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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     pkg_add -- a utility for installing software package distributions

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     pkg_add [-vInfrRMS] [-t template] [-p prefix] pkg-name [pkg-name ...]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The pkg_add command is used to extract packages that have been previously
     created with the pkg_create(1) command.

WARNING    [Toc]    [Back]

     Since the pkg_add command may execute scripts or programs contained
     within a package file, your system may be susceptible to ``trojan
     horses'' or other subtle attacks from miscreants who create dangerous
     package files.

     You are advised to verify the competence and identity of those who pro-
     vide installable package files.  For extra protection, use the -M flag to
     extract the package file, and inspect its contents and scripts to ensure
     it poses no danger to your system's integrity.  Pay particular attention
     +MTREE_DIRS files, and inspect the +CONTENTS file for @cwd, @mode (check
     for setuid), @dirrm, @exec, and @unexec directives, and/or use the
     pkg_info(1) command to examine the package file.

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The following command line arguments are supported:

     pkg-name [pkg-name ...]
	     The named packages are installed.	A package name of - will cause
	     pkg_add to read from stdin.  If the packages are not found in the
	     current working directory, pkg_add will search them in each
	     directory named by PKG_PATH.

     -v      Turn on verbose output.

     -I      If an installation scripts (pre-install or post-install) exist
	     for a given package, do not execute them.

     -n      Don't actually install a package, just report the steps that
	     would be taken if it was.

     -R      Do not record the installation of a package.  This means that you
	     cannot deinstall it later, so only use this option if you know
	     what you are doing!

     -r      Use the remote fetching feature.  This will determine the appropriate
 objformat and release and then fetch and install the package.

     -f      Force installation to proceed even if prerequisite packages are
	     not installed or the requirements script fails.  Although pkg_add
	     will still try to find and auto-install missing prerequisite
	     packages, a failure to find one will not be fatal.

     -p prefix
	     Set prefix as the directory in which to extract files from a
	     package.  If a package has set its default directory, it will be
	     overridden by this flag.  Note that only the first @cwd directive
	     will be replaced, since pkg_add has no way of knowing which
	     directory settings are relative and which are absolute.  It is
	     rare in any case to see more than one directory transition made,
	     but when such does happen and you wish to have control over *all*
	     directory transitions, then you may then wish to look into the
	     use of MASTER and SLAVE modes (see the -M and -S options).

     -t template
	     Use template as the input to mktemp(3) when creating a ``staging
	     area''.  By default, this is the string /var/tmp/instmp.XXXXXX,
	     but it may be necessary to override it in the situation where
	     space in your /var/tmp directory is limited.  Be sure to leave
	     some number of `X' characters for mktemp(3) to fill in with a
	     unique ID.

	     You can get a performance boost by setting the staging area
	     template to reside on the same disk partition as target directories
 for package file installation; often this is /usr.

     -M      Run in MASTER mode.  This is a very specialized mode for running
	     pkg_add and is meant to be run in conjunction with SLAVE mode.
	     When run in this mode, pkg_add does no work beyond extracting the
	     package into a temporary staging area (see the -t option), reading
 in the packing list, and then dumping it (prefaced by the
	     current staging area) to stdout where it may be filtered by a
	     program such as sed(1).  When used in conjunction with SLAVE
	     mode, it allows you to make radical changes to the package structure
 before acting on its contents.

     -S      Run in SLAVE mode.  This is a very specialized mode for running
	     pkg_add and is meant to be run in conjunction with MASTER mode.
	     When run in this mode, pkg_add expects the release contents to be
	     already extracted and waiting in the staging area, the location
	     of which is read as a string from stdin.  The complete packing
	     list is also read from stdin, and the contents then acted on as

     One or more pkg-name arguments may be specified, each being either a file
     containing the package (these usually end with a ``.tbz'' suffix) or a
     URL pointing at a file available on an ftp site.  Thus you may extract
     files directly from their anonymous ftp locations (e.g. pkg_add
     Note:  If you wish to use passive mode ftp in such transfers, set the
     variable FTP_PASSIVE_MODE to some value in your environment.  Otherwise,
     the more standard ACTIVE mode may be used.  If pkg_add consistently fails
     to fetch a package from a site known to work, it may be because you have
     a firewall that demands the usage of passive mode ftp.

TECHNICAL DETAILS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The pkg_add utility extracts each package's "packing list" into a special
     staging directory in /tmp (or $PKG_TMPDIR if set), parses it, and then
     runs through the following sequence to fully extract the contents of the

     1.   A check is made to determine if the package is already recorded as
	  installed.  If it is, installation is terminated.

     2.   A check is made to determine if the package conflicts (from
	  @conflicts directives, see pkg_create(1)) with an already-installed
	  package.  If it is, installation is terminated.

     3.   Scan all the package dependencies (from @pkgdep directives, see
	  pkg_create(1)) are read from the packing list.  If any of these
	  required packages is not currently installed, an attempt is made to
	  find and install it; if the missing package cannot be found or
	  installed, the installation is terminated.

     4.   Search for any @option directives which control how the package is
	  added to the system.	At the time of this writing, the only currently
 implemented option is @option extract-in-place which will
	  cause the package to be extracted directly into its prefix directory
	  without moving through a staging area in /tmp.

     5.   If @option extract-in-place is enabled, the package is now extracted
	  directly into its final location, otherwise it is extracted into the
	  staging area.

     6.   If the package contains a require file (see pkg_create(1)), then
	  execute it with the following arguments:
		pkg-name INSTALL
	  where pkg-name is the name of the package in question and the
	  INSTALL keyword denotes this as an installation requirements check
	  (useful if you want to have one script serving multiple functions).

     7.   If a pre-install script exists for the package, it is then executed
	  with the following arguments:
		script pkg-name PRE-INSTALL

	  where pkg-name is the name of the package in question and
	  PRE-INSTALL is a keyword denoting this as the preinstallation phase.

	  Note: The PRE-INSTALL keyword will not appear if separate scripts
	  for pre-install and post-install are given during package creation
	  time (using the -i and -I flags to pkg_create(1)).

     8.   If @option extract-in-place is not used, then the packing list (this
	  is the +CONTENTS file) is now used as a guide for moving (or copying,
 as necessary) files from the staging area into their final

     9.   If the package contains an mtreefile file (see pkg_create(1)), then
	  mtree is invoked as:
		mtree -u -f mtreefile -d -e -p prefix
	  where prefix is either the prefix specified with the -p flag or, if
	  no -p flag was specified, the name of the first directory named by a
	  @cwd directive within this package.

     10.  If a post-install script exists for the package, it is then executed
		script pkg-name POST-INSTALL
	  where pkg-name is the name of the package in question and
	  POST-INSTALL is a keyword denoting this as the post-installation

	  Note: The POST-INSTALL keyword will not appear if separate scripts
	  for pre-install and post-install are given during package creation
	  time (using the -i and -I flags to pkg_create(1)).

	  Reasoning behind passing keywords such as POST-INSTALL and
	  PRE-INSTALL is that this allows you to write a single install script
	  that does both ``before and after'' actions.	But, separating the
	  functionality is more advantageous and easier from a maintenance

     11.  After installation is complete, a copy of the packing list,
	  deinstall script, description, and display files are copied into
	  /var/db/pkg/<pkg-name> for subsequent possible use by pkg_delete(1).
	  Any package dependencies are recorded in the other packages'
	  /var/db/pkg/<other-pkg>/+REQUIRED_BY file (if the environment variable
 PKG_DBDIR is set, this overrides the /var/db/pkg/ path shown

     12.  Finally, the staging area is deleted and the program terminates.

     All the scripts are called with the environment variable PKG_PREFIX set
     to the installation prefix (see the -p option above).  This allows a
     package author to write a script that reliably performs some action on
     the directory where the package is installed, even if the user might
     change it with the -p flag to pkg_add.

ENVIRONMENT    [Toc]    [Back]

     The value of the PKG_PATH is used if a given package can't be found.  The
     environment variable should be a series of entries separated by colons.
     Each entry consists of a directory name.  The current directory may be
     indicated implicitly by an empty directory name, or explicitly by a single

     The environment variable PKG_DBDIR specifies an alternative location for
     the installed package database, default location is /var/db/pkg.

     The environment variables PKG_TMPDIR and TMPDIR, in that order, are taken
     to name temporary directories where pkg_add will attempt to create its
     staging area in.  If these variables are not present or if the directories
 named lack sufficient space, then pkg_add will use the first of
     /var/tmp, /tmp or /usr/tmp with sufficient space.

     The environment variable PACKAGEROOT specifies an alternate location for
     pkg_add to fetch from.  The fetch URL is built using this environment
     variable and the automatic directory logic that pkg_add uses when the -r
     option is invoked.  An example setting would be "ftp://ftp3.FreeBSD.org".

     The environment variable PACKAGESITE specifies an alternate location for
     pkg_add to fetch from.  This variable subverts the automatic directory
     logic that pkg_add uses when the -r option is invoked.  Thus it should be
     a complete URL to the remote package file(s).

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     /var/tmp	  Temporary directory for creating the staging area, if environmental
 variables PKG_TMPDIR or TMPDIR do not point to a
		  suitable directory.
     /tmp	  Next choice if /var/tmp does not exist or has insufficient
     /usr/tmp	  Last choice if /var/tmp and /tmp are not suitable for creating
 the staging area.
     /var/db/pkg  Default location of the installed package database.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     pkg_create(1), pkg_delete(1), pkg_info(1), pkg_version(1), mktemp(3),
     sysconf(3), mtree(8)

AUTHORS    [Toc]    [Back]

     Jordan Hubbard

CONTRIBUTORS    [Toc]    [Back]

     John Kohl <jtk@rational.com>

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     Hard links between files in a distribution are only preserved if either
     (1) the staging area is on the same file system as the target directory
     of all the links to the file, or (2) all the links to the file are bracketed
 by @cwd directives in the contents file, and the link names are
     extracted with a single tar command (not split between invocations due to
     exec argument-space limitations--this depends on the value returned by

     Sure to be others.

FreeBSD 5.2.1		       November 25, 1994		 FreeBSD 5.2.1
[ Back ]
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