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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       groff_char - groff glyph names

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       This  manual  page lists the standard groff glyph names and the default
       input mapping, latin-1.	The glyphs in this document will look  different
 depending on which output device was chosen (with option -T for the
       man(1) program or the roff formatter).  Glyphs not  available  for  the
       device  that  is  being	used to print or view this manual page will be
       marked with `(N/A)'; the device currently used is `ascii'.

       In the actual version, groff provides only 8-bit characters for	direct
       input and named entities for further glyphs.  On ASCII platforms, input
       character codes in the range 0 to 127  (decimal)  represent  the  usual
       7-bit ASCII characters, while codes between 127 and 255 are interpreted
       as the corresponding characters in the Latin-1 (ISO-8859-1) code set by
       default.   This mapping is contained in the file latin1.tmac and can be
       changed by loading a different input encoding.  Note that some  of  the
       input  characters are reserved by groff, either for internal use or for
       special input purposes.	On EBCDIC platforms, only code page cp1047  is
       supported  (which  contains  the  same characters as Latin-1; the input
       encoding file is called cp1047.tmac).  Again, some input characters are
       reserved  for internal and special purposes.  It is rather straightforward
 (for the experienced user) to set up other	8-bit  encodings  like
       Latin-2;  since	groff  will  use Unicode in the next major version, no
       additional encodings are provided.

       All roff systems provide the concept of named glyphs.   In  traditional
       roff  systems,  only names of length 2 were used, while groff also provides
 support for longer names.	It is  strongly  suggested  that  only
       named  glyphs are used for all character representations outside of the
       printable 7-bit ASCII range.

       Some of the predefined groff escape sequences (with names of  length 1)
       also  produce  single characters; these exist for historical reasons or
       are printable versions of syntactical characters.  They	include  `\\',
       `\'', `\`', `\-', `\.', and `\e'; see groff(7).

       In  groff, all of these different types of characters and glyphs can be
       tested positively with the `.if c' conditional.

REFERENCE    [Toc]    [Back]

       In this section, the glyphs in groff are  specified  in	tabular  form.
       The meaning of the columns is as follows.

       Output shows  how the glyph is printed for the current device; although
	      this can have quite a  different	shape  on  other  devices,  it
	      always represents the same glyph.

       Input name
	      specifies how the glyph is input either directly by a key on the
	      keyboard, or by a groff escape sequence.

       Input code
	      applies to glyphs which can be input with  a  single  character,
	      and  gives the ISO Latin-1 decimal code of that input character.
	      Note that this code is equivalent  to  the  lowest  256  Unicode
	      characters, including 7-bit ASCII in the range 0 to 127.

       PostScript name
	      gives the usual PostScript name of the glyph.

       Unicode decomposed
	      is the glyph name used in composite glyph names.

   7-bit Character Codes 32-126
       These  are  the	basic  glyphs having 7-bit ASCII code values assigned.
       They are identical to the printable characters of the  character  standards
  ISO-8859-1  (Latin-1)  and  Unicode (range C0 Controls and Basic
       Latin).	The glyph names used in composite glyph names are  `u0020'  up
       to `u007E'.

       Note  that input characters in the range 0-31 and character 127 are not
       printable characters.  Most of them are invalid	input  characters  for
       groff anyway, and the valid ones have special meaning.  For EBCDIC, the
       printable characters are in the range 66-255.

       48-57  Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).

       65-90  Upper case letters A-Z (print as themselves).

       97-122 Lower case letters a-z (print as themselves).

       Most of the remaining characters not in the just described ranges print
       as themselves; the only exceptions are the following characters:

       `      the  ISO	Latin-1  `Grave  Accent' (code 96) prints as `, a left
	      single quotation mark; the original character  can  be  obtained
	      with `\`'.

       '      the ISO Latin-1 `Apostrophe' (code 39) prints as ', a right single
 quotation mark; the original character can be obtained  with

       -      the  ISO	Latin-1  `Hyphen,  Minus  Sign'  (code 45) prints as a
	      hyphen; a minus sign can be obtained with `\-'.

       ~      the ISO Latin-1 `Tilde' (code 126) is  reduced  in  size	to  be
	      usable  as  a  diacritic;  a  larger  glyph can be obtained with

       ^      the ISO Latin-1 `Circumflex Accent' (code 94) is reduced in size
	      to be usable as a diacritic; a larger glyph can be obtained with

       Output  Input  Input  PostScript    Unicode     Notes
	       name   code   name	   decomposed

       !       !      33     exclam	   u0021
       "       "      34     quotedbl	   u0022
       #       #      35     numbersign    u0023
       $       $      36     dollar	   u0024
       %       %      37     percent	   u0025
       &       &      38     ampersand	   u0026
       '       '      39     quoteright    u0027
       (       (      40     parenleft	   u0028
       )       )      41     parenright    u0029
       *       *      42     asterisk	   u002A
       +       +      43     plus	   u002B
       ,       ,      44     comma	   u002C
       -       -      45     hyphen	   u2010
       .       .      46     period	   u002E
       /       /      47     slash	   u002F
       :       :      58     colon	   u003A
       ;       ;      59     semicolon	   u003B
       <       <      60     less	   u003C

       =       =      61     equal	   u003D
       >       >      62     greater	   u003E
       ?       ?      63     question	   u003F
       @       @      64     at 	   u0040
       [       [      91     bracketleft   u005B
       \       \      92     backslash	   u005C
       ]       ]      93     bracketright  u005D
       ^       ^      94     circumflex    u005E       circumflex accent
       _       _      95     underscore    u005F
       `       `      96     quoteleft	   u0060
       {       {      123    braceleft	   u007B
       |       |      124    bar	   u007C
       }       }      125    braceright    u007D
       ~       ~      126    tilde	   u007E       tilde accent

   8-bit Character Codes 160 to 255
       They are interpreted as printable characters according to  the  Latin-1
       (iso-8859-1) code set, being identical to the Unicode range C1 Controls
       and Latin-1 Supplement.

       Input characters in range 128-159 (on non-EBCDIC hosts) are not	printable

       160    the  ISO	Latin-1 no-break space is mapped to `\~', the stretchable
 space character.

       173    the soft hyphen control character.  groff never uses this  character
  for  output  (thus it is omitted in the table below); the
	      input character 173 is mapped onto `\%'.

       The remaining ranges (161-172, 174-255) are printable  characters  that
       print  as themselves.  Although they can be specified directly with the
       keyboard on systems with a Latin-1 code page, it is better to use their
       glyph names; see next section.

       Output  Input  Input  PostScript      Unicode	 Notes
	       name   code   name	     decomposed

       i       i      161    exclamdown      u00A1	 inverted exclamation
       c       c      162    cent	     u00A2
       L       L      163    sterling	     u00A3
       x       x      164    currency	     u00A4
       Y       Y      165    yen	     u00A5
       |       |      166    brokenbar	     u00A6
       S       S      167    section	     u00A7
       "       "      168    dieresis	     u00A8
       (C)     (C)    169    copyright	     u00A9
       a       a      170    ordfeminine     u00AA
       <<      <<     171    guillemotleft   u00AB
       ~       ~      172    logicalnot      u00AC
       (R)     (R)    174    registered      u00AE
       _       _
		      175    macron	     u00AF
       o       o      176    degree	     u00B0
       +-      +-     177    plusminus	     u00B1
       2       2      178    twosuperior     u00B2
       3       3      179    threesuperior   u00B3
       '       '      180    acute	     u00B4	 acute accent
       u       u      181    mu 	     u00B5	 micro sign
       9|      9|     182    paragraph	     u00B6
       .       .      183    periodcentered  u00B7
       ,       ,      184    cedilla	     u00B8
       1       1      185    onesuperior     u00B9

       o       o      186    ordmasculine    u00BA
       >>      >>     187    guillemotright  u00BB
       1/4     1/4    188    onequarter      u00BC
       1/2     1/2    189    onehalf	     u00BD
       3/4     3/4    190    threequarters   u00BE
       c       c      191    questiondown    u00BF
       A       A      192    Agrave	     u0041_0300
       A       A      193    Aacute	     u0041_0301
       A       A      194    Acircumflex     u0041_0302
       A       A      195    Atilde	     u0041_0303
       A       A      196    Adieresis	     u0041_0308
       A       A      197    Aring	     u0041_030A
       AE      AE     198    AE 	     u00C6
       C       C      199    Ccedilla	     u0043_0327
       E       E      200    Egrave	     u0045_0300
       E       E      201    Eacute	     u0045_0301
       E       E      202    Ecircumflex     u0045_0302
       E       E      203    Edieresis	     u0045_0308
       I       I      204    Igrave	     u0049_0300
       I       I      205    Iacute	     u0049_0301
       I       I      206    Icircumflex     u0049_0302
       I       I      207    Idieresis	     u0049_0308
       D       D      208    Eth	     u00D0
       N       N      209    Ntilde	     u004E_0303
       O       O      210    Ograve	     u004F_0300
       O       O      211    Oacute	     u004F_0301
       O       O      212    Ocircumflex     u004F_0302
       O       O      213    Otilde	     u004F_0303
       O       O      214    Odieresis	     u004F_0308
       x       x      215    multiply	     u00D7
       O       O      216    Oslash	     u00D8
       U       U      217    Ugrave	     u0055_0300
       U       U      218    Uacute	     u0055_0301
       U       U      219    Ucircumflex     u0055_0302
       U       U      220    Udieresis	     u0055_0308
       Y       Y      221    Yacute	     u0059_0301
       b       b      222    Thorn	     u00DE
       B       B      223    germandbls      u00DF
       a       a      224    agrave	     u0061_0300
       a       a      225    aacute	     u0061_0301
       a       a      226    acircumflex     u0061_0302
       a       a      227    atilde	     u0061_0303
       a       a      228    adieresis	     u0061_0308
       a       a      229    aring	     u0061_030A
       ae      ae     230    ae 	     u00E6
       c       c      231    ccedilla	     u0063_0327
       e       e      232    egrave	     u0065_0300
       e       e      233    eacute	     u0065_0301
       e       e      234    ecircumflex     u0065_0302
       e       e      235    edieresis	     u0065_0308
       i       i      236    igrave	     u0069_0300
       i       i      237    iacute	     u0069_0301
       i       i      238    icircumflex     u0069_0302
       i       i      239    idieresis	     u0069_0308
       'o       'o      240    eth	     u00F0
       n       n      241    ntilde	     u006E_0303
       o       o      242    ograve	     u006F_0300
       o       o      243    oacute	     u006F_0301
       o       o      244    ocircumflex     u006F_0302
       o       o      245    otilde	     u006F_0303
       o       o      246    odieresis	     u006F_0308
       -:-     -:-    247    divide	     u00F7
       o       o      248    oslash	     u00F8
       u       u      249    ugrave	     u0075_0300
       u       u      250    uacute	     u0075_0301

       u       u      251    ucircumflex     u0075_0302
       u       u      252    udieresis	     u0075_0308
       y       y      253    yacute	     u0079_0301
       b       b      254    thorn	     u00FE
       y       y      255    ydieresis	     u0079_0308

   Named Glyphs    [Toc]    [Back]
       Glyph names can be embedded into the  document  text  by  using	escape
       sequences.   groff(7) describes how these escape sequences look.  Glyph
       names can consist of quite  arbitrary  characters  from	the  ASCII  or
       Latin-1	code  set,  not only alphanumeric characters.  Here some examples:

       \c     A glyph having the name c, which consists of a single  character
	      (length 1).

       \(ch   A glyph having the 2-character name ch.

	      A  glyph having the name char_name (having length 1, 2, 3, ...).

       \[base_glyph composite_1 composite_2 ...]
	      A composite glyph; see below for a more detailed description.

       In groff, each 8-bit input character can also referred to by  the  construct
  `\[charn]' where n is the decimal code of the character, a number
 between 0 and 255 without leading zeros  (those  entities  are  not
       glyph  names).	They  are  normally mapped onto glyphs using the .trin
       request.  Another special convention is the  handling  of  glyphs  with
       names  directly	derived  from  a Unicode code point; this is discussed
       below.  Moreover, new glyph names can be created by the .char  request;
       see groff(7).

       In the following, a plus sign in the `Notes' column indicates that this
       particular glyph name appears in the PS version of the  original  troff
       documentation, CSTR 54.

       Output  Input  PostScript   Unicode	    Notes
	       name   name	   decomposed

       D       \[-D]  Eth	   u00D0	    uppercase eth
       'o       \[Sd]  eth	   u00F0	    lowercase eth
       b       \[TP]  Thorn	   u00DE	    uppercase thorn
       b       \[Tp]  thorn	   u00FE	    lowercase thorn
       B       \[ss]  germandbls   u00DF	    German sharp s

       Ligatures and Other Latin Glyphs

       ff      \[ff]  ff	   u0066_0066	    ff ligature +
       fi      \[fi]  fi	   u0066_0069	    fi ligature +
       fl      \[fl]  fl	   u0066_006C	    fl ligature +
       ffi     \[Fi]  ffi	   u0066_0066_0069  ffi ligature +
       ffl     \[Fl]  ffl	   u0066_0066_006C  ffl ligature +
       L       \[/L]  Lslash	   u0141	    (Polish)
       l       \[/l]  lslash	   u0142	    (Polish)
       O       \[/O]  Oslash	   u00D8	    (Scandinavic)
       o       \[/o]  oslash	   u00F8	    (Scandinavic)
       AE      \[AE]  AE	   u00C6
       ae      \[ae]  ae	   u00E6
       OE      \[OE]  OE	   u0152
       oe      \[oe]  oe	   u0153
       IJ      \[IJ]  IJ	   u0132	    (Dutch)
       ij      \[ij]  ij	   u0133	    (Dutch)
       i       \[.i]  dotlessi	   u0131	    (Turkish)

       (N/A)   \[.j]  dotlessj	   ---		    j without a dot

       Accented Characters

       A       \['A]  Aacute	   u0041_0301
       (N/A)   \['C]  Cacute	   u0043_0301
       E       \['E]  Eacute	   u0045_0301
       I       \['I]  Iacute	   u0049_0301
       O       \['O]  Oacute	   u004F_0301
       U       \['U]  Uacute	   u0055_0301
       Y       \['Y]  Yacute	   u0059_0301
       a       \['a]  aacute	   u0061_0301
       (N/A)   \['c]  cacute	   u0063_0301
       e       \['e]  eacute	   u0065_0301
       i       \['i]  iacute	   u0069_0301
       o       \['o]  oacute	   u006F_0301
       u       \['u]  uacute	   u0075_0301
       y       \['y]  yacute	   u0079_0301
       A       \[:A]  Adieresis    u0041_0308	    A with umlaut
       E       \[:E]  Edieresis    u0045_0308
       I       \[:I]  Idieresis    u0049_0308
       O       \[:O]  Odieresis    u004F_0308
       U       \[:U]  Udieresis    u0055_0308
       (N/A)   \[:Y]  Ydieresis    u0059_0308
       a       \[:a]  adieresis    u0061_0308
       e       \[:e]  edieresis    u0065_0308
       i       \[:i]  idieresis    u0069_0308
       o       \[:o]  odieresis    u006F_0308
       u       \[:u]  udieresis    u0075_0308
       y       \[:y]  ydieresis    u0079_0308
       A       \[^A]  Acircumflex  u0041_0302
       E       \[^E]  Ecircumflex  u0045_0302
       I       \[^I]  Icircumflex  u0049_0302
       O       \[^O]  Ocircumflex  u004F_0302
       U       \[^U]  Ucircumflex  u0055_0302
       a       \[^a]  acircumflex  u0061_0302
       e       \[^e]  ecircumflex  u0065_0302
       i       \[^i]  icircumflex  u0069_0302
       o       \[^o]  ocircumflex  u006F_0302
       u       \[^u]  ucircumflex  u0075_0302
       A       \[`A]  Agrave	   u0041_0300
       E       \[`E]  Egrave	   u0045_0300
       I       \[`I]  Igrave	   u0049_0300
       O       \[`O]  Ograve	   u004F_0300
       U       \[`U]  Ugrave	   u0055_0300
       a       \[`a]  agrave	   u0061_0300
       e       \[`e]  egrave	   u0065_0300
       i       \[`i]  igrave	   u0069_0300
       o       \[`o]  ograve	   u006F_0300
       u       \[`u]  ugrave	   u0075_0300
       A       \[~A]  Atilde	   u0041_0303
       N       \[~N]  Ntilde	   u004E_0303
       O       \[~O]  Otilde	   u004F_0303
       a       \[~a]  atilde	   u0061_0303
       n       \[~n]  ntilde	   u006E_0303
       o       \[~o]  otilde	   u006F_0303
       (N/A)   \[vS]  Scaron	   u0053_030C
       (N/A)   \[vs]  scaron	   u0073_030C
       (N/A)   \[vZ]  Zcaron	   u005A_030C
       (N/A)   \[vz]  zcaron	   u007A_030C
       C       \[,C]  Ccedilla	   u0043_0327
       c       \[,c]  ccedilla	   u0063_0327
       A       \[oA]  Aring	   u0041_030A
       a       \[oa]  aring	   u0061_030A


       The composite request is used to map most of the accents to non-spacing
       glyph names; the values given in parentheses are the original (spacing)

       Output  Input  PostScript       Unicode	      Notes
	       name   name	       decomposed

       "       \[a"]  hungarumlaut     u030B (u02DD)  (Hungarian)
	       \[a-]  macron	       u0304 (u00AF)
       (N/A)   \[a.]  dotaccent        u0307 (u02D9)
       ^       \[a^]  circumflex       u0302 (u005E)
       '       \[aa]  acute	       u0301 (u00B4)  +
       `       \[ga]  grave	       u0300 (u0060)  +
       `       \[ab]  breve	       u0306 (u02D8)
       ,       \[ac]  cedilla	       u0327 (u00B8)
       "       \[ad]  dieresis	       u0308 (u00A8)  umlaut
       v       \[ah]  caron	       u030C (u02C7)  hacek
       o       \[ao]  ring	       u030A (u02DA)  circle
       ~       \[a~]  tilde	       u0303 (u007E)
       ,       \[ho]  ogonek	       u0328 (u02DB)  hook
       ^       \[ha]  asciicircum      u005E	      (spacing)
       ~       \[ti]  asciitilde       u007E	      (spacing)


       ,,      \[Bq]  quotedblbase     u201E	      low double comma quote
       ,       \[bq]  quotesinglbase   u201A	      low single comma quote
       "       \[lq]  quotedblleft     u201C
       "       \[rq]  quotedblright    u201D
       `       \[oq]  quoteleft        u2018	      single open quote
       '       \[cq]  quoteright       u2019	      single closing quote
       '       \[aq]  quotesingle      u0027	      apostrophe quote (ASCII
       "       \[dq]  quotedbl	       u0022	      double quote (ASCII 34)
       <<      \[Fo]  guillemotleft    u00AB
       >>      \[Fc]  guillemotright   u00BB
       <       \[fo]  guilsinglleft    u2039
       >       \[fc]  guilsinglright   u203A


       i       \[r!]  exclamdown       u00A1
       c       \[r?]  questiondown     u00BF
       --      \[em]  emdash	       u2014	      +
       -       \[en]  endash	       u2013
       -       \[hy]  hyphen	       u2010	      +


       The extensible bracket pieces are font-invariant glyphs.  In  classical
       troff  only  one  glyph	was  available	to vertically extend brackets,
       braces, and parentheses: `bv'.  We map it rather arbitrarily to	u23AA.

       Note  that  not all devices contain extensible bracket pieces which can
       be piled up with `\b' due to the restrictions of  the  escape's	piling
       algorithm.   A  general solution to build brackets out of pieces is the
       following macro:

	      .\" Make a pile centered vertically 0.5em
	      .\" above the baseline.
	      .\" The first argument is placed at the top.
	      .\" The pile is returned in string `pile'
	      .de pile-make
	      .  nr pile-wd 0
	      .  nr pile-ht 0
	      .  ds pile-args
	      .  nr pile-# \n[.$]
	      .  while \n[pile-#] \{\
	      .    nr pile-wd (\n[pile-wd] >? \w'\$[\n[pile-#]]')
	      .    nr pile-ht +(\n[rst] - \n[rsb])
	      .    as pile-args \v'\n[rsb]u'\"
	      .    as pile-args \Z'\$[\n[pile-#]]'\"
	      .    as pile-args \v'-\n[rst]u'\"
	      .    nr pile-# -1
	      .  \}
	      .  ds pile \v'(-0.5m + (\n[pile-ht]u / 2u))'\"
	      .  as pile \*[pile-args]\"
	      .  as pile \v'((\n[pile-ht]u / 2u) + 0.5m)'\"
	      .  as pile \h'\n[pile-wd]u'\"

       Another complication is the  fact  that	some  glyphs  which  represent
       bracket	pieces	in  original  troff can be used for other mathematical
       symbols also, for example `lf' and `rf' which provide the `floor' operator.
   Other  devices  (most  notably for DVI output) don't unify such
       glyphs.	For this reason, the four glyphs `lf', `rf',  `lc',  and  `rc'
       are  not unified with similarly looking bracket pieces.	In groff, only
       glyphs with long names are guaranteed to  pile  up  correctly  for  all
       devices (provided those glyphs exist).

       Output  Input		  PostScript	  Unicode     Notes
	       name		  name		  decomposed

       [       \[lB]		  bracketleft	  u005B
       ]       \[rB]		  bracketright	  u005D
       {       \[lC]		  braceleft	  u007B
       }       \[rC]		  braceright	  u007D
       <       \[la]		  angleleft	  u27E8       left angle
       >       \[ra]		  angleright	  u27E9       right angle
       |       \[bv]		  braceex	  u23AA       vertical extension
 *** +
       (N/A)   \[braceex]	  braceex	  u23AA
       (N/A)   \[bracketlefttp]   bracketlefttp   u23A1
       (N/A)   \[bracketleftbt]   bracketleftbt   u23A3
       (N/A)   \[bracketleftex]   bracketleftex   u23A2
       (N/A)   \[bracketrighttp]  bracketrighttp  u23A4
       (N/A)   \[bracketrightbt]  bracketrightbt  u23A6
       (N/A)   \[bracketrightex]  bracketrightex  u23A5
       ,-      \[lt]		  bracelefttp	  u23A7       +
       (N/A)   \[bracelefttp]	  bracelefttp	  u23A7
       {       \[lk]		  braceleftmid	  u23A8       +
       (N/A)   \[braceleftmid]	  braceleftmid	  u23A8
       `-      \[lb]		  braceleftbt	  u23A9       +
       (N/A)   \[braceleftbt]	  braceleftbt	  u23A9
       (N/A)   \[braceleftex]	  braceleftex	  u23AA
       -.      \[rt]		  bracerighttp	  u23AB       +
       (N/A)   \[bracerighttp]	  bracerighttp	  u23AB
       }       \[rk]		  bracerightmid   u23AC       +
       (N/A)   \[bracerightmid]   bracerightmid   u23AC
       -'      \[rb]		  bracerightbt	  u23AD       +
       (N/A)   \[bracerightbt]	  bracerightbt	  u23AD

       (N/A)   \[bracerightex]	  bracerightex	  u23AA
       (N/A)   \[parenlefttp]	  parenlefttp	  u239B
       (N/A)   \[parenleftbt]	  parenleftbt	  u239D
       (N/A)   \[parenleftex]	  parenleftex	  u239C
       (N/A)   \[parenrighttp]	  parenrighttp	  u239E
       (N/A)   \[parenrightbt]	  parenrightbt	  u23A0
       (N/A)   \[parenrightex]	  parenrightex	  u239F


       <-      \[<-]		  arrowleft	  u2190       +
       ->      \[->]		  arrowright	  u2192       +
       <->     \[<>]		  arrowboth	  u2194       (horizontal)
       v       \[da]		  arrowdown	  u2193       +
       ^       \[ua]		  arrowup	  u2191       +
       (N/A)   \[va]		  arrowupdn	  u2195
       <=      \[lA]		  arrowdblleft	  u21D0
       =>      \[rA]		  arrowdblright   u21D2
       <=>     \[hA]		  arrowdblboth	  u21D4       (horizontal)
       v       \[dA]		  arrowdbldown	  u21D3
       ^       \[uA]		  arrowdblup	  u21D1
       (N/A)   \[vA]		  uni21D5	  u21D5       vertical doubleheaded
       -       \[an]		  arrowhorizex	  u23AF       horizontal arrow


       The  font-invariant  glyphs `br', `ul', and `rn' form corners; they can
       be used to build boxes.	Note that both the PostScript and the Unicodederived
 names of these three glyphs are just rough approximations.

       `rn'  also serves in classical troff as the horizontal extension of the
       square root sign.

       `ru' is a font-invariant glyph, namely a rule of length 0.5m.

       Output  Input	    PostScript	    Unicode	Notes
	       name	    name	    decomposed

       |       \[ba]	    bar 	    u007C
       |       \[br]	    SF110000	    u2502	box rule +
       _       \[ul]	    underscore	    u005F	+
       _						use `\[radicalex]' for
	       \[rn]	    overline	    u203E	continuation of square
							root +
       _       \[ru]	    --- 	    --- 	baseline rule +
       |       \[bb]	    brokenbar	    u00A6
       /       \[sl]	    slash	    u002F	+
       \       \[rs]	    backslash	    u005C	reverse solidus

       Text markers

       O       \[ci]	    circle	    u25CB	+
       o       \[bu]	    bullet	    u2022	+
       =       \[dd]	    daggerdbl	    u2021	double dagger sign +
       -       \[dg]	    dagger	    u2020	+
       <>      \[lz]	    lozenge	    u25CA
       []      \[sq]	    uni25A1	    u25A1	white square +
       9|      \[ps]	    paragraph	    u00B6
       S       \[sc]	    section	    u00A7	+
       <=      \[lh]	    uni261C	    u261C	hand pointing left +
       =>      \[rh]	    a14 	    u261E	hand pointing right +

       @       \[at]	    at		    u0040
       #       \[sh]	    numbersign	    u0023
       _|      \[CR]	    carriagereturn  u21B5
       (N/A)   \[OK]	    a19 	    u2713	check mark, tick


       (C)     \[co]	    copyright	    u00A9	+
       (R)     \[rg]	    registered	    u00AE	+
       tm      \[tm]	    trademark	    u2122
       (N/A)   \[bs]	    --- 	    --- 	AT&T Bell Labs logo
							(not used in groff) +

       Currency symbols

       $       \[Do]	    dollar	    u0024
       c       \[ct]	    cent	    u00A2	+
       EUR     \[eu]	    --- 	    u20AC	official Euro symbol
       EUR     \[Eu]	    Euro	    u20AC	font-specific Euro
							glyph variant
       Y       \[Ye]	    yen 	    u00A5
       L       \[Po]	    sterling	    u00A3	British currency sign
       x       \[Cs]	    currency	    u00A4	Scandinavian currency
       f       \[Fn]	    florin	    u0192	Dutch currency sign


       o       \[de]	    degree	    u00B0	+
       %o      \[%0]	    perthousand     u2030	per thousand, per
							mille sign
       '       \[fm]	    minute	    u2032	footmark, prime +
       ''      \[sd]	    second	    u2033
       u       \[mc]	    mu		    u00B5	micro sign
       a       \[Of]	    ordfeminine     u00AA
       o       \[Om]	    ordmasculine    u00BA

       Logical Symbols

       ^       \[AN]	    logicaland	    u2227
       v       \[OR]	    logicalor	    u2228
       ~       \[no]	    logicalnot	    u00AC	+
       ~       \[tno]	    logicalnot	    u00AC	text variant of `no'
       3       \[te]	    existential     u2203	there exists, existential
       V       \[fa]	    universal	    u2200	for all, universal
       -)      \[st]	    suchthat	    u220B
       .:.     \[3d]	    therefore	    u2234
       .:.     \[tf]	    therefore	    u2234
       |       \[or]	    bar 	    u007C	bitwise OR operator
							(as used in C) +

       Mathematical Symbols

       1/2     \[12]	    onehalf	    u00BD	+
       1/4     \[14]	    onequarter	    u00BC	+
       3/4     \[34]	    threequarters   u00BE	+
       1/8     \[18]	    oneeighth	    u215B
       3/8     \[38]	    threeeighths    u215C
       5/8     \[58]	    fiveeighths     u215D
       7/8     \[78]	    seveneighths    u215E
       1       \[S1]	    onesuperior     u00B9
       2       \[S2]	    twosuperior     u00B2
       3       \[S3]	    threesuperior   u00B3

       +       \[pl]	    plus	    u002B	plus sign in special
							font +
       -       \[mi]	    minus	    u2212	minus sign in special
							font +
       -+      \[-+]	    uni2213	    u2213
       +-      \[+-]	    plusminus	    u00B1	+
       +-      \[t+-]	    plusminus	    u00B1	text variant of `+-'
       .       \[pc]	    periodcentered  u00B7
       .       \[md]	    dotmath	    u22C5	multiplication dot
       x       \[mu]	    multiply	    u00D7	+
       x       \[tmu]	    multiply	    u00D7	text variant of `mu'
       x       \[c*]	    circlemultiply  u2297	multiply sign in a
       +       \[c+]	    circleplus	    u2295	plus sign in a circle
       -:-     \[di]	    divide	    u00F7	division sign +
       -:-     \[tdi]	    divide	    u00F7	text variant of `di'
       /       \[f/]	    fraction	    u2044	bar for fractions
       *       \[**]	    asteriskmath    u2217	+
       <=      \[<=]	    lessequal	    u2264	+
       >=      \[>=]	    greaterequal    u2265	+
       <<      \[<<]	    uni226A	    u226A	much less
       >>      \[>>]	    uni226B	    u226B	much greater
       =       \[eq]	    equal	    u003D	equals sign in special
							font +
       !=      \[!=]	    notequal	    u003D_0338	+
       ==      \[==]	    equivalence     u2261	+
       !==     \[ne]	    uni2262	    u2261_0338
       =~      \[=~]	    congruent	    u2245	approx. equal
       -~      \[|=]	    uni2243	    u2243	asymptot. equal to +
       ~       \[ap]	    similar	    u223C	+
       ~~      \[~~]	    approxequal     u2248	almost equal to
       ~=      \[~=]	    approxequal     u2248
       oc      \[pt]	    proportional    u221D	+
       {}      \[es]	    emptyset	    u2205	+
       E       \[mo]	    element	    u2208	+
       E       \[nm]	    notelement	    u2208_0338
       (=      \[sb]	    propersubset    u2282	+
       (N/A)   \[nb]	    notsubset	    u2282_0338
       =)      \[sp]	    propersuperset  u2283	+
       (N/A)   \[nc]	    uni2285	    u2283_0338	not superset
       (_      \[ib]	    reflexsubset    u2286	+
       _)      \[ip]	    reflexsuperset  u2287	+
       (^)     \[ca]	    intersection    u2229	intersection, cap +
       U       \[cu]	    union	    u222A	union, cup +
       /       \[/_]	    angle	    u2220
       |       \[pp]	    perpendicular   u22A5
       ,I       \[is]	    integral	    u222B	+
       (N/A)   \[integral]  integral	    u222B	***
       (N/A)   \[sum]	    summation	    u2211	***
       (N/A)   \[product]   product	    u220F	***
       _						+
       V       \[gr]	    gradient	    u2207
       \/      \[sr]	    radical	    u221A	square root +
       (N/A)   \[sqrt]	    radical	    u221A	***
       (N/A)   \[radicalex] radicalex	    --- 	continuation of square
       (N/A)   \[sqrtex]    radicalex	    --- 	***
       |~      \[lc]	    uni2308	    u2308	left ceiling +
       ~|      \[rc]	    uni2309	    u2309	right ceiling +
       |_      \[lf]	    uni230A	    u230A	left floor +
       _|      \[rf]	    uni230B	    u230B	right floor +
       oo      \[if]	    infinity	    u221E	+
       N       \[Ah]	    aleph	    u2135
       I       \[Im]	    Ifraktur	    u2111	Gothic I, imaginary
       R       \[Re]	    Rfraktur	    u211C	Gothic R, real

       p       \[wp]	    weierstrass     u2118	Weierstrass p
       a       \[pd]	    partialdiff     u2202	partial differentiation
 sign +
       (N/A)   \[-h]	    uni210F	    u210F	Planck constant over
							two pi
       (N/A)   \[hbar]	    uni210F	    u210F

       Greek characters

       These glyphs are intended for technical use, not for real  Greek;  normally,
 the uppercase letters have upright shape, and the lowercase ones
       are slanted.  There is a problem with the mapping of letter phi to Unicode.
   Prior  to  Unicode  version 3.0, the difference between U+03C6,
       GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI, and U+03D5, GREEK PHI SYMBOL, was  not  clearly
       described; only the glyph shapes in the Unicode book could be used as a
       reference.  Starting with Unicode 3.0, the reference glyphs  have  been
       exchanged  and described verbally also: In mathematical context, U+03D5
       is the stroked variant and U+03C5 the curly glyph.  Unfortunately, most
       font vendors didn't update their fonts to this (incompatible) change in
       Unicode.  At the time of this writing (February 2003), it is not  clear
       yet  whether  the  Adobe  Glyph	Names `phi' and `phi1' also change its
       meaning if used for mathematics, thus compatibility problems are likely
       to happen - being conservative, groff currently assumes that `phi' in a
       PostScript symbol font is the stroked version.

       In groff, symbol `\[*f]' always denotes the stroked version of phi, and
       `\[+f]' the curly variant.

       A       \[*A]	    Alpha	    u0391	+
       B       \[*B]	    Beta	    u0392	+
	_						+
       |       \[*G]	    Gamma	    u0393
       /\      \[*D]	    Delta	    u0394	+
       E       \[*E]	    Epsilon	    u0395	+
       Z       \[*Z]	    Zeta	    u0396	+
       H       \[*Y]	    Eta 	    u0397	+
       O       \[*H]	    Theta	    u0398	+
       I       \[*I]	    Iota	    u0399	+
       K       \[*K]	    Kappa	    u039A	+
       /\      \[*L]	    Lambda	    u039B	+
       M       \[*M]	    Mu		    u039C	+
       N       \[*N]	    Nu		    u039D	+
       H       \[*C]	    Xi		    u039E	+
       O       \[*O]	    Omicron	    u039F	+
       TT      \[*P]	    Pi		    u03A0	+
       P       \[*R]	    Rho 	    u03A1	+
       _						+
       >       \[*S]	    Sigma	    u03A3
       T       \[*T]	    Tau 	    u03A4	+
       Y       \[*U]	    Upsilon	    u03A5	+
       O       \[*F]	    Phi 	    u03A6	+
       X       \[*X]	    Chi 	    u03A7	+
       Y       \[*Q]	    Psi 	    u03A8	+
       O       \[*W]	    Omega	    u03A9	+
       a       \[*a]	    alpha	    u03B1	+
       B       \[*b]	    beta	    u03B2	+
       y       \[*g]	    gamma	    u03B3	+
       d       \[*d]	    delta	    u03B4	+
       e       \[*e]	    epsilon	    u03B5	+
       C       \[*z]	    zeta	    u03B6	+
       n       \[*y]	    eta 	    u03B7	+
       0       \[*h]	    theta	    u03B8	+
       i       \[*i]	    iota	    u03B9	+
       k       \[*k]	    kappa	    u03BA	+
       \       \[*l]	    lambda	    u03BB	+

       u       \[*m]	    mu		    u03BC	+
       v       \[*n]	    nu		    u03BD	+
       E       \[*c]	    xi		    u03BE	+
       o       \[*o]	    omicron	    u03BF	+
       n       \[*p]	    pi		    u03C0	+
       p       \[*r]	    rho 	    u03C1	+
       s       \[ts]	    sigma1	    u03C2	terminal sigma +
       o       \[*s]	    sigma	    u03C3	+
       t       \[*t]	    tau 	    u03C4	+
       u       \[*u]	    upsilon	    u03C5	+
       o       \[*f]	    phi 	    u03D5	(stroked glyph)+
       x       \[*x]	    chi 	    u03C7	+
       u       \[*q]	    psi 	    u03C8	+
       w       \[*w]	    omega	    u03C9	+
       0       \[+h]	    theta1	    u03D1	variant theta
       o       \[+f]	    phi1	    u03C6	variant phi (curly
       w       \[+p]	    omega1	    u03D6	variant pi, looking
							like omega
       e       \[+e]	    uni03F5	    u03F5	variant epsilon

       Card symbols

       (N/A)   \[CL]	    club	    u2663	black club suit
       (N/A)   \[SP]	    spade	    u2660	black spade suit
       (N/A)   \[HE]	    heart	    u2665	black heart suit
       (N/A)   \[u2662]     uni2662	    u2662	white heart suit
       (N/A)   \[DI]	    diamond	    u2666	black diamond suit
       (N/A)   \[u2661]     uni2661	    u2661	white diamond suit

AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]

       Copyright  (C)  1989-2000,  2001,  2002, 2003 Free Software Foundation,

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Documentation
  License)  version  1.1 or later.  You should have received a
       copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
       copyleft site <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html>.

       This  document  is  part  of  groff, the GNU roff distribution.	It was
       written by James Clark <jjc@jclark.com> with additions by  Werner  Lemberg
 <wl@gnu.org> and Bernd Warken <bwarken@mayn.de>.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

	      the GNU roff formatter.

	      a short reference of the groff formatting language.

       An  extension  to the troff character set for Europe, E.G. Keizer, K.J.
       Simonsen, J. Akkerhuis; EUUG Newsletter, Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1989

       The Unicode Standard <http://www.unicode.org>

Groff Version 1.19		  1 May 2003			 GROFF_CHAR(7)
[ Back ]
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