restore - restore files or file systems from backups made
restore -i [-chmvy] [-b blocksize] [-f file] [-s fileno]
restore -R [-cvy] [-b blocksize] [-f file] [-s fileno]
restore -r [-cvy] [-b blocksize] [-f file] [-s fileno]
restore -t [-chvy] [-b blocksize] [-f file] [-s fileno]
restore -x [-chmvy] [-b blocksize] [-f file] [-s fileno]
(The 4.3BSD option syntax is implemented for backward compatibility
but is not documented here.)
The restore command performs the inverse function of
dump(8). A full
backup of a file system may be restored and subsequent incremental backups
layered on top of it. Single files and directory subtrees may be restored
from full or partial backups. restore works across a
do this see the -f flag described below. Other arguments to
are file or directory names specifying the files that are to
Unless the -h flag is specified (see below), the appearance
of a directory
name refers to the files and (recursively) subdirectories
of that directory.
Exactly one of the following flags is required:
-i This mode allows interactive restoration of files
from a dump.
After reading in the directory information from the
provides a shell like interface that allows the user
around the directory tree selecting files to be extracted. The
available commands are given below; for those commands that require
an argument, the default is the current directory.
add [arg] The current directory or specified argument is added
to the list of files to be extracted.
If a directory
is specified, then it and all its descendents are
added to the extraction list (unless the
-h flag is
specified on the command line). Files
that are on
the extraction list are prepended with a
they are listed by ls.
cd arg Change the current working directory to
The current directory or specified argument is deleted
from the list of files to be extracted. If a directory
is specified, then it and all
are deleted from the extraction list
(unless the -h
flag is specified on the command line).
The most expedient
way to extract most of the files
from a directory
is to add the directory to the
list and then delete those files that
are not needed.
extract All files on the extraction list are extracted from
the dump. restore will ask which volume
wishes to mount. The fastest way to extract a few
files is to start with the last volume
and work towards
the first volume.
help List a summary of the available commands.
ls [arg] List the current or specified directory.
that are directories are appended with a
that have been marked for extraction are
prepended with a ``*''. If the verbose
flag is set,
the inode number of each entry is also
pwd Print the full pathname of the current
quit Restore immediately exits, even if the
list is not empty.
setmodes All directories that have been added to
list have their owner, modes, and
nothing is extracted from the dump.
This is useful
for cleaning up after a restore has been
verbose The sense of the -v flag is toggled.
When set, the
verbose flag causes the ls command to
list the inode
numbers of all entries. It also causes
print out information about each file as
it is extracted.
-R restore requests a particular tape of a multi-volume
set on which
to restart a full restore (see the -r flag below).
This is useful
if the restore has been interrupted.
-r Restore (rebuild) a file system. The target file
be made pristine with newfs(8), mounted, and the user cd'd into
the pristine file system before starting the
restoration of the
initial level 0 backup. If the level 0 restores
the -r flag may be used to restore any necessary incremental
backups on top of the level 0. The -r flag precludes an interactive
file extraction and can be detrimental to one's
to mention the disk) if not used carefully. An example:
# newfs /dev/rrp0g eagle
# mount /dev/rp0g /mnt
# cd /mnt
# restore rf /dev/rst8
Note that restore leaves a file restoresymtable in
the root directory
to pass information between incremental restore passes.
This file should be removed when the last incremental has been
restore, in conjunction with newfs(8) and dump(8),
may be used to
modify file system parameters such as size or block
-t The names of the specified files are listed if they
occur on the
backup. If no file argument is given, the root directory is
listed, which results in the entire content of the
listed, unless the -h flag has been specified. Note
that the -t
flag replaces the function of the old dumpdir program.
-x The named files are read from the given media. If a
matches a directory whose contents are on the backup
and the -h
flag is not specified, the directory is recursively
The owner, modification time, and mode are restored
If no file argument is given, the root directory is extracted,
which results in the entire content of the
extracted, unless the -h flag has been specified.
The following additional options may be specified:
The number of kilobytes per dump record. If the -b
option is not
specified, restore tries to determine the block size
-c Normally, restore will try to determine dynamically
dump was made from an old (pre-4.4) or new format
The -c flag disables this check, and only allows
reading a dump
in the old format.
Read the backup from file; file may be a special device file like
/dev/rst0 (a tape drive), /dev/rsd1c (a disk drive),
file, or ``-'' (the standard input). If the name of
the file is
of the form ``host:file'' or ``user@host:file'',
from the named file on the remote host using rmt(8).
-h Extract the actual directory, rather than the files
that it references.
This prevents hierarchical restoration of
from the dump.
-m Extract by inode numbers rather than by file name.
This is useful
if only a few files are being extracted, and one
avoid regenerating the complete pathname to the
Read from the specified fileno on a multi-file tape.
starts at 1.
-v Normally restore does its work silently. The -v
causes it to type the name of each file it treats
preceded by its
-y Do not ask the user whether to abort the restore in
the event of
an error. Always try to skip over the bad block(s)
If the following environment variable exists it will be utilized by
TMPDIR The directory given in TMPDIR will be used instead
of /tmp to
store temporary files. Refer to environ(7) for more
TAPE Default tape device to use instead of /dev/rst0.
/dev/rst0 the default tape drive
/dev/rst* raw SCSI tape interface
/tmp/rstdir* file containing directories on the tape
/tmp/rstmode* owner, mode, and time stamps for directories
./restoresymtable information passed between incremental
Complains if it gets a read error. If -y has been specified, or the user
responds ``y'', restore will attempt to continue the restore.
If a backup was made using more than one tape volume,
restore will notify
the user when it is time to mount the next volume. If the
-x or -i flag
has been specified, restore will also ask which volume the
user wishes to
mount. The fastest way to extract a few files is to start
with the last
volume, and work towards the first volume.
There are numerous consistency checks that can be listed by
Most checks are self-explanatory or can ``never happen''.
are given below.
Converting to new file system format
A dump tape created from the old file system has
been loaded. It
is automatically converted to the new file system
<filename>: not found on tape
The specified file name was listed in the tape directory, but was
not found on the tape. This is caused by tape read
looking for the file, and from using a dump tape
created on an
active file system.
expected next file <inumber>, got <inumber>
A file that was not listed in the directory showed
up. This can
occur when using a dump created on an active file
Incremental dump too low
When doing an incremental restore, a dump that was
the previous incremental dump, or that has too low
level has been loaded.
Incremental dump too high
When doing an incremental restore, a dump that does
not begin its
coverage where the previous incremental dump left
off, or that
has too high an incremental level has been loaded.
Tape read error while restoring <filename>
Tape read error while skipping over inode <inumber>
Tape read error while trying to resynchronize
A tape (or other media) read error has occurred. If
a file name
is specified, its contents are probably partially
wrong. If an
inode is being skipped or the tape is trying to
extracted files have been corrupted, though files
may not be
found on the tape.
resync restore, skipped <num> blocks
After a dump read error, restore may have to resynchronize itself.
This message lists the number of blocks that
environ(7), dump(8), mount(8), newfs(8), rmt(8)
The restore command appeared in 4.2BSD.
restore can get confused when doing incremental restores
from dumps that
were made on active file systems.
A level 0 dump must be done after a full restore. Because
in user code, it has no control over inode allocation; thus
a full dump
must be done to get a new set of directories reflecting the
numbering, even though the content of the files is unchanged.
The temporary files /tmp/rstdir* and /tmp/rstmode* are generated with a
unique name based on the date of the dump and the process ID
mktemp(3)), except when -r or -R is used. Because -R allows
restart a -r operation that may have been interrupted, the
files should be the same across different processes. In all
the files are unique because it is possible to have two different dumps
started at the same time, and separate operations shouldn't
OpenBSD 3.6 July 1, 1997
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