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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       sendmail,  newaliases,  mailq, smtpd - Sends mail over the

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       /usr/sbin/sendmail [options] [address...]


       /usr/sbin/mailq [-v]


OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Set the body type to type. The current values are 7BIT  or
       8BITMIME  ..  Goes into ARPANET mode. All input lines must
       end with a CR-LF, and all messages will be generated  with
       a CR-LF at the end. Also, the From: and Sender: fields are
       examined for the name of the sender.  Runs  as  a  daemon.
       This  requires Berkeley Interprocess Communications (IPC).
       The sendmail command will fork and run in the  background,
       listening  on  the  socket  specified in the /etc/services
       file for incoming SMTP  (Simple  Mail  Transfer  Protocol)
       connections.  This is normally run when going to multiuser

              Using this option is equivalent to  invoking  sendmail
  as  smtpd.   Initializes  the alias database.
              This is the same as invoking  the  newaliases  command.
   Delivers  mail  in the usual way (default).
              Prints a listing of the queue.  This is the same as
              invoking  the mailq command.  Use the SMTP protocol
              as described in RFC821 on standard input  and  output.
  This option implies all the operations of the
              -ba option that are compatible with SMTP.  Runs  in
              address  test  mode.  This mode reads addresses and
              shows the steps in parsing; it is used  for  debugging
  configuration  tables.   Verifies names only.
              Does not try to collect or deliver a message.  Verify
  mode  is normally used for validating users or
              mailing lists.  Uses alternate configuration  file.
              The  sendmail  command refuses to run as root if an
              alternate configuration file  is  specified.   Sets
              debugging value to X. A useful value is 21.n, where
              n is any nonzero integer less than 100.  This  produces
  information regarding address parsing and is
              typically used with the -bt option.  Higher  values
              of  n  produce  more verbose information.  Sets the
              full name of the sender.   Sets  the  name  of  the
              From: user field (that is, the sender of the mail).
              The -f option can only be  used  by  trusted  users
              (normally root, daemon, and network) or if the person
 you are trying to become is  the  same  as  the
              person  you are.  Sets the hop count to N.  The hop
              count is incremented every time the  mail  is  processed.
   When  it  reaches  a  limit,  the mail is
              returned with an error message, the  victim  of  an
              aliasing  loop. If not specified, Received lines in
              the message are counted. The maximum hop  count  is
              configurable, but defaults to 30 if you do not configure
 an alternate value.  The  default  value  is
              acceptable  in  most installations but you may want
              to increase the value  if  too  many  messages  are
              being lost Defines Macro to have Value. This option
              is normally used only from the sendmail daemon command
  line.   Does  not  do aliasing or forwarding.
              Sets option to the specified value.  This form uses
              long  names.   Processing options specified with -O
              are described  in  the  Sendmail  Installation  and
              Operation  Guide on the Documentation CD-ROM.  Sets
              option  X  to  the  specified  value.    Processing
              options  specified  with  -o  are  described in the
              Sendmail Processing Options section later  in  this
              reference  page.  Set the name of the protocol used
              to receive the message. This can be a simple protocol
  name  such as UUCP or a protocol and hostname,
              such as UUCP:ucbvax.  Processes saved  messages  in
              the  queue at given intervals.  If time is omitted,
              processes the queue once. The time command is given
              as  a  tagged number, with s being seconds, m being
              minutes, h being hours, d being days, and  w  being
              weeks.   For  example,  -q1h30m or -q90m would both
              set the time-out to 1 hour and 30 minutes.  If  the
              time  command  is  specified,  the sendmail command
              will run in background mode.  This  option  can  be
              used  safely  with  -bd.   Limit  processed jobs to
              those containing substr as a substring of the queue
              ID.   Limit processed jobs to those containing substr
 as a substring of one of the recipients.  Limit
              processed jobs to those containing substr as a substring
 of the sender.  An  alternate  and  obsolete
              form of the -f option.  Reads a message for recipients.
  The To:, Cc:, and Bcc: lines will be scanned
              for  recipient  addresses.  The  Bcc:  line will be
              deleted before transmission. Any addresses  in  the
              argument  list  will  be  suppressed; that is, they
              will not receive copies even if listed in the  message
 header.  Goes into verbose mode.  Alias expansions
 will be announced, and  so  forth.   Log  all
              traffic  in and out of mailers in the indicated log
              file. This should only be used as a last resort for
              debugging  mailer  bugs.  It will log a lot of data
              very quickly.

OPERANDS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Specifes the mail recipient. You can specify more than one

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The sendmail command sends a message to one or more recipients,
 routing the message over whatever networks are necessary.
  The sendmail command does internetwork forwarding
       as necessary to deliver the message to the correct  place.

       The  sendmail  command is not intended as a user interface
       routine. Other programs provide user-friendly front  ends;
       sendmail is used only to deliver preformatted messages.

       With  no  options, sendmail reads its standard input up to
       an End-of-File or to a line consisting only  of  a  single
       (dot),  and sends a copy of the message found there to all
       of the addresses listed.  It determines the network(s)  to
       use based on the syntax and contents of the addresses.

       Local addresses are looked up in a file and aliased appropriately.
 Aliasing  can  be  prevented  by  preceding  the
       address  with  a backslash (\). Normally the sender is not
       included in any alias expansions;  for  example,  if  john
       sends  to group, and group includes john in the expansion,
       then the letter will not be delivered to john.

       For additional information on mail, see the sendmail  book
       by O'Reilly & Associates and the Sendmail Installation and
       Operation Guide on the Documentation CD-ROM.

   Sendmail Processing Options    [Toc]    [Back]
       There are a number of optional sendmail processing options
       that  can  be set.  Normally, these will be used only by a
       system administrator.  They can be set either on the  command
  line  using  the  -o  option or in the configuration
       file.  (Refer to the  sendmail.cf(4)  reference  page  for
       details on the sendmail.cf file.)


       The  following  partial  list  is limited to those options
       that are likely to be useful on the command line.   For  a
       complete listing, see the Sendmail Installation and Operation

       Full pathname to the alias file.  The  minimum  number  of
       free  blocks  (bminblocks) needed on the spool filesystem.
       Sets the blank substitution  character  to  the  character
       specified  in  the Character argument. The sendmail daemon
       replaces unquoted spaces in addresses with Character.  The
       supplied  configuration file uses a period (.) for Character.
  Causes sendmail to queue messages  for  that  mailer
       daemon  without  sending  them  if  an  outgoing mailer is
       marked as expensive to use.  The queue  can  be  run  when
       costs  are lower or when the queue is large enough to send
       the message efficiently.  Sets the  delivery  mode  to  x.
       Delivery  modes are i for interactive (synchronous) delivery,
 b for background (asynchronous) delivery, and  q  for
       queue only (that is, actual delivery is done the next time
       the queue is run).  Tries  to  automatically  rebuild  the
       alias  database  if  necessary.   Sets error processing to
       mode x.  Valid modes are the following:  Mails  the  error
       message  to  the user's mailbox, but always exits with a 0
       (zero) exit status (normal return).  Mails the error  message
 to the user's mailbox.  Displays the error message on
       the terminal (default).  Throws away the error message and
       returns the exit status only.  Writes the error message to
       the terminal or mails it if the user is not logged in.

              If the text of the message is not mailed by modes m
              or  w  and if the sender is a local user, a copy of
              the message is appended to the dead.letter file  in
              the  sender's home directory.  The mode to use when
              creating temporary files.   Saves  UNIX  compatible
              style   From:  lines  at  the  front  of  messages.
              Enables GECOS fuzzy-logic name matching.

              The GECOS field is a field in the /etc/passwd  file
              that  usually  contains  the user's full name.  You
              can modify this information by using the chfn  routine.
  If sendmail does not find an exact match for
              the user name,  the  Match-GECOS  option  tries  to
              match   the   user   name   against  names  in  the
              /etc/passwd file.

              For example, if user Jane Q. Public's user name  is
              jpq,  she  will receive mail sent to jane if she is
              the only Jane in the /etc/passwd  file.   Likewise,
              if  John Doe's username is jd, he will receive mail
              sent  to  doe  if  he  is  the  only  Doe  in   the
              /etc/passwd file.

              The  sendmail  Version  8 command and previous versions
 of sendmail differ in how they process  GECOS
              information.  If the GECOS option is enabled, sendmail
 Version 8 is very  stringent;  it  requires  a
              match  on  the  entire  name.  For instance, if the
              GECOS field for user jd is "John Doe",  then  sendmail
 Version 8 will only work for mail sent to john
              doe.  An older version of sendmail  may  work  with
              john  doe,  john,  or doe assuming that this is the
              only john (or the  only  doe)  in  the  file.   The
              default  group ID to use when calling mailers.  The
              SMTP help file.  Specifies the maximum hop count.

              The maximum hop count option specifies the  maximum
              number  of machines that a mail message can be sent
              to before it is rejected.  This limit  is  used  to
              help  prevent  infinite mail loops.  The default is
              30. Depending on the size of your mail system,  you
              may  require  a  higher or lower minimum hop count.
              Does not interpret a . (dot) on a line by itself as
              a   message  terminator.  Removes  the  excess  dot
              inserted by a remote mailer at the beginning  of  a
              line if mail is received through SMTP. In addition,
              if receiving mail through  SMTP,  any  dot  at  the
              front of a line followed by another dot is removed.
              This is the opposite of the action performed by the
              X mailer option.  Indicate that sendmail should use
              the Internet domain name server if  it  can.   Send
              error messages in Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension
 (MIME) format.  Set connection cache time out.
              Set connection cache size.  Specifies the log level
              to be the value supplied in  the  number  argument.
              Each  number includes the activities of all numbers
              of lesser value and adds the activity that it  represents.
  Valid levels and the activities that they
              represent are as follows: Prevents  logging.   Logs
              major  problems only.  Logs message collections and
              failed  deliveries.   Logs  successful  deliveries.
              Logs  messages  deferred  (for example, because the
              host is down).  Logs messages that  are  placed  in
              the  queue (normal event).  Logs unusual but benign
              incidents (for example, trying to process a  locked
              file).  Logs the internal queue ID to external message
 ID mappings (the default). This can be  useful
              for tracing a message as it travels between several
              hosts.  Logs messages that  are  of  interest  when
              debugging.   Logs verbose information regarding the
              queue.  If the  sender  uses  an  alias,  and  that
              sender is a member of the group named by the alias,
              then also send to the sender.  Validates the righthand
  side of alias rewrite rules when the sendmail
              daemon performs the newaliases function.   If  set,
              this  message  may  have old style headers.  If not
              set, this message is guaranteed to have  new  style
              headers  (that is, commas instead of spaces between
              addresses). If set, an adaptive algorithm  is  used
              that  will correctly determine the header format in
              most  cases.   Identifies  the  person  who  is  to
              receive  a  copy of all returned mail.  Selects the
              directory in which to queue messages. The directory
              will be created if it does not exist.  The time-out
              on reads.  If  none  is  set,  sendmail  will  wait
              forever for a mailer. This option violates the word
              (if not the intent) of the SMTP  specification,  so
              the time-out should probably be fairly large.

              The sendmail Version 8 command has additional finegrained
  control  of  timeouts.  See  the  Sendmail
              Installation  and Operation Guide on the Documentation
  CD-ROM  for  additional  information.   Saves
              statistics  in  the named file. Statistics are only
              collected if the file exists.  This  file  must  be
              created by the user.  The recommended path for this
              is /var/adm/sendmail/sendmail.st.   Statistics  can
              be  printed  out using /usr/sbin/mailstats.  Always
              instantiates the queue  file,  even  under  circumstances
  where  it  is not strictly necessary. This
              provides  safety  against  system  crashes   during
              delivery.   Sets  the  time-out on undelivered messages
 in the queue to  the  specified  time.  After
              delivery has failed (for example, because of a host
              being down) for this amount of  time,  failed  messages
  will  be returned to the sender. The default
              in the configuration file is 3 days.  Sets the name
              of  the  time  zone.   Sets the default user ID for
              mailers.  Runs in verbose mode.  The sendmail  daemon
  delivers each message in the mail queue from a
              separate process. This option is not  required;  it
              can increase system overhead in this environment.

   Aliases Interpretation    [Toc]    [Back]
       In  aliases, the first character of a name can be a vertical
 bar to cause interpretation of the rest of the name as
       a  command  to  pipe  the mail to.  It may be necessary to
       quote the name  to  keep  sendmail  from  suppressing  the
       blanks  from  between  arguments.  For example, a file can
       contain a common alias such as:

       msgs: "|/usr/bin/msgs -s"

       Aliases can also have the syntax :include:filename to  ask
       sendmail  to read the named file for a list of recipients.
       For example, an alias such as:

       poets: :include:/usr/local/lib/poets.list

       reads /usr/local/lib/poets.list for the list of  addresses
       making up the group.

       You  can also use the Network Information Service (NIS) to
       distribute your aliases to other systems.

   Exit Status    [Toc]    [Back]
       The sendmail command returns  an  exit  status  describing
       what  it  did. The codes are defined in <sysexits.h>: Successful
 completion on all addresses.  The username was not
       recognized.   A  catchall meaning necessary resources were
       not available.  There is a syntax error  in  the  address.
       There  is  an internal software error, including bad arguments.
  There is a temporary operating system error,  such
       as  cannot  fork.   The  hostname was not recognized.  The
       message could not be sent immediately, but was queued.

   Links to sendmail    [Toc]    [Back]
       Three additional commands are links  to  sendmail:  Prints
       the  contents  of the mail queue. This command is the same
       as running sendmail with the -bp  option.   Builds  a  new
       copy   of  the  alias  database  from  the  /var/adm/sendmail/aliases
 file. This command is  the  same  as  running
       sendmail  with the -bi option.  Runs sendmail as a daemon.
       This command is equivalent to invoking sendmail  with  the
       -bd option.

   Mail Addresses    [Toc]    [Back]
       Mail  addresses are based on the domain address (Internet)
       protocol. These addresses have the form: user@host.domain

       Note that the configuration file  provided  with  sendmail
       specifies  that  blanks  in addresses be converted to dots
       before being transmitted.   This  convention  follows  the
       Internet  mail  protocol described in RFC822, but does not
       match the  Internet  mail  protocol  described  in  RFC733
       (NIC41952).  You can change this setting by setting the OB
       option in the sendmail configuration file (see  the  sendmail.cf(4)  reference page).  A domain is a logical grouping
 of systems that are  connected  together  by  physical
       network  links.  No direct relationship exists between the
       actual physical interconnections and the way in which  the
       systems  are grouped in the domain.  The domain name identifies
 a specific domain within a larger group of domains.
       The  domain  name has the format of a tree structure. Each
       node (or leaf) on the tree corresponds to a resource  set,
       and each node can create and contain new domains below it.
       The actual domain name of a node is the path from the root
       of the tree to that node.

       For example, if node hera is part of the domain OSF, which
       is in turn a subdomain of ORG, a message sent to user  geo
       at that address, uses this format:


       The  message  router (usually sendmail) must determine how
       to send the message to  its  final  destination.   If  the
       router  is  at  hera, it delivers the message to user geo.
       If the router is at another system within the OSF  domain,
       it  corresponds  with  the  name server for that domain to
       find out how to deliver the message. If the router is  not
       a  part of the OSF domain but is in a domain that is under
       the ORG domain, it corresponds with the  name  server  for
       the ORG domain to find out how to deliver the message. The
       respective name server returns a network  address  to  the
       router.  That  network  address determines the actual path
       that the message takes to its destination.

       The domain address is read from right to left,  with  each
       domain  in the address separated from the next domain by a
       (dot). This format  does  not  imply  any  routing.  Thus,
       although  the  example is specified as an ORG address, the
       message might actually travel by a different route if that
       were  more convenient or efficient.  At one site, the message
 associated with the sample address goes directly from
       the  sender  to  node  hera over a local area network.  At
       another site, it might be sent over a UUCP  network  or  a
       combination of other delivery methods.

       Normally, the actual routing of a message is handled automatically.
  However, you can route  the  message  manually
       through  several  specified  hosts  to get it to its final
       destination. An address using intermediate hosts, called a
       route     address,     has     the     following     form:

       Explicitly specifying the message routing with these route
       addresses, while supported, is strongly discouraged by RFC
       1123. Instead, allow the mail software (for example  sendmail)
 to handle routing issues.

       This  address specifies that the message goes first to the
       remote system represented by hosta,  then  to  the  remote
       system  represented  by  hostb,  and finally to the remote
       system represented by hostc. This path is forced  even  if
       there is a more efficient route to hostc.

       In  some  cases you may abbreviate the address rather than
       entering the entire domain name.  In general,  systems  in
       the  same  domain do not need to use the full domain name.
       For example, a user on node zeus.XYZ.COM can send  a  message
 to geo@hera.XYZ.COM by entering only geo@hera because
       they are in the same local domain, XYZ.COM.

       Other mail address formats exist and the mail routing program
  (sendmail) converts most of these other formats to a
       format that the network routing system can use.   However,
       if  you use the domain address format, the routing program
       operates more efficiently.

       For example, if sendmail receives an address in  the  following


       it converts it to the corresponding domain address format:


       Similarly, if sendmail receives an address in the  following
 format: host!user

       the  mail  routing  program routes the message directly to
       the uucp command.  However, when sending  mail  via  uucp,
       you must include a route address that indicates which UUCP
       host(s) to send the message through to get  to  the  final

       To route messages through the UUCP network, use one of the
       following domain address formats.  Your choice depends  on
       the  way  in which the systems at your site are connected:

              For example, the address: @zeus:hera!amy

              sends a message to user amy on UUCP  host  hera  by
              way  of system zeus.  The address: @apollo.802:merlin!lgh

              sends a message to user lgh on UUCP host merlin via
              system  apollo  under  the local domain 802.  uucproute:!user-ID@system_name.domain_name

              In     this     case,     the     address:     merlin!arthur!amy@hera.802

              sends  a  message  to user amy on system hera under
              domain 802 via the UUCP link merlin through arthur.

              In  this  example,  the  address:  @apollo.802:merlin!arthur!amy@hera.802

              sends  a  message  to user amy on system hera under
              domain 802 that  first  goes  through  apollo,  the
              gateway  node  for domain 802, and then through the
              UUCP link merlin through arthur. (Including 802  in
              this  example  is  optional  because the two domain
              names are identical.)  hosta!hostb!hostc!user

              This  example  is  a  purely  UUCP  route  address.

              sends  a message to amy on kronos via the UUCP link
              zeus                 through                  hera.

              This  example,  like  the previous one, is a purely
              UUCP route address.  @zeus.UUCP:@hera.UUCP:amy@kronos.UUCP

              sends  a message to amy on kronos via the UUCP link
              zeus through hera.

              Your host may also be configured to  handle  DECnet
              addresses.  Under DECnet Phase IV, an address is of
              the form nodename::username

              This is typically  converted  into  a  domain-style
              form,   such   as  user@nodename.dnet.parent-domain
              (parent-domain is something such as  compaq.com  or
              OSF.ORG  that  uniquely  identifies  your company).
              Similarly, your host may also handle Phase  V  type
              addresses, such as joe@dec:.nyc.mars.

NOTES    [Toc]    [Back]

       By  default, the Tru64 UNIX sendmail software uses message
       encoding that uses 8 bits of  each  byte.  Although  8-bit
       encoding  better  supports the full range of characters in
       many non-English languages, 8-bit encoding is  not  generally
  recommended  because  it  violates the SMTP protocol
       used for mail transmission over a TCP/IP network.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

       Specifies the command path.  The configuration file.   The
       raw  data  for alias names.  Sets the option variable A to
       the full pathname  of  the  aliases  file  (/var/adm/sendmail/aliases).
   This  file  and the aliases.dir file comprise
 the database of alias  names.   This  file  and  the
       aliases.pag  file  comprise  the  database of alias names.
       This file specifies the users who should receive  mail  on
       the local host.

              This  option  is  not supported in Tru64 UNIX.  The
              help file.  The  collected  statistics.   The  mail
              queue directory.

       Except  for  /usr/sbin/sendmail  and /var/adm/sendmail.cf,
       the  previous  pathnames  are   all   specified   in   the
       /var/adm/sendmail.cf  file,  so they may vary on your system.

       The process id of the daemon.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       Commands: mail(1), mailx(1), rc0(8)

       Functions: syslog(3)

       Files: aliases(4), forward(4), sendmail.cf(4)

       Specifications: RFC819, RFC821, RFC822

       Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide

       sendmail, Bryan Costales  with  Eric  Allman,  O'Reilly  &
       Associates, Inc.

[ Back ]
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