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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       grops - PostScript driver for groff

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       grops [ -glmv ] [ -bn ] [ -cn ] [ -Fdir ] [ -ppapersize ]
	     [ -Pprologue ] [ -wn ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript.	Normally grops
       should be invoked by using  the	groff  command	with  a  -Tps  option.
       (Actually,  this  is  the  default  for groff.)	If no files are given,
       grops will read the standard input.  A filename of -  will  also  cause
       grops  to read the standard input.  PostScript output is written to the
       standard output.  When grops is run by groff options can be  passed  to
       grops using the groff -P option.

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       -bn    Provide  workarounds  for  older	printers, broken spoolers, and
	      previewers.  Normally grops produces output at  PostScript  LanguageLevel
  2  that conforms to the Document Structuring Conventions
 version 3.0.  Some older printers, spoolers, and  previewers
  can't  handle  such	output.   The value of n controls what
	      grops does to make its output acceptable to  such  programs.   A
	      value of 0 will cause grops not to employ any workarounds.

	      Add 1 if no %%BeginDocumentSetup and %%EndDocumentSetup comments
	      should be generated; this is needed for early versions of  TranScript
  that  get  confused  by anything between the %%EndProlog
	      comment and the first %%Page comment.

	      Add 2 if lines in included files beginning with  %!   should  be
	      stripped out; this is needed for Sun's pageview previewer.

	      Add  4  if  %%Page, %%Trailer and %%EndProlog comments should be
	      stripped out of included files; this is needed for spoolers that
	      don't understand the %%BeginDocument and %%EndDocument comments.

	      Add 8 if the first line of the PostScript output should be %!PS-
	      Adobe-2.0  rather than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is needed when using
	      Sun's Newsprint with a printer that requires page reversal.

	      Add 16 if no media size information should be  included  in  the
	      document	(this  is,  neither  use  %%DocumentMedia nor the set-
	      pagedevice PostScript command).  This was the behaviour of groff
	      version  1.18.1  and  earlier;  it  is needed for older printers
	      which don't understand PostScript LanguageLevel 2.

	      The default value can be specified by a

		     broken n

	      command in the DESC file.  Otherwise the default value is 0.

       -cn    Print n copies of each page.

       -Fdir  Prepend directory dir/devname to the search path	for  prologue,
	      font,  and  device  description  files;  name is the name of the
	      device, usually ps.

       -g     Guess the page length.   This  generates	PostScript  code  that
	      guesses  the page length.  The guess will be correct only if the
	      imageable area is vertically centered on the page.  This	option
	      allows  you  to  generate  documents that can be printed both on
	      letter (8.5x11) paper and on A4 paper without change.

       -l     Print the document in landscape format.

       -m     Turn manual feed on for the document.

	      Set physical dimension of output	medium.   This	overrides  the
	      papersize,  paperlength,	and  paperwidth  commands  in the DESC
	      file; it accepts the same arguments as  the  papersize  command.
	      See groff_font (5) for details.

	      Use  the	file  prologue-file (in the font path) as the prologue
	      instead of the default  prologue	file  prologue.   This	option
	      overrides the environment variable GROPS_PROLOGUE.

       -wn    Lines  should  be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths of an
	      em.  If this option is not given, the line thickness defaults to
	      0.04 em.

       -v     Print the version number.

USAGE    [Toc]    [Back]

       There  are  styles  called  R, I, B, and BI mounted at font positions 1
       to 4.  The fonts are grouped into families A, BM, C, H, HN, N, P, and T
       having members in each of these styles:

	      AR     AvantGarde-Book
	      AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique
	      AB     AvantGarde-Demi
	      ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique
	      BMR    Bookman-Light
	      BMI    Bookman-LightItalic
	      BMB    Bookman-Demi
	      BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic
	      CR     Courier
	      CI     Courier-Oblique
	      CB     Courier-Bold
	      CBI    Courier-BoldOblique
	      HR     Helvetica
	      HI     Helvetica-Oblique
	      HB     Helvetica-Bold
	      HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique
	      HNR    Helvetica-Narrow
	      HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique
	      HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold
	      HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique
	      NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman
	      NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic
	      NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold
	      NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic
	      PR     Palatino-Roman
	      PI     Palatino-Italic
	      PB     Palatino-Bold
	      PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic
	      TR     Times-Roman
	      TI     Times-Italic
	      TB     Times-Bold
	      TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member of a family:

	      ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There  are also some special fonts called S for the PS Symbol font, and
       SS, containing slanted lowercase Greek letters taken  from  PS  Symbol.
       Zapf Dingbats is available as ZD and a reversed version of ZapfDingbats
       (with symbols pointing in the opposite direction) is available as  ZDR;
       most  characters  in these fonts are unnamed and must be accessed using

       The default color for \m and \M is black; for  colors  defined  in  the
       `rgb'  color  space, setrgbcolor is used, for `cmy' and `cmyk' setcmyk-
       color, and for `gray' setgray.  Note that setcmykcolor is a  PostScript
       LanguageLevel  2 command and thus not available on some older printers.

       grops understands various X  commands  produced	using  the  \X	escape
       sequence; grops will only interpret commands that begin with a ps: tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
	      This executes the arbitrary PostScript commands  in  code.   The
	      PostScript  currentpoint	will  be set to the position of the \X
	      command before executing code.  The origin will be  at  the  top
	      left  corner  of	the page, and y coordinates will increase down
	      the page.  A procedure u will be	defined  that  converts  groff
	      units to the coordinate system in effect.  For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

	      will  draw  a  horizontal  line  one  inch  long.  code may make
	      changes to the graphics state, but any changes will persist only
	      to the end of the page.  A dictionary containing the definitions
	      specified by the def and mdef will be on top of  the  dictionary
	      stack.   If  your  code adds definitions to this dictionary, you
	      should allocate space for them using \X'ps mdef n'.  Any definitions
  will  persist only until the end of the page.  If you use
	      the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a macro, code
	      can extend over multiple lines.  For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     .de y
		     ps: exec
		     \nx u 0 rlineto

	      is another way to draw a horizontal line one inch long.

       \X'ps: file name'
	      This  is the same as the exec command except that the PostScript
	      code is read from file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
	      Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue.
	      There  should  be  at  most one definition per \X command.  Long
	      definitions can be split over several \X commands; all the  code
	      arguments are simply joined together separated by newlines.  The
	      definitions are placed in a dictionary  which  is  automatically
	      pushed on the dictionary stack when an exec command is executed.
	      If you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names  a
	      macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
	      Like  def,  except  that	code  may contain up to n definitions.
	      grops needs to know how many definitions code contains  so  that
	      it  can  create  an appropriately sized PostScript dictionary to
	      contain them.

       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'
	      Import a PostScript graphic from file.  The arguments llx,  lly,
	      urx, and ury give the bounding box of the graphic in the default
	      PostScript coordinate system; they should all be	integers;  llx
	      and  lly are the x and y coordinates of the lower left corner of
	      the graphic; urx and ury are the x  and  y  coordinates  of  the
	      upper right corner of the graphic; width and height are integers
	      that give the desired width and height in  groff	units  of  the
	      graphic.	 The  graphic will be scaled so that it has this width
	      and height and translated so that the lower left corner  of  the
	      graphic  is  located at the position associated with \X command.
	      If the height argument is omitted it will be scaled uniformly in
	      the x and y directions so that it has the specified width.  Note
	      that the contents of the	\X  command  are  not  interpreted  by
	      troff;  so  vertical  space for the graphic is not automatically
	      added, and the width and height arguments  are  not  allowed  to
	      have  attached  scaling indicators.  If the PostScript file complies
 with the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions  and  contains
  a	%%BoundingBox  comment,  then  the bounding box can be
	      automatically extracted from within  groff  by  using  the  psbb

	      See  groff_tmac(5)  for  a  description of the PSPIC macro which
	      provides a convenient  high-level  interface  for  inclusion  of
	      PostScript graphics.

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
	      No  output  will be generated for text and drawing commands that
	      are bracketed  with  these  \X  commands.   These  commands  are
	      intended for use when output from troff will be previewed before
	      being processed with grops; if the previewer is unable  to  display
  certain characters or other constructs, then other substitute
 characters or constructs can  be  used  for	previewing  by
	      bracketing them with these \X commands.

	      For  example,  gxditview	is  not  able to display a proper \(em
	      character because the standard X11 fonts do not provide it; this
	      problem can be overcome by executing the following request

		     .char \(em \X'ps: invis'\
		     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
		     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

	      In this case, gxditview will be unable to display the \(em character
 and will draw the line, whereas grops will print the  \(em
	      character  and  ignore  the  line  (this code is already in file
	      Xps.tmac which will be loaded if a documented intended for grops
	      is previewed with gxditview).

       The  input  to grops must be in the format output by troff(1).  This is
       described in groff_out(5).

       In addition, the device and font description files for the device  used
       must  meet certain requirements.  The device and font description files
       supplied for ps device meet all these requirements.  afmtodit(1) can be
       used  to  create  font files from AFM files.  The resolution must be an
       integer multiple of 72 times the sizescale.  The ps device uses a resolution
 of 72000 and a sizescale of 1000.

       The  device  description  file  must  contain  a  valid paper size; see
       groff_font(5) for more information.

       Each font description file must contain a command

	      internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also
       contain a command

	      encoding enc_file

       which  says  that  the  PostScript  font  should be reencoded using the
       encoding described in enc_file; this file should consist of a  sequence
       of lines of the form:

	      pschar code

       where  pschar  is the PostScript name of the character, and code is its
       position in the encoding expressed as a decimal integer;  valid	values
       are  in	the range 0 to 255.  Lines starting with # and blank lines are
       ignored.  The code for each character given in the font file must  correspond
	to the code for the character in encoding file, or to the code
       in the default encoding for the font if the PostScript font is  not  to
       be  reencoded.	This  code  can be used with the \N escape sequence in
       troff to select the character, even if the character does  not  have  a
       groff  name.   Every character in the font file must exist in the PostScript
 font, and the widths given in  the  font	file  must  match  the
       widths used in the PostScript font.  grops will assume that a character
       with a groff name of space is blank (makes no marks on  the  page);  it
       can make use of such a character to generate more efficient and compact
       PostScript output.

       Note that grops is able to display all glyphs in a PostScript font, not
       only 256.  enc_file (or the default encoding if no encoding file specified)
 just defines the order of glyphs for the  first  256  characters;
       all  other  glyphs  are accessed with additional encoding vectors which
       grops produces on the fly.

       grops can automatically include the  downloadable  fonts  necessary  to
       print  the document.  Such fonts must be in PFA format.	Use pfbtops(1)
       to convert a Type 1 font in PFB format.	Any downloadable  fonts  which
       should,	when required, be included by grops must be listed in the file
       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/download; this should consist of  lines  of
       the form

	      font filename

       where font is the PostScript name of the font, and filename is the name
       of the file containing the font; lines beginning with # and blank lines
       are  ignored;  fields may be separated by tabs or spaces; filename will
       be searched for using the same mechanism that is used  for  groff  font
       metric files.  The download file itself will also be searched for using
       this mechanism; currently, only the first found file in the  font  path
       is used.

       If  the	file  containing a downloadable font or imported document conforms
 to the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions,  then  grops  will
       interpret any comments in the files sufficiently to ensure that its own
       output is conforming.  It will also supply any  needed  font  resources
       that  are  listed  in  the  download  file  as  well as any needed file
       resources.  It is also able to handle inter-resource dependencies.  For
       example, suppose that you have a downloadable font called Garamond, and
       also a downloadable font called Garamond-Outline which depends on Garamond
 (typically it would be defined to copy Garamond's font dictionary,
       and change the PaintType), then it is necessary for Garamond to	appear
       before  Garamond-Outline in the PostScript document.  grops will handle
       this automatically provided that the downloadable font file  for  Garamond-Outline
 indicates its dependence on Garamond by means of the Document
 Structuring Conventions, for example by beginning with the following

	      %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
	      %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
	      %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be listed
       in the download file.  A downloadable font should not include  its  own
       name in a %%DocumentSuppliedResources comment.

       grops  will  not  interpret  %%DocumentFonts comments.  The %%Document-
       NeededResources,    %%DocumentSuppliedResources,     %%IncludeResource,
       %%BeginResource,  and  %%EndResource  comments  (or  possibly  the  old
       %%DocumentNeededFonts, %%DocumentSuppliedFonts, %%IncludeFont, %%Begin-
       Font, and %%EndFont comments) should be used.

   TrueType fonts    [Toc]    [Back]
       TrueType  fonts	can  be  used with grops if converted first to Type 42
       format, an especial PostScript wrapper equivalent  to  the  PFA	format
       mentioned in pfbtops(1).  There are several different methods to generate
 a type42 wrapper and most of them involve the use of  a  PostScript
       interpreter  such as Ghostscript -- see gs(1).  Yet, the easiest method
       involves the use  of  the  application  ttftot42.   This  program  uses
       freetype(3)  (version 1.3.1) to generate type42 font wrappers and wellformed
 AFM files that can be fed to the afmtodit(1)  script  to	create
       appropriate  metric files.  The resulting font wrappers should be added
       to the download file.  ttftot42 source code can be downloaded from
       ftp://www.giga.or.at/pub/nih/ttftot42/ <ftp://www.giga.or.at/pub/nih/

ENVIRONMENT    [Toc]    [Back]

	      If this is set to foo, then grops will use the file foo (in  the
	      font  path)  instead of the default prologue file prologue.  The
	      option -P overrides this environment variable.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

	      Device description file.

	      Font description file for font F.

	      List of downloadable fonts.

	      Encoding used for text fonts.

	      Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded by troffrc

	      Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded by ps.tmac.

	      Macros to disable use of characters not present in  older  PostScript
 printers (e.g. `eth' or `thorn').

	      Temporary file.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       afmtodit(1),	groff(1),    troff(1),	  pfbtops(1),	 groff_out(5),
       groff_font(5), groff_char(7), groff_tmac(5)

Groff Version 1.19		  1 May 2003			      GROPS(1)
[ Back ]
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