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 X(1)                           X Version 11                            X(1)
                                  Release 5

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      X - a portable, network-transparent window system

 SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]
      The X Window System is a network transparent window system developed at
      MIT which runs on a wide range of computing and graphics machines.  It
      should be relatively straightforward to build the MIT software
      distribution on most ANSI C and POSIX compliant systems.  Commercial
      implementations are also available for a wide range of platforms.

      The X Consortium requests that the following names be used when
      referring to this software:

                                  X Window System
                                   X Version 11
                            X Window System, Version 11

      X Window System is a trademark of the Massachusetts Institute of

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      X Window System servers run on computers with bitmap displays.  The
      server distributes user input to and accepts output requests from
      various client programs through a variety of different interprocess
      communication channels.  Although the most common case is for the
      client programs to be running on the same machine as the server,
      clients can be run transparently from other machines (including
      machines with different architectures and operating systems) as well.

      X supports overlapping hierarchical subwindows and text and graphics
      operations, on both monochrome and color displays.  For a full
      explanation of the functions that are available, see the Xlib - C
      Language X Interface manual, the X Window System Protocol
      specification, the X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language Interface manual,
      and various toolkit documents.

      The number of programs that use X is quite large.  Programs provided
      in the core MIT distribution include: a terminal emulator (xterm), a
      window manager (twm), a display manager (xdm), a console redirect
      program (xconsole), mail managing utilities (xmh and xbiff), a manual
      page browser (xman), a bitmap editor (bitmap), a resource editor
      (editres), a ditroff previewer (xditview), access control programs
      (xauth and xhost), user preference setting programs (xrdb, xcmsdb,
      xset, xsetroot, xstdcmap, and xmodmap), a load monitor (xload), clocks
      (xclock and oclock), a font displayer (xfd), utilities for listing
      information about fonts, windows, and displays (xlsfonts, xfontsel,
      xwininfo, xlsclients, xdpyinfo, and xprop), a diagnostic for seeing
      what events are generated and when (xev), screen image manipulation
      utilities (xwd, xwud, xpr, and xmag), and various demos (xeyes, ico,

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      xgc, x11perf, etc.).

      Hewlett-Packard provides a graphical user environment called The
      Common Desktop Environment (CDE).  CDE is the user interface, enabling
      the user to control a workstation by directly manipulating graphic
      objects instead of typing commands on a command-line prompt.  See the
      "CDE User's Guide" and "CDE Advanced User's and System Administrator's
      Guide" for more information on CDE.

      Hewlett-Packard does not provide or support the entire core MIT
      distribution.  Many of these programs or clients are sample
      implementations, or perform tasks that are accomplished by other
      clients in Hewlett-Packard's Visual User Environment.  The primary
      differences between the core MIT distribution and the Hewlett-Packard
      X11 release are listed below.  See appendix A in "Using the X Window
      System" for a complete list of the clients supplied and supported with
      Hewlett-Packard's X11 release.

      Terminal Emulation    [Toc]    [Back]
           hpterm is the primary terminal emulator.  xterm is also provided
           and supported.

      Window Management    [Toc]    [Back]
           twm is replaced by mwm and dtwm.

      Display Manager    [Toc]    [Back]
           xdm is replaced by an enhanced version called dtlogin.  terminal

      Bitmap Editing    [Toc]    [Back]
           bitmap is replaced by dticon.

      Font Display    [Toc]    [Back]
           Handled by the terminal emulation option  -fn override.  xfd is
           supplied but not supported.

      Demos    [Toc]    [Back]
           Obtained from the INTERWORKS users group.

      A number of unsupported core MIT clients and miscellaneous utilities
      are provided in /usr/contrib/bin.  In addition, the entire core MIT
      distribution, compiled for Hewlett-Packard platforms, can be obtained
      from HP's users group INTERWORKS for a nominal fee.  See the release
      notes for details.

      Many other utilities, window managers, games, toolkits, etc. are
      included as user-contributed software in the MIT distribution, or are
      available using anonymous ftp on the Internet.  See your site
      administrator for details.

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 STARTING UP    [Toc]    [Back]
      Normally, the X Window System is started on Hewlett-Packard systems by
      dtlogin, which is an enhanced version of the MIT client xdm.  If
      dtlogin is not used, xinit may be used with x11start.  See the man
      pages for these functions for more information.

 DISPLAY NAMES    [Toc]    [Back]
      From the user's perspective, every X server has a display name of the


      This information is used by the application to determine how it should
      connect to the server and which screen it should use by default (on
      displays with multiple monitors):

              The hostname specifies the name of the machine to which the
              display is physically connected.  If the hostname is not
              given, the most efficient way of communicating to a server on
              the same machine will be used.

              The phrase "display" is usually used to refer to the
              collection of monitors that share a common keyboard and
              pointer (mouse, tablet, etc.).  Most workstations tend to only
              have one keyboard, and therefore, only one display.  Larger,
              multi-user systems, however, will frequently have several
              displays so that more than one person can be doing graphics
              work at once.  To avoid confusion, each display on a machine
              is assigned a display number (beginning at 0) when the X
              server for that display is started.  The display number must
              always be given in a display name.

              Some displays share a single keyboard and pointer among two or
              more monitors.  Since each monitor has its own set of windows,
              each screen is assigned a screen number (beginning at 0) when
              the X server for that display is started.  If the screen
              number is not given, then screen 0 will be used.

      On POSIX systems, the default display name is stored in your DISPLAY
      environment variable.  This variable is set automatically by the xterm
      terminal emulator.  However, when you log into another machine on a
      network, you'll need to set DISPLAY by hand to point to your display.
      For example,

          % setenv DISPLAY myws:0
          $ DISPLAY=myws:0; export DISPLAY

      The xon script can be used to start an X program on a remote machine;

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      it automatically sets the DISPLAY variable correctly.

      Finally, most X programs accept a command line option of -display
      displayname to temporarily override the contents of DISPLAY.  This is
      most commonly used to pop windows on another person's screen or as
      part of a "remote shell" command to start an xterm pointing back to
      your display.  For example,

          % xload -display joesws:0 -geometry 100x100+0+0
          % rsh big xterm -display myws:0 -ls </dev/null &

      X servers listen for connections on a variety of different
      communications channels (network byte streams, shared memory, etc.).
      Since there can be more than one way of contacting a given server, The
      hostname part of the display name is used to determine the type of
      channel (also called a transport layer) to be used.  X servers
      generally support the following types of connections:

              The hostname part of the display name should be the empty
              string.  For example:  :0, :1, and :0.1.  The most efficient
              local transport is chosen.

              The hostname part of the display name should be the server
              machine's IP address name.  Full Internet names, abbreviated
              names, and IP addresses are all allowed.  For example:
              expo.lcs.mit.edu:0, expo:0,, bigmachine:1, and

 ACCESS CONTROL    [Toc]    [Back]
      An X server can use several types of access control.  Mechanisms
      provided in Release 5 are:
          Host Access                   Simple host-based access control.
          MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1            Shared plain-text "cookies".
          XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1           Secure DES based private-keys.
          SUN-DES-1                     Based on Sun's secure rpc system.

      dtlogin/Xdm initializes access control for the server, and also places
      authorization information in a file accessible to the user.  Normally,
      the list of hosts from which connections are always accepted should be
      empty, so that only clients with are explicitly authorized can connect
      to the display.  When you add entries to the host list (with xhost),
      the server no longer performs any authorization on connections from
      those machines.  Be careful with this.

      The file from which Xlib extracts authorization data can be specified
      with the environment variable XAUTHORITY, and defaults to the file
      .Xauthority in the home directory.  dtlogin/Xdm uses $HOME/.Xauthority
      and will create it or merge in authorization records if it already
      exists when a user logs in.

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      If you use several machines, and share a common home directory across
      all of the machines by means of a network file system, then you never
      really have to worry about authorization files, the system should work
      correctly by default.  Otherwise, as the authorization files are
      machine-independent, you can simply copy the files to share them.  To
      manage authorization files, use xauth.  This program allows you to
      extract records and insert them into other files.  Using this, you can
      send authorization to remote machines when you login, if the remote
      machine does not share a common home directory with your local
      machine.  Note that authorization information transmitted ``in the
      clear'' through a network file system or using ftp or rcp can be
      ``stolen'' by a network eavesdropper, and as such may enable
      unauthorized access.  In many environments this level of security is
      not a concern, but if it is, you need to know the exact semantics of
      the particular authorization data to know if this is actually a

      One of the advantages of using window systems instead of hardwired
      terminals is that applications don't have to be restricted to a
      particular size or location on the screen.  Although the layout of
      windows on a display is controlled by the window manager that the user
      is running (described below), most X programs accept a command line
      argument of the form -geometry WIDTHxHEIGHT+XOFF+YOFF (where WIDTH,
      HEIGHT, XOFF, and YOFF are numbers) for specifying a preferred size
      and location for this application's main window.

      The WIDTH and HEIGHT parts of the geometry specification are usually
      measured in either pixels or characters, depending on the application.
      The XOFF and YOFF parts are measured in pixels and are used to specify
      the distance of the window from the left or right and top and bottom
      edges of the screen, respectively.  Both types of offsets are measured
      from the indicated edge of the screen to the corresponding edge of the
      window.  The X offset may be specified in the following ways:

      +XOFF   The left edge of the window is to be placed XOFF pixels in
              from the left edge of the screen (i.e. the X coordinate of the
              window's origin will be XOFF).  XOFF may be negative, in which
              case the window's left edge will be off the screen.

      -XOFF   The right edge of the window is to be placed XOFF pixels in
              from the right edge of the screen.  XOFF may be negative, in
              which case the window's right edge will be off the screen.

      The Y offset has similar meanings:

      +YOFF   The top edge of the window is to be YOFF pixels below the top
              edge of the screen (i.e. the Y coordinate of the window's
              origin will be YOFF).  YOFF may be negative, in which case the
              window's top edge will be off the screen.

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      -YOFF   The bottom edge of the window is to be YOFF pixels above the
              bottom edge of the screen.  YOFF may be negative, in which
              case the window's bottom edge will be off the screen.

      Offsets must be given as pairs; in other words, in order to specify
      either XOFF or YOFF both must be present.  Windows can be placed in
      the four corners of the screen using the following specifications:

      +0+0    upper left hand corner.

      -0+0    upper right hand corner.

      -0-0    lower right hand corner.

      +0-0    lower left hand corner.

      In the following examples, a terminal emulator will be placed in
      roughly the center of the screen and a load average monitor, mailbox,
      and clock will be placed in the upper right hand corner:

          xterm -fn 6x10 -geometry 80x24+30+200 &
          xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 &
          xload -geometry 48x48-96+0 &
          xbiff -geometry 48x48-48+0 &

 WINDOW MANAGERS    [Toc]    [Back]
      The layout of windows on the screen is controlled by special programs
      called window managers.  Although many window managers will honor
      geometry specifications as given, others may choose to ignore them
      (requiring the user to explicitly draw the window's region on the
      screen with the pointer, for example).

      Since window managers are regular (albeit complex) client programs, a
      variety of different user interfaces can be built.  The HewlettPackard
 distribution comes with window managers named mwm and dtwm
      which support overlapping windows, popup menus, point-and-click or
      click-to-type input models, title bars, nice icons (and an icon
      manager for those who don't like separate icon windows).

      See the user-contributed software in the MIT distribution for other
      popular window managers.

 FONT NAMES    [Toc]    [Back]
      Collections of characters for displaying text and symbols in X are
      known as fonts.  A font typically contains images that share a common
      appearance and look nice together (for example, a single size,
      boldness, slant, and character set).  Similarly, collections of fonts
      that are based on a common type face (the variations are usually
      called roman, bold, italic, bold italic, oblique, and bold oblique)
      are called families.

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      Fonts come in various sizes.  The X server supports scalable fonts,
      meaning it is possible to create a font of arbitrary size from a
      single source for the font.  The server supports scaling from outline
      fonts and bitmap fonts.  Scaling from outline fonts usually produces
      significantly better results than scaling from bitmap fonts.

      An X server can obtain fonts from individual files stored in
      directories in the file system, or from one or more font servers, or
      from a mixtures of directories and font servers.  The list of places
      the server looks when trying to find a font is controlled by its font
      path.  Although most installations will choose to have the server
      start up with all of the commonly used font directories in the font
      path, the font path can be changed at any time with the xset program.
      However, it is important to remember that the directory names are on
      the server's machine, not on the application's.  Usually, fonts usex
      by X servers and font servers can be found in subdirectories under

              This directory contains bitmap fonts contributed by Adobe
              Systems, Inc., Digital Equipment Corporation, Bitstream, Inc.,
              Bigelow and Holmes, and Sun Microsystems, Inc.  for 75 dots
              per inch displays.  An integrated selection of sizes, styles,
              and weights are provided for each family.

              This directory contains 100 dots per inch versions of some of
              the fonts in the 75dpi directory.

      Bitmap font files are usually created by compiling a textual font
      description into binary form, using bdftopcf.  Font databases are
      created by running the mkfontdir program in the directory containing
      the source or compiled versions of the fonts.  Whenever fonts are
      added to a directory, mkfontdir should be rerun so that the server can
      find the new fonts.  To make the server reread the font database,
      reset the font path with the xset program.  For example, to add a font
      to a private directory, the following commands could be used:

          % cp newfont.pcf ~/myfonts
          % mkfontdir ~/myfonts
          % xset fp rehash

      The xlsfonts program can be used to list the fonts available on a
      server.  Font names tend to be fairly long as they contain all of the
      information needed to uniquely identify individual fonts.  However,
      the X server supports wildcarding of font names, so the full


      might be abbreviated as:

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      Because the shell also has special meanings for * and ?, wildcarded
      font names should be quoted:

          % xlsfonts -fn '-*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-*-*'

      The xlsfonts program can be used to list all of the fonts that match a
      given pattern.  With no arguments, it lists all available fonts.  This
      will usually list the same font at many different sizes.  To see just
      the base scalable font names, try using one of the following patterns:


      To convert one of the resulting names into a font at a specific size,
      replace one of the first two zeros with a nonzero value.  The field
      containing the first zero is for the pixel size; replace it with a
      specific height in pixels to name a font at that size.  Alternatively,
      the field containing the second zero is for the point size; replace it
      with a specific size in decipoints (there are 722.7 decipoints to the
      inch) to name a font at that size.  The last zero is an average width
      field, measured in tenths of pixels; some servers will anamorphically
      scale if this value is specified.  See chapter 6 of Using the X Window
      System.  to

 FONT SERVER NAMES    [Toc]    [Back]
      One of the following forms can be used to name a font server that
      accepts TCP connections:


      The hostname specifies the name (or decimal numeric address) of the
      machine on which the font server is running.  The port is the decimal
      TCP port on which the font server is listening for connections.  The
      cataloguelist specifies a list of catalogue names, with '+' as a

      Examples: tcp/expo.lcs.mit.edu:7000, tcp/

 COLOR NAMES    [Toc]    [Back]
      Most applications provide ways of tailoring (usually through resources
      or command line arguments) the colors of various elements in the text
      and graphics they display.  A color can be specified either by an
      abstract color name, or by a numerical color specification.  The
      numerical specification can identify a color in either devicedependent
 (RGB) or device-independent terms.  Color strings are caseinsensitive.

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      X supports the use of abstract color names, for example, "red",
      "blue".  A value for this abstract name is obtained by searching one
      or more color name databases.  Xlib first searches zero or more
      client-side databases; the number, location, and content of these
      databases is implementation dependent.  If the name is not found, the
      color is looked up in the X server's database.  The text form of this
      database is commonly stored in the file /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt.

      A numerical color specification consists of a color space name and a
      set of values in the following syntax:


      An RGB Device specification is identified by the prefix "rgb:" and has
      the following syntax:


              <red>, <green>, <blue> := h | hh | hhh | hhhh
              h := single hexadecimal digits
      Note that h indicates the value scaled in 4 bits, hh the value scaled
      in 8 bits, hhh the value scaled in 12 bits, and hhhh the value scaled
      in 16 bits, respectively.  These values are passed directly to the X
      server, and are assumed to be gamma corrected.

      The eight primary colors can be represented as:

          black                rgb:0/0/0
          red                  rgb:ffff/0/0
          green                rgb:0/ffff/0
          blue                 rgb:0/0/ffff
          yellow               rgb:ffff/ffff/0
          magenta              rgb:ffff/0/ffff
          cyan                 rgb:0/ffff/ffff
          white                rgb:ffff/ffff/ffff

      For backward compatibility, an older syntax for RGB Device is
      supported, but its continued use is not encouraged.  The syntax is an
      initial sharp sign character followed by a numeric specification, in
      one of the following formats:

          #RGB                      (4 bits each)
          #RRGGBB                   (8 bits each)
          #RRRGGGBBB                (12 bits each)
          #RRRRGGGGBBBB             (16 bits each)

      The R, G, and B represent single hexadecimal digits.  When fewer than
      16 bits each are specified, they represent the most-significant bits
      of the value (unlike the "rgb:" syntax, in which values are scaled).
      For example, #3a7 is the same as #3000a0007000.

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      An RGB intensity specification is identified by the prefix "rgbi:" and
      has the following syntax:


      The red, green, and blue are floating point values between 0.0 and
      1.0, inclusive.  They represent linear intensity values, with 1.0
      indicating full intensity, 0.5 half intensity, and so on.  These
      values will be gamma corrected by Xlib before being sent to the X
      server.  The input format for these values is an optional sign, a
      string of numbers possibly containing a decimal point, and an optional
      exponent field containing an E or e followed by a possibly signed
      integer string.

      The standard device-independent string specifications have the
      following syntax:

          CIEXYZ:<X>/<Y>/<Z>             (none, 1, none)
          CIEuvY:<u>/<v>/<Y>             (~.6, ~.6, 1)
          CIExyY:<x>/<y>/<Y>             (~.75, ~.85, 1)
          CIELab:<L>/<a>/<b>             (100, none, none)
          CIELuv:<L>/<u>/<v>             (100, none, none)
          TekHVC:<H>/<V>/<C>             (360, 100, 100)

      All of the values (C, H, V, X, Y, Z, a, b, u, v, y, x) are floating
      point values.  Some of the values are constrained to be between zero
      and some upper bound; the upper bounds are given in parentheses above.
      The syntax for these values is an optional '+' or '-' sign, a string
      of digits possibly containing a decimal point, and an optional
      exponent field consisting of an 'E' or 'e' followed by an optional '+'
      or '-' followed by a string of digits.

      For more information on device independent color, see the Xlib
      reference manual.

 KEYBOARDS    [Toc]    [Back]
      The X keyboard model is broken into two layers:  server-specific codes
      (called keycodes) which represent the physical keys, and serverindependent
 symbols (called keysyms) which represent the letters or
      words that appear on the keys. Two tables are kept in the server for
      converting keycodes to keysyms:

      modifier list
              Some keys (such as Shift, Control, and Caps Lock) are known as
              modifier and are used to select different symbols that are
              attached to a single key (such as Shift-a generates a capital
              A, and Control-l generates a control character ^L).  The
              server keeps a list of keycodes corresponding to the various
              modifier keys.  Whenever a key is pressed or released, the
              server generates an event that contains the keycode of the
              indicated key as well as a mask that specifies which of the

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              modifier keys are currently pressed.  Most servers set up this
              list to initially contain the various shift, control, and
              shift lock keys on the keyboard.

      keymap table
              Applications translate event keycodes and modifier masks into
              keysyms using a keysym table which contains one row for each
              keycode and one column for various modifier states.  This
              table is initialized by the server to correspond to normal
              typewriter conventions.  The exact semantics of how the table
              is interpreted to produce keysyms depends on the particular
              program, libraries, and language input method used, but the
              following conventions for the first four keysyms in each row
              are generally adhered to:

      The first four elements of the list are split into two groups of
      keysyms.  Group 1 contains the first and second keysyms; Group 2
      contains the third and fourth keysyms.  Within each group, if the
      first element is alphabetic and the the second element is the special
      keysym NoSymbol, then the group is treated as equivalent to a group in
      which the first element is the lowercase letter and the second element
      is the uppercase letter.

      Switching between groups is controlled by the keysym named MODE
      SWITCH, by attaching that keysym to some key and attaching that key to
      any one of the modifiers Mod1 through Mod5.  This modifier is called
      the ``group modifier.'' Group 1 is used when the group modifier is
      off, and Group 2 is used when the group modifier is on.

      Within a group, the modifier state determines which keysym to use.
      The first keysym is used when the Shift and Lock modifiers are off.
      The second keysym is used when the Shift modifier is on, when the Lock
      modifier is on and the second keysym is uppercase alphabetic, or when
      the Lock modifier is on and is interpreted as ShiftLock.  Otherwise,
      when the Lock modifier is on and is interpreted as CapsLock, the state
      of the Shift modifier is applied first to select a keysym; but if that
      keysym is lowercase alphabetic, then the corresponding uppercase
      keysym is used instead.

 OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]
      Most X programs attempt to use the same names for command line options
      and arguments.  All applications written with the X Toolkit Intrinsics
      automatically accept the following options:

      -display display
              This option specifies the name of the X server to use.

      -geometry geometry
              This option specifies the initial size and location of the

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      -bg color, -background color
              Either option specifies the color to use for the window

      -bd color, -bordercolor color
              Either option specifies the color to use for the window

      -bw number, -borderwidth number
              Either option specifies the width in pixels of the window

      -fg color, -foreground color
              Either option specifies the color to use for text or graphics.

      -fn font, -font font
              Either option specifies the font to use for displaying text.

              This option indicates that the user would prefer that the
              application's windows initially not be visible as if the
              windows had be immediately iconified by the user.  Window
              managers may choose not to honor the application's request.

              This option specifies the name under which resources for the
              application should be found.  This option is useful in shell
              aliases to distinguish between invocations of an application,
              without resorting to creating links to alter the executable
              file name.

      -rv, -reverse
              Either option indicates that the program should simulate
              reverse video if possible, often by swapping the foreground
              and background colors.  Not all programs honor this or
              implement it correctly.  It is usually only used on monochrome

              This option indicates that the program should not simulate
              reverse video. This is used to override any defaults since
              reverse video doesn't always work properly.

              This option specifies the timeout in milliseconds within which
              two communicating applications must respond to one another for
              a selection request.

              This option indicates that requests to the X server should be
              sent synchronously, instead of asynchronously.  Since Xlib

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              normally buffers requests to the server, errors do not
              necessarily get reported immediately after they occur.  This
              option turns off the buffering so that the application can be
              debugged.  It should never be used with a working program.

      -title string
              This option specifies the title to be used for this window.
              This information is sometimes used by a window manager to
              provide some sort of header identifying the window.

      -xnllanguage language[_territory][.codeset]
              This option specifies the language, territory, and codeset for
              use in resolving resource and other filenames.

      -xrm resourcestring
              This option specifies a resource name and value to override
              any defaults.  It is also very useful for setting resources
              that don't have explicit command line arguments.

 RESOURCES    [Toc]    [Back]
      To make the tailoring of applications to personal preferences easier,
      X provides a mechanism for storing default values for program
      resources (e.g. background color, window title, etc.) Resources are
      specified as strings that are read in from various places when an
      application is run.  Program components are named in a hierarchical
      fashion, with each node in the hierarchy identified by a class and an
      instance name.  At the top level is the class and instance name of the
      application itself.  By convention, the class name of the application
      is the same as the program name, but with  the first letter
      capitalized, although some programs that begin with the letter ``x''
      also capitalize the second letter for historical reasons.

      The precise syntax for resources is:

      ResourceLine      = Comment | IncludeFile | ResourceSpec | <empty line>
      Comment           = "!" {<any character except null or newline>}
      IncludeFile       = "#" WhiteSpace "include" WhiteSpace FileName WhiteSpace
      FileName          = <valid filename for operating system>
      ResourceSpec      = WhiteSpace ResourceName WhiteSpace ":" WhiteSpace Value
      ResourceName      = [Binding] {Component Binding} ComponentName
      Binding           = "." | "*"
      WhiteSpace        = {<space> | <horizontal tab>}
      Component         = "?" | ComponentName
      ComponentName     = NameChar {NameChar}
      NameChar          = "a"-"z" | "A"-"Z" | "0"-"9" | "_" | "-"
      Value             = {<any character except null or unescaped newline>}

      Elements separated by vertical bar (|) are alternatives.  Curly braces
      ({...}) indicate zero or more repetitions of the enclosed elements.
      Square brackets ([...]) indicate that the enclosed element is
      optional.  Quotes ("...") are used around literal characters.

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      IncludeFile lines are interpreted by replacing the line with the
      contents of the specified file.  The word "include" must be in
      lowercase.  The filename is interpreted relative to the directory of
      the file in which the line occurs (for example, if the filename
      contains no directory or contains a relative directory specification).

      If a ResourceName contains a contiguous sequence of two or more
      Binding characters, the sequence will be replaced with single "."
      character if the sequence contains only "." characters, otherwise the
      sequence will be replaced with a single "*" character.

      A resource database never contains more than one entry for a given
      ResourceName.  If a resource file contains multiple lines with the
      same ResourceName, the last line in the file is used.

      Any whitespace character before or after the name or colon in a
      ResourceSpec are ignored.  To allow a Value to begin with whitespace,
      the two-character sequence ``\space'' (backslash followed by space) is
      recognized and replaced by a space character, and the two-character
      sequence ``\tab'' (backslash followed by horizontal tab) is recognized
      and replaced by a horizontal tab character.  To allow a Value to
      contain embedded newline characters, the two-character sequence ``\n''
      is recognized and replaced by a newline character.  To allow a Value
      to be broken across multiple lines in a text file, the two-character
      sequence ``\newline'' (backslash followed by newline) is recognized
      and removed from the value.  To allow a Value to contain arbitrary
      character codes, the four-character sequence ``\nnn'', where each n is
      a digit character in the range of ``0''-``7'', is recognized and
      replaced with a single byte that contains the octal value specified by
      the sequence.  Finally, the two-character sequence ``\\'' is
      recognized and replaced with a single backslash.

      When an application looks for the value of a resource, it specifies a
      complete path in the hierarchy, with both class and instance names.
      However, resource values are usually given with only partially
      specified names and classes, using pattern matching constructs.  An
      asterisk (*) is a loose binding and is used to represent any number of
      intervening components, including none.  A period (.) is a tight
      binding and is used to separate immediately adjacent components.  A
      question mark (?) is used to match any single component name or class.
      A database entry cannot end in a loose binding; the final component
      (which cannot be "?") must be specified.  The lookup algorithm
      searches the resource database for the entry that most closely matches
      (is most specific for) the full name and class being queried.  When
      more than one database entry matches the full name and class,
      precedence rules are used to select just one.  The full name and class
      are scanned from left to right (from highest level in the hierarchy to
      lowest), one component at a time.  At each level, the corresponding
      component and/or binding of each matching entry is determined, and
      these matching components and bindings are compared according to
      precedence rules.  Each of the rules is applied at each level, before

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      moving to the next level, until a rule selects a single entry over all
      others.  The rules (in order of precedence) are:

      1.   An entry that contains a matching component (whether name, class,
           or "?") takes precedence over entries that elide the level (that
           is, entries that match the level in a loose binding).

      2.   An entry with a matching name takes precedence over both entries
           with a matching class and entries that match using "?".  An entry
           with a matching class takes precedence over entries that match
           using "?".

      3.   An entry preceded by a tight binding takes precedence over
           entries preceded by a loose binding.

      Programs based on the X Tookit Intrinsics obtain resources from the
      following sources (other programs usually support some subset of these

      RESOURCE_MANAGER root window property    [Toc]    [Back]
              Any global resources that should be available to clients on
              all machines should be stored in the RESOURCE_MANAGER property
              on the root window of the first screen using the xrdb program.
              This is frequently taken care of when the user starts X
              through the display manager.

      SCREEN_RESOURCES root window property    [Toc]    [Back]
              Any resources specific to a given screen (e.g. colors) that
              should be available to clients on all machines should be
              stored in the SCREEN_RESOURCES property on the root window of
              that screen.  The xrdb program will sort resources
              automatically and place them in RESOURCE_MANAGER or
              SCREEN_RESOURCES, as appropriate.

      application-specific files
              Directories named by the environment variable
              XUSERFILESEARCHPATH or the environment variable XAPPLRESDIR,
              plus directories in a standard place (usually under
              /usr/lib/X11/, but this can be overridden with the
              XFILESEARCHPATH environment variable) are searched for for
              application-specific resources.  For example, application
              default resources are usually kept in /usr/lib/X11/appdefaults/.
  See the X Toolkit Intrinsics - C Language
              Interface manual for details.

      XENVIRONMENT    [Toc]    [Back]
              Any user- and machine-specific resources may be specified by
              setting the XENVIRONMENT environment variable to the name of a
              resource file to be loaded by all applications.  If this
              variable is not defined, a file named $HOME/.Xdefaultshostname
 is looked for instead, where hostname is the name of

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              the host where the application is executing.

      -xrm resourcestring
              Resources can also be specified from the command line.  The
              resourcestring is a single resource name and value as shown
              above.  Note that if the string contains characters
              interpreted by the shell (e.g., asterisk), they must be
              quoted.  Any number of -xrm arguments may be given on the
              command line.

      Program resources are organized into groups called classes, so that
      collections of individual resources (each of which are called
      instances) can be set all at once.  By convention, the instance name
      of a resource begins with a lowercase letter and class name with an
      upper case letter.  Multiple word resources are concatenated with the
      first letter of the succeeding words capitalized.  Applications
      written with the X Toolkit Intrinsics will have at least the following

      background (class Background)
              This resource specifies the color to use for the window

      borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
              This resource specifies the width in pixels of the window

      borderColor (class BorderColor)
              This resource specifies the color to use for the window

      Most applications using the X Toolkit Intrinsics also have the
      resource foreground (class Foreground), specifying the color to use
      for text and graphics within the window.

      By combining class and instance specifications, application
      preferences can be set quickly and easily.  Users of color displays
      will frequently want to set Background and Foreground classes to
      particular defaults.  Specific color instances such as text cursors
      can then be overridden without having to define all of the related
      resources.  For example,

          XTerm*cursorColor:  gold
          XTerm*multiScroll:  on
          XTerm*jumpScroll:  on
          XTerm*reverseWrap:  on
          XTerm*curses:  on
          XTerm*Font:  6x10
          XTerm*scrollBar: on
          XTerm*scrollbar*thickness: 5
          XTerm*multiClickTime: 500

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          XTerm*charClass:  33:48,37:48,45-47:48,64:48
          XTerm*cutNewline: off
          XTerm*cutToBeginningOfLine: off
          XTerm*titeInhibit:  on
          XTerm*ttyModes:  intr ^c erase ^? kill ^u
          XLoad*Background: gold
          XLoad*Foreground: red
          XLoad*highlight: black
          XLoad*borderWidth: 0
          hpterm*Geometry:  80x65-0-0
          hpterm*Background:  rgb:5b/76/86
          hpterm*Foreground:  white
          hpterm*Cursor:  white
          hpterm*BorderColor:  white
          hpterm*Font:  6x10

      If these resources were stored in a file called .Xdefaults in your
      home directory, they could be added to any existing resources in the
      server with the following command:

          % xrdb -merge $HOME/.Xdefaults

      This is frequently how user-friendly startup scripts merge userspecific
 defaults into any site-wide defaults.  All sites are
      encouraged to set up convenient ways of automatically loading
      resources. See the Xlib manual section Resource Manager Functions for
      more information.

 EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]
      The following is a collection of sample command lines for some of the
      more frequently used commands.  For more information on a particular
      command, please refer to that command's manual page.

          %  xrdb $HOME/.Xdefaults
          %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
          %  mkfontdir /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
          %  xset fp+ /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
          %  xmodmap $HOME/.keymap.km
          %  xsetroot -solid 'rgbi:.8/.8/.8'
          %  xset b 100 400 c 50 s 1800 r on
          %  xset q
          %  mwm
          %  xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 -bg blue -fg white
          %  xlsfonts '*helvetica*'
          %  xwininfo -root
          %  xhost -joesworkstation
          %  xwd | xwud
          %  xterm -geometry 80x66-0-0 -name myxterm $*

 DIAGNOSTICS    [Toc]    [Back]
      A wide variety of error messages are generated from various programs.

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      The default error handler in Xlib (also used by many toolkits) uses
      standard resources to construct diagnostic messages when errors occur.
      The defaults for these messages are usually stored in
      /usr/lib/X11/XErrorDB.  If this file is not present, error messages
      will be rather terse and cryptic.

      When the X Toolkit Intrinsics encounter errors converting resource
      strings to the appropriate internal format, no error messages are
      usually printed.  This is convenient when it is desirable to have one
      set of resources across a variety of displays (e.g. color vs.
      monochrome, lots of fonts vs. very few, etc.), although it can pose
      problems for trying to determine why an application might be failing.
      This behavior can be overridden by the setting the
      StringConversionsWarning resource.

      To force the X Toolkit Intrinsics to always print string conversion
      error messages, the following resource should be placed in the
      .Xdefaults file in the user's home directory.  This file is then
      loaded into the RESOURCE_MANAGER property using the xrdb program.

          *StringConversionWarnings: on

      To have conversion messages printed for just a particular application,
      the appropriate instance name can be placed before the asterisk:

          xterm*StringConversionWarnings: on

 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      bdftopcf(1), bitmap(1), fs(1), hpter
      xauth(1), xclock(1), xcmsdb(1), xfd(1), xhost(1), xinitcolor(1),
      xload(1), xlsfonts(1), xmodmap(1), xpr(1), xprop(1), xrdb(1),
      xrefresh(1), xset(1), xsetroot(1), xterm(1), xwd(1), xwininfo(1),
      xwud(1), Xserver(1), Xlib - C Language X Interface, and X Toolkit
      Intrinsics - C Language Interface

 COPYRIGHT    [Toc]    [Back]
      The following copyright and permission notice outlines the rights and
      restrictions covering most parts of the core distribution of the X
      Window System from MIT.  Other parts have additional or different
      copyrights and permissions; see the individual source files.

      Copyright 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991 by the
      Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

      Permission to use, copy, modify, distribute, and sell this software
      and its documentation for any purpose is hereby granted without fee,
      provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that
      both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in
      supporting documentation, and that the name of MIT not be used in
      advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software

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      without specific, written prior permission.  MIT makes no
      representations about the suitability of this software for any
      purpose.  It is provided "as is" without express or implied warranty.

 TRADEMARKS    [Toc]    [Back]
      X Window System is a trademark of MIT.

 AUTHORS    [Toc]    [Back]
      A cast of thousands, literally.  The MIT Release 5 distribution is
      brought to you by the MIT X Consortium.  The names of all people who
      made it a reality will be found in the individual documents and source
      files.  The staff members at MIT responsible for this release are:
      Donna Converse (MIT X Consortium), Stephen Gildea (MIT X Consortium),
      Susan Hardy (MIT X Consortium), Jay Hersh (MIT X Consortium), Keith
      Packard (MIT X Consortium), David Sternlicht (MIT X Consortium), Bob
      Scheifler (MIT X Consortium), and Ralph Swick (Digital/MIT Project

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