [Toc]    [Back]
      dig accepts the following arguments:

      @server   Specifies the DNS server that is queried in each query.  If
                a specific name server is not provided, dig will try each of
                the servers listed in /etc/resolv.conf.

                Specifies the name of the server that is used in multiple
                queries to provide a single server for all the queries.

      domain    Specifies the domain name to look up.

                Specifies the resource record types for DNS queries and
                responses.  The textual representation is used in master
                files.  The binary representation is used in DNS queries and
                responses.  The resource record types are:

                a         a host address (dotted quad).  This is the default
                          value for query-type.

                AAAA      resource record type for IPv6 queries.

                any       request data of any type for a name.

                axfr      a request for a transfer of an entire zone.

                hinfo     host information.

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 dig(1M)                                                             dig(1M)

                mx        a mail exchange.

                ns        an authoritative name server.

                soa       marks the start of a zone of authority.

                txt       text strings.

                Ensure that you use ixfr=version for type ixfr.  ixfr
                transfers only the incremental/changed data to the slave
                servers when the data in the master server changes.

                Classes are the fields that appear in resource records.  The
                values defined for a class are: IN (Internet), CS (CSNET),
                CH (CHAOS), and HS (Hesiod).  The default value for query-
                class is IN.

                Query options affect the way in which lookups are made and
                how the results are displayed.  Each query option is
                identified by a keyword preceded by a +[no] See the "Query
                Options" subsection below for details.

                Global domain query options control the lookup and display
                of results for multiple queries and affect all queries.
                Note that query options set globally can be overwritten by
                query options set for each individual query.


                -b   This option is used to set the source IP address of the
                     query to address.  This must be a valid address on one
                     of the host's network interfaces.

                -f   This option is used to perform batch processing.  It
                     allows to group queries into one file and to pass this
                     file to dig for processing.  Example: dig -f
                     /home/bind/some-file, where some-file contains all the
                     queries that need to be processed as a group.

                -k   This option is used to sign the DNS queries sent by dig
                     and their responses using transaction signatures

                -p   This option can be used when you want to specify a
                     different port for dig to contact the name-server for
                     its queries.

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 dig(1M)                                                             dig(1M)

                -x   This option allows queries using an IP address instead
                     of a domain name.  This option cannot be used with IPv6

                -y   This option is used to specify the TSIG key on the
                     command line.

                -t & -c
                     The -t (type) and -c (class) option.  Equivalent to
                     query-type and query-class.

                -h   Displays usage information of the dig command.

      A typical dig command is:

           dig @server domain query-type

      where @server is the name or IP address of the name server, which is
      to be queried.  An IPv4 address can be provided in a dotted-decimal
      notation, xxx.xxx.xxx.  dig resolves the host name before querying
      that name server.  If no argument is provided, dig consults
      /etc/resolv.conf and queries the name servers listed there.  The reply
      from the name server that responds to the query is displayed.

      domain is the name of the resource record, which is to be looked up.

      query-type indicates the required query type ie., ANY, A, MX, SIG etc.
      It can be any valid query type.  The dig command will perform a lookup
      for an A record if no query-type argument is specified.

    Query Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      dig uses a number of query options to affect lookups and to affect the
      results that are displayed.  Some options set or reset flag bits in
      the query header, some options determine which sections of the answer
      get displayed, and other options determine the timeout and retry

      Each query option is identified by a keyword preceded by +[no] which
      causes an option to be set or reset or to negate the meaning of that
      keyword.  Other keywords assign values to options like the timeout
      interval.  They have the form +keyword=value.  The query options are:

      +[no]tcp  Use [or do not use] TCP when querying name servers.  The
                default behavior is to use UDP unless an AXFR or IXFR query
                is requested, in which case a TCP connection is used.

      +[no]vc   Use [or do not use] virtual circuit when querying name
                servers.  This alternate syntax to +[no]tcp is provided for
                backwards compatibility.

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 dig(1M)                                                             dig(1M)

                Ignore [or do not ignore] truncation in UDP responses
                instead of retrying with TCP.  By default, TCP retries are

                Set the default domain to somename as it is specified in a
                directive in the /etc/resolv.conf file.

                Use [or do not use] the search list in /etc/resolv.conf (if
                any).  The search list is not used by default.

                Use [or do not use] the default domain name, if any, in the
                /etc/resolv.conf file while making queries.  By default,
                this name is not appended to name while making queries.

                Authenticate [or do not authenticate] the client when it
                queries a server.  If this option is set, whenever a client
                tries querying a server, the client will be subjected to an
                authentication check to make sure that the client has
                sufficient permissions to query the server.

                Set [or do not set] the AD (authenticate data) bit in the
                query.  The AD bit currently has a standard meaning only in
                responses and not in queries.  The ability to set the bit in
                the query is provided for completeness.

                Set [or do not set] the CD (checking disabled) bit in the
                query.  This requests the server not to perform DNSSEC
                validation of responses.

                Set [or do not set] the RD (recursion desired) bit in the
                query.  This bit is set by default, which means dig normally
                sends recursive queries.  Recursion is automatically
                disabled when the +nssearch or +trace query options are

                Attempt [or do not attempt] to find the authoritative name
                servers for the zone containing the name being looked up and
                display the SOA record that each name server has for the

                Trace [or do not trace] the delegation path from the root

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 dig(1M)                                                             dig(1M)

                name servers for the name being looked up.  Tracing is
                disabled by default. When tracing is enabled, dig makes
                iterative queries to resolve the name that is being looked
                up.  It will follow referrals from the root servers, showing
                the answer from each server that was used to resolve the

      +[no]cmd  +[no]comment dig and the query options that have been
                applied.  The comment is included in the answer section by

                Display [or do not display] a short answer.  The query
                results can be displayed in two forms: Complete and Short
                answers.  In the short form, only the result will be
                displayed whereas in the complete form, additional
                information (like info about other servers that might answer
                your query) is also included.  By default, the answer is
                printed in a verbose form.

                Show [or do not show] the IP address and port number that
                supplied the answer when the +short option is enabled.  If
                short form answers are requested, source address and port
                number of the server that provided the answer are not shown
                by default.

                Display [or do not display] comment lines in the output.  By
                default, the comments are printed.

                Print [or do not print] statistics such as the size of the
                reply when the query was made.  By default, the query
                characteristics are printed.

      +[no]qr   Print [or do not print] the query before actually sending
                the query.  By default, the query is not printed.

                Print [or do not print] the question section of a query when
                an answer is returned.  By default, the question section is
                printed as a comment.

                Display [or do not display] the answer section of a reply.
                By default, the answer section is printed.

                Display [or do not display] the authority section of a
                reply.  By default, the authority section is displayed.

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 dig(1M)                                                             dig(1M)

                Display [or do not display] the additional section of a
                reply.  By default, the additional section is displayed.

                Print records like the SOA records in a verbose multi-line
                format with human-readable comments. The default is to print
                each record on a single line, thereby facilitating machine
                parsing of the dig output.

      +[no]all  Set or clear all display flags.

      +time=T   Set the timeout for a query to T seconds.  The default
                timeout is 5 seconds, and 1 second is the minimum value to
                which T can be set.  Even if you try setting T to a value
                less than 1, T will be set to 1 second.

      +tries=A  This option sets the number of times to retry UDP queries to
                server to A instead of the default, 3.  If A is less than or
                equal to zero, then the number of retries is set to 1.

      +ndots=D  Set the number of dots that appear in hostname to D.  The
                default value is to use either the ndots statement in
                /etc/resolv.conf or 1 if no ndots statement is present.
                Names with fewer dots are interpreted as relative names and
                will be searched for, in the domains listed in the search or
                the domain directive in the /etc/resolv.conf file.

                Set the UDP message buffer size advertised using EDNS0 to B
                bytes.  The maximum and minimum sizes of this buffer are
                65535 and 0 respectively.  If the B size is specified
                outside of this range, then the size is rounded up or down

    Multiple Queries    [Toc]    [Back]
      dig allows multiple queries on the command line (in addition to
      supporting the -f batch file option).  Each of those queries can be
      supplied with its own set of options, query class, query type and
      query options.

      A global set of query options, which should be applied to all queries
      can also be supplied via global-d-options.

      These global query options must precede the first set of domain,
      class, type, options, and query options supplied on the command line.
      Any global query options can be overridden by a query-specific set of
      query options for each individual query.

      For example:

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 dig(1M)                                                             dig(1M)

           dig +qr www.bind.org any -x bind.org ns +noqr

      shows how dig can be used from the command line to make three lookups:

                www.bind.org any
                     An ANY query for domain name www.bind.org.

                     A reverse lookup of

                bind.org ns +noqr
                     A name server lookup for domain bind.org, suppressing
                     the query display for this query only (+noqr).

 EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]
      1.   To look up information about domain a.example.com using DNSServer asking for host address a records:

           /usr/bin/dig +tcp +noadd +nosea +nostat +noquest +nocmd -p 5300
           a.example.com @ a

      2.   To query a.example.com using DNS-Server without
           authentication, asking for a records:

           /usr/bin/dig +tcp +noadd +nosea +nostat +noquest +nocmd +noauth
           -p 5300  a.example.com @ a

      3.   To request a transfer:

           /usr/bin/dig +tcp +noadd +nosea +nostat +noquest +nocomm +nocmd
           example.com @ axfr -p 5300

      4.   To request a transfer with Transaction Signature (TSIG):

           /usr/bin/dig +tcp +noadd +nosea +nostat +noquest +nocomm +nocmd
           tsigzone.com @ axfr -y tsigzone.com:1234abcd8765 -p 5300
           where 1234abcd8765 is the key.

      To secure server-to-server communication BINDv9 primarily uses TSIG
      for zone transfer, notify, and recursive query messages.  TSIG is very
      useful for dynamic updates.

 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      dnssec-keygen(1), dnssec-makekeyset(1), dnssec-signkey(1), dnssecsignzone(1), host(1), nsupdate(1), hosts_to_named(1M), lwresd(1M),
      named(1M), gethostent(3N), hostname(5).

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