*nix Documentation Project
·  Home
 +   man pages
·  Linux HOWTOs
·  FreeBSD Tips
·  *niX Forums

  man pages->OpenBSD man pages -> pr (1)              



NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     pr - print files

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     pr [+page] [-column]  [-adfFmrt]  [[-e]  [char]  [gap]]  [-h
header] [[-i]
        [char]  [gap]] [-l lines] [-o offset] [[-s] [char]] [[-n]
        [width]] [-w width] [-] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The pr utility is a printing and pagination filter for  text
files.  When
     multiple input files are specified, each is read, formatted,
and written
     to standard output.  By default, the input is separated into
     pages, each with

           +o    A 5-line header with the page number, date, time,
and the pathname
 of the file.

           +o   A 5-line trailer consisting of blank lines.

     Optionally, the trailer can be  replaced  by  a  <form-feed>
where this is
     more appropriate for the output device being used and <tab>s
can be expanded
 to input relative <spaces>s or <space>s can  be  contracted to output
   relative  <tab>s.   The  pr  utility  also  interprets
<form-feed>s in the
     input as the logical end of pages.

     When multiple column output is specified, text  columns  are
of equal
     width.   By  default  text columns are separated by at least
one <blank>.
     Input lines that do not fit into a text column are  truncated, except in
     the default single columns output mode.

     If standard output is associated with a terminal, diagnostic
messages are
     suppressed until the pr utility has completed processing.

     In the following option descriptions, column, lines, offset,
page, and
     width  are  positive decimal integers and gap is a non-negative decimal integer.

     The options are as follows:

     +page   Begin output at page number page  of  the  formatted

             Produce  output  that is columns wide (default is 1)
that is written
 vertically down each  column  in  the  order  in
which the text is
             received from the input file.  The options -e and -i
are assumed.
             This option should not be used with -m.   When  used
with -t, the
             minimum  number of lines is used to display the output.

     -a      Modify the effect of the -column option so that  the
columns are
             filled across the page in a round-robin order (e.g.,
when column
             is 2, the first input line heads column 1, the  second heads column
  2,  the  third  is the second line in column 1,
etc.).  This option
 requires the use of the -column option.

     -d      Produce output that  is  double  spaced.   An  extra
<newline> character
 is output following every <newline> found in the

     -e [char][gap]
             Expand each input <tab> to the next  greater  column
position specified
  by the formula n*gap+1, where n is an integer
> 0.  If gap
             is zero or is omitted the default is 8.   All  <tab>
characters in
             the  input  are expanded into the appropriate number
of <space>s.
             If any nondigit character, char, is specified, it is
used as the
             input tab character.

     -F       Use  a <form-feed> character for new pages, instead
of the default
             behavior that uses a sequence of  <newline>  characters.

     -f      Same as the -F option.

     -h header
             Use  the  string  header to replace the file name in
the header

     -i [char][gap]
             In output, replace  multiple  <space>s  with  <tab>s
whenever two or
             more adjacent <space>s reach column positions gap+1,
             etc.  If gap is zero or omitted, default <tab>  settings at every
             eighth  column  position  is  used.  If any nondigit
character, char,
             is specified, it is used as the output <tab> character.

     -l lines
             Override  the  66  line  default  and reset the page
length to lines.
             If lines is not greater than the  sum  of  both  the
header and
             trailer depths (in lines), the pr utility suppresses
output of
             both the header and trailer, as  if  the  -t  option
were in effect.

     -m      Merge the contents of multiple files.  One line from
each file
             specified by a file operand is written side by  side
into text
             columns  of equal fixed widths, in terms of the number of column
             positions.  The number of text  columns  depends  on
the number of
             file operands successfully opened.  The maximum number of files
             merged depends on page width  and  the  per  process
open file limit.
             The options -e and -i are assumed.

     -n [char][width]
             Provide width digit line numbering.  The default for
width, if
             not specified, is 5.  The number occupies the  first
width column
             positions  of  each  text  column or each line of -m
output.  If char
             (any nondigit character) is given, it is appended to
the line
             number  to  separate  it from whatever follows.  The
default for
             char is a <tab>.  Line  numbers  longer  than  width
columns are

     -o offset
             Each line of output is preceded by offset <spaces>s.
If the -o
             option is not specified, the default is  zero.   The
space taken is
             in addition to the output line width.

     -r       Write  no  diagnostic  reports on failure to open a

     -s char
             Separate text columns by the single  character  char
instead of by
             the appropriate number of <space>s (default for char
is the <tab>

     -t      Print neither the five-line identifying  header  nor
the five-line
             trailer usually supplied for each page.  Quit printing after the
             last line of each file without spacing to the end of
the page.

     -w width
             Set  the width of the line to width column positions
for multiple
             text-column output only.  If the -w  option  is  not
specified and
             the -s option is not specified, the default width is
72.  If the
             -w option is not specified  and  the  -s  option  is
specified, the
             default width is 512.

     file     A  pathname  of  a  file to be printed.  If no file
operands are
             specified, or if a file operand is ``-'', the  standard input is
             used.   The  standard  input is used only if no file
operands are
             specified, or if a file operand is ``-''.

     The -s option does not allow the option letter to  be  separated from its
     argument,  and  the options -e, -i, and -n require that both
arguments, if
     present, not be separated from the option letter.

ERRORS    [Toc]    [Back]

     If pr receives an interrupt while printing to a terminal, it
flushes all
     accumulated error messages to the screen before terminating.

     The pr utility exits 0 on success, and 1 if an error occurs.

     Error  messages  are  written  to  standard error during the
printing process
     (if output is  redirected)  or  after  all  successful  file
printing is complete
 (when printing to a terminal).

NOTES    [Toc]    [Back]

     The  interpretation  of  <form-feed>s in the input stream is
that they are
     special <newline>s which have the side effect of  causing  a
page break.
     While this works correctly for all cases, strict interpretation also implies
 that the common convention of placing a <form-feed> on
a line by
     itself  is actually interpreted as a blank line, page break,
blank line.

RESTRICTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The pr utility is intended to paginate input containing  basic ascii(7)
     text  formatting  and  input streams containing non-printing
     characters>, <escape-sequences> or long lines may result  in

     The  pr  utility does not currently understand over-printing
using <back-
     space> or <return> characters, and except in the case of unmodified single-column
  output,  use of these characters will cause formatting errors.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     cat(1), more(1), ascii(7)

STANDARDS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The pr utility is IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'')  compatible;
however, that
     standard is relatively silent concerning the handling of input characters
     beyond the behavior dictated by the pr required command  options.

HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

     A pr command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The  lack  of  a line wrapping option, and the specification
that truncation
     does not apply to single-column output frequently results in
     errors when input lines are longer than actual line width of
the output

     The default width of 72 is archaic and non-obvious since  it
is normally
     ignored in the default single column mode.  Using the -m option with one
     column provides a way to truncate single column  output  but
there's no way
     to wrap long lines to a fixed line width.

     The default of <tab> for the separator for the -n and -s options often
     results in lines apparently wider than expected.

OpenBSD      3.6                           June      6,      1993
[ Back ]
 Similar pages
Name OS Title
cat FreeBSD concatenate and print files
cat IRIX concatenate and print files
cat OpenBSD concatenate and print files
DXmPrintWgtPrintJob Tru64 Submits files to the print service.
rlog Tru64 print log messages and other information about RCS files
cat HP-UX concatenate, copy, and print files
tac Linux concatenate and print files in reverse
rlog HP-UX print log messages and other information on RCS files
rlog OpenBSD print log messages and other information about RCS files
rlog IRIX print log messages and other information about RCS files
Copyright © 2004-2005 DeniX Solutions SRL
newsletter delivery service