ltsleep, sleep, tsleep, wakeup - process context sleep and and wakeup
ltsleep(void *ident, int priority, const char *wmesg, int timo,
__volatile struct simplelock *slock);
tsleep(void *ident, int priority, const char *wmesg, int timo);
sleep(void *ident, int priority);
These functions implement voluntary context switching. ltsleep(),
tsleep() and sleep() are used throughout the kernel whenever processing
in the current context can not continue for any of the following reasons:
+o The current process needs to await the results of a pending I/O
+o The current process needs resources (e.g. memory) which are
+o The current process wants access to data-structures which are
locked by other processes.
The function wakeup() is used to notify sleeping processes of possible
changes to the condition that caused them to go to sleep. Typically, an
awakened process will -- after it has acquired a context again -- retry
the action that blocked its operation to see if the ``blocking'' condition
The ltsleep() function takes the following arguments:
ident An identifier of the ``wait channel'' representing the resource
for which the current process needs to wait. This typically is
the virtual address of some kernel data-structure related to
the resource for which the process is contending. The same
identifier must be used in a call to wakeup() to get the process
going again. ident should not be NULL.
priority The process priority to be used when the process is awakened
and put on the queue of runnable processes. This mechanism is
used to optimize ``throughput'' of processes executing in kernel
mode. If the flag PCATCH is OR'ed into priority the process
checks for posted signals before and after sleeping. If
the flag PNORELOCK is OR'ed into priority, slock is NOT relocked
after process resume.
wmesg A pointer to a character string indicating the reason a process
is sleeping. The kernel does not use the string, but makes it
available (through the process structure field p_wmesg) for
user level utilities such as ps(1).
timo If non-zero, the process will sleep for at most timo/hz seconds.
If this amount of time elapses and no wakeup(ident) has
occurred, and no signal (if PCATCH was set) was posted,
tsleep() will return EWOULDBLOCK.
slock If not NULL, the slock interlock is unlocked once the scheduler
lock is acquired. Unless PNORELOCK was set, slock is locked
again once the process is resumed from sleep. This provides
wakeup-before-sleep condition protection facility.
The tsleep() macro is functionally equivalent to:
ltsleep(ident, priority, wmesg, timo, NULL)
The sleep() function puts the process in an uninterruptible sleep. It is
functionally equivalent to:
ltsleep(ident, priority PRIMASK, 0, 0, NULL)
The wakeup() function will mark all processes which are currently sleeping
on the identifier ident as runnable. Eventually, each of the processes
will resume execution in the kernel context, causing a return from
[t]sleep(). Note that processes returning from sleep should always reevaluate
the conditions that blocked them, since a call to wakeup()
merely signals a possible change to the blocking conditions. For example,
when two or more processes are waiting for an exclusive-access lock
(see lock(9)), only one of them will succeed in acquiring the lock when
it is released. All others will have to go back to sleep and wait for
the next opportunity.
ltsleep() returns 0 if it returns as a result of a wakeup(). If a
ltsleep() returns as a result of a signal, the return value is ERESTART
if the signal has the SA_RESTART property (see sigaction(2)), and EINTR
otherwise. If ltsleep() returns because of a timeout it returns
sigaction(2), hz(9), lock(9)
The sleep/wakeup process synchronization mechanism is very old. It
appeared in a very early version of Unix. tsleep() appeared in 4.4BSD.
ltsleep() appeared in NetBSD 1.5.
BSD June 23, 1996 BSD
[ Back ]