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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     sa - print system accounting statistics

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     sa [-abcdDfijkKlmnqrstu] [-v cutoff] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The sa utility reports on, cleans up,  and  generally  maintains system accounting

     sa  is able to condense the information in /var/account/acct
into the summary
 files  /var/account/savacct  and  /var/account/usracct,
which contain
     system  statistics  according  to command name and login ID,
     This condensation is desirable because on a large system,
     /var/account/acct can grow by hundreds of  blocks  per  day.
The summary
     files  are normally read before the accounting file, so that
reports include
 all available information.

     If file  names  are  supplied,  they  are  read  instead  of
     After  each file is read, if the summary files are being updated, an updated
 summary will be saved to disk.   Only  one  report  is
printed, after
     the last file is processed.

     The labels used in the output indicate the following, except
where otherwise
 specified by individual options:

     avio   Average number of I/O operations per execution.
     cp     Sum of user and system time, in minutes.
     cpu    Same as cp.
     k      CPU time averaged core usage, in 1k units.
     k*sec  CPU storage integral, in 1k-core seconds.
     re     Real time, in minutes.
     s      System time, in minutes.
     tio    Total number of I/O operations.
     u      User time, in minutes.

     The options are as follows:

     -a      List all command names, including  those  containing
             characters and those used only once.  By default, sa
places all
             names containing unprintable  characters  and  those
used only once
             under the name ``***other''.

     -b       If  printing command statistics, sort output by the
sum of user
             and system time divided by number of calls.

     -c      In addition to the number of  calls  and  the  user,
system and real
             times  for  each  command, print their percentage of
the total over
             all commands.

     -d      If printing command statistics, sort by the  average
number of
             disk  I/O  operations.  If printing user statistics,
print the average
 number of disk I/O operations per user.

     -D      If printing command statistics, sort  and  print  by
the total number
 of disk I/O operations.

     -f       Force  no interactive threshold comparison with the
-v option.

     -i      Do not read in the summary files.

     -j      Instead of the total minutes per category, give seconds per call.

     -k      If printing command statistics, sort by the CPU time
average memory
 usage.  If printing user statistics,  print  the
CPU time average
 memory usage.

     -K       If  printing  command statistics, print and sort by
the CPU-storage

     -l      Separate system and user  time;  normally  they  are

     -m       Print  per-user  statistics rather than per-command

     -n      Sort by number of calls.

     -q      Create no output other than error messages.

     -r      Reverse order of sort.

     -s      Truncate the accounting files when  done  and  merge
their data into
             the summary files.

     -t       For  each command, report the ratio of real time to
the sum of user
 and system CPU times.  If the  CPU  time  is  too
small to report,
             ``*ignore*'' appears in this field.

     -u       Superseding  all other flags, for each entry in the
             file, print the user ID, total seconds of CPU usage,
total memory
             usage,  number of I/O operations performed, and command name.

     -v cutoff
             For each command used cutoff times or  fewer,  print
the command
             name  and  await  a reply from the terminal.  If the
reply begins
             with  ``y'',  add  the  command  to   the   category
``**junk**''.  This
             flag is used to strip garbage from the report.

     By  default,  per-command  statistics  will be printed.  The
number of calls,
     the total elapsed time in minutes, total CPU and  user  time
in minutes,
     average number of I/O operations, and CPU time averaged core
usage will
     be printed.  If the -m option is specified, per-user statistics will be
     printed, including the user name, the number of commands invoked, total
     CPU time used (in minutes), total number of I/O  operations,
and CPU storage
  integral for each user.  If the -u option is specified,
the uid, user
     and system time (in seconds), CPU storage integral, I/O  usage, and command
  name  will be printed for each entry in the accounting
data file.

     If the -u flag is specified, all flags other than -q are ignored.  If the
     -m  flag  is  specified, only the -b, -d, -i, -k, -q, and -s
flags are honored.

     The sa utility exits 0 on success or  >0  if  an  error  occurred.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     /var/account/acct     raw accounting data file
     /var/account/savacct     per-command    accounting   summary
     /var/account/usracct  per-user accounting summary database

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     lastcomm(1), acct(5), ac(8), accton(8)

HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

     sa was written for NetBSD 0.9A from the  specification  provided by various
     systems' manual pages.  Its date of origin is unknown to the

AUTHORS    [Toc]    [Back]

     Chris G. Demetriou, cgd@postgres.berkeley.edu

CAVEATS    [Toc]    [Back]

     While the behavior of the options in this version of sa  was
modeled after
     the original version, there are some intentional differences
and undoubtedly
 some unintentional ones as well.  In particular, the -q
option has
     been  added,  and the -m option now understands more options
than it used

     The formats of the summary files created by this version  of
sa are very
     different  than those used by the original version.  This is
not considered
 a problem, however, because the accounting record  format has changed
     as well (since user ids are now 32 bits).

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The  number of options to this program is absurd, especially
     that there's not much logic behind their lettering.

     The field labels should be more consistent.

     OpenBSD's VM system does not record the  CPU  storage  integral.

OpenBSD      3.6                        February     25,     1994
[ Back ]
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