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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     lint - a C program verifier

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     lint [-abceghprvwxzHFV] [-s | -t] [-i | -nu] [-D name[=def]] [-U name]
          [-I directory] [-d directory] [-L directory] [-l library]
          [-o outputfile] [-B directory] [-X id[,id ...]] file ...
     lint [-abceghprvwzHFV] [-s | -t] -C library [-D name[=def]] [-U name]
          [-I directory] [-d directory] [-B directory] [-X id[,id ...]]
          file ...

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     lint attempts to detect features of the named C program files that are
     likely to be bugs, to be non-portable, or to be wasteful. It also performs
 stricter type checking than does the C compiler.  lint runs the C
     preprocessor as its first phase, with the preprocessor symbol lint
     defined to allow certain questionable code to be altered or skipped by .
     Therefore, this symbol should be thought of as a reserved word for all
     code that is to be checked by .

     Among the possible problems that are currently noted are unreachable
     statements, loops not entered at the top, variables declared and not
     used, and logical expressions with constant values. Function calls are
     checked for inconsistencies, such as calls to functions that return values
 in some places and not in others, functions called with varying numbers
 of arguments, function calls that pass arguments of a type other
     than the type the function expects to receive, functions whose values are
     not used, and calls to functions not returning values that use the nonexistent
 return value of the function.

     Filename arguments ending with .c are taken to be C source files. Filename
 arguments with names ending with .ln are taken to be the result of
     an earlier invocation of , with either the -i, -o or -C option in effect.
     The .ln files are analogous to the .o (object) files produced by cc(1)
     from .c files.  lint also accepts special libraries specified with the -l
     option, which contain definitions of library routines and variables.

     lint takes all the .c, .ln, and llib-llibrary.ln (lint library) files and
     processes them in command-line order.  By default, lint appends the standard
 C lint library (llib-lc.ln) to the end of the list of files. When
     the -i option is used, the .ln files are ignored.  Also, when the -o or
     -i options are used, the llib-llibrary.ln files are ignored. When the -i
     option is omitted the second pass of lint checks this list of files for
     mutual compatibility. At this point, if a complaint stems not from a
     given source file, but from one of its included files, the source filename
 will be printed followed by a question mark.

     The special input file name ``-'' causes lint to take input from standard
     input (until end of file) and process it as if it were a .c file.  If the
     -i flag is given and ``-'' is named as one of the input files, the -o
     flag must also be specified to provide an output file name.

     Options    [Toc]    [Back]

     -a          Report assignments of long values to variables that are not

     -aa         Additional to -a, report all assignments of integer values to
                 other integer values which cause implicit narrowing conversion.

     -b          Report break statements that cannot be reached. This is not
                 the default because, unfortunately, most lex(1) and many
                 yacc(1) outputs produce many such complaints.

     -c          Complain about casts which have questionable portability.

     -e          Complain about unusual operations on enum-Types and combinations
 of enum- and integer-Types.

     -g          Don't print warnings for some extensions of gcc(1) to the C
                 language. Currently these are nonconstant initializers in
                 automatic aggregate initializations, arithmetic on pointer to
                 void, trailing commas in enum declarations, C++ -style ``//''
                 comments, zero sized structures, subscripting of non-lvalue
                 arrays, prototypes overriding old style function declarations
                 and long long integer types.  The -g flag also turns on the
                 keywords asm and inline (alternative keywords with leading
                 underscores for both asm and inline are always available).

     -h          Apply a number of heuristic tests to attempt to intuit bugs,
                 improve style, and reduce waste.

     -i          Produce a .ln file for every .c file on the command line.
                 These .ln files are the product of 's first pass only, and
                 are not checked for compatibility between functions.

     -n          Do not check compatibility against the standard library.

     -p          Attempt to check portability of code to other dialects of C.

     -r          In case of redeclarations report the position of the previous

     -s          Strict ANSI C mode. Issue warnings and errors required by
                 ANSI C.  Also do not produce warnings for constructs which
                 behave differently in traditional C and ANSI C. With the -s
                 flag, __STRICT_ANSI__ is a predefined preprocessor macro.

     -t          Traditional C mode.  __STDC__ is not predefined in this mode.
                 Warnings are printed for constructs not allowed in traditional
 C. Warnings for constructs which behave differently in
                 traditional C and ANSI C are suppressed. Preprocessor macros
                 describing the machine type (e.g.  sun3) and machine architecture
 (e.g.  m68k) are defined without leading and trailing
                 underscores. The keywords const, volatile and signed are not
                 available in traditional C mode (although the alternative
                 keywords with leading underscores still are).

     -u          Do not complain about functions and external variables used
                 and not defined, or defined and not used (this is suitable
                 for running lint on a subset of files comprising part of a
                 larger program).

     -v          Suppress complaints about unused arguments in functions.

     -x          Report variables referred to by extern declarations, but
                 never used.

     -z          Do not complain about structures that are never defined (for
                 example, using a structure pointer without knowing its contents).

     -Bpath      Path to use when looking for the lint1 and lint2 binaries.
                 Defualts to /usr/libexec.

     -Clibrary   Create a lint library with the name llib-llibrary.ln.  This
                 library is built from all .c and .ln input files. After all
                 global definitions of functions and variables in these files
                 are written to the newly created library, lint checks all
                 input files, including libraries specified with the -l
                 option, for mutual compatibility.

                 Define name for cpp(1), as if by a #define directive. If no
                 definition is given, name is defined as 1.

                 Add directory to the list of directories in which to search
                 for include files.

                 Use directory instead of /usr/include as the default place to
                 find include files.

     -llibrary   Include the lint library llib-llibrary.ln.

                 Search for lint libraries in directory and directory/lint
                 before searching the standard place.

     -F          Print pathnames of files.  lint normally prints the filename
                 without the path.

     -H          If a complaint stems from an included file lint prints the
                 name of the included file instead of the source file name
                 followed by a question mark.

                 Name the output file outputfile.  The output file produced is
                 the input that is given to 's second pass. The -o option simply
 saves this file in the named output file. If the -i
                 option is also used the files are not checked for compatibility.
  To produce a llib-llibrary.ln without extraneous messages,
 use of the -u option is suggested. The -v option is
                 useful if the source file(s) for the lint library are just
                 external interfaces.

     -Uname      Remove any initial definition of name for the preprocessor.

     -V          Print the command lines constructed by the controller program
                 to run the C preprocessor and 's first and second pass.

     -w          Treat warnings as errors.

     -X id[,id ...]
                 Suppress error messages identified by the list of ids. A list
                 of messages and ids can be found in lint(7).

     Input Grammar    [Toc]    [Back]

     's first pass reads standard C source files.  lint recognizes the following
 C comments as commands.

     /* ARGSUSEDn */
                 makes lint check only the first n arguments for usage; a
                 missing n is taken to be 0 (this option acts like the -v
                 option for the next function).

                 Suppress error messages about illegal bitfield types if the
                 type is an integer type, and suppress non-portable bitfield
                 type warnings.

                 suppress complaints about constant operands for the next

     /* FALLTHRU */ or /* FALLTHROUGH */
                 suppress complaints about fall through to a case or default
                 labelled statement. This directive should be placed immediately
 preceding the label.

     /* LINTLIBRARY */
                 At the beginning of a file, mark all functions and variables
                 defined in this file as used.  Also shut off complaints about
                 unused function arguments.

     /* LINTED [comment] */ or /* NOSTRICT [comment] */
                 Suppresses any intra-file warning except those dealing with
                 unused variables or functions. This directive should be
                 placed on the line immediately preceding where the lint warning

     /* LONGLONG */
                 Suppress complaints about use of long long integer types.

     /* NOTREACHED */
                 At appropriate points, inhibit complaints about unreachable
                 code.  (This comment is typically placed just after calls to
                 functions like exit(3)).

     /* PRINTFLIKEn */
                 makes lint check the first (n-1) arguments as usual. The n-th
                 argument is interpreted as a printf format string that is
                 used to check the remaining arguments.

     /* PROTOLIBn */
                 causes lint to treat function declaration prototypes as function
 definitions if n is non-zero. This directive can only be
                 used in conjunction with the /* LINTLIBRARY */ directive. If
                 n is zero, function prototypes will be treated normally.

     /* SCANFLIKEn */
                 makes lint check the first (n-1) arguments as usual. The n-th
                 argument is interpreted as a scanf format string that is used
                 to check the remaining arguments.

     /* VARARGSn */
                 Suppress the usual checking for variable numbers of arguments
                 in the following function declaration. The data types of the
                 first n arguments are checked; a missing n is taken to be 0.

     The behavior of the -i and the -o options allows for incremental use of
     lint on a set of C source files. Generally, one invokes lint once for
     each source file with the -i option. Each of these invocations produces a
     .ln file that corresponds to the .c file, and prints all messages that
     are about just that source file. After all the source files have been
     separetely run through , it is invoked once more (without the -i option),
     listing all the .ln files with the needed -llibrary options. this will
     print all the inter-file inconsistencies. This scheme works well with
     make(1); it allows make(1) to be used to lint only the source files that
     have been modified since the last time the set of source files were ed.

ENVIRONMENT    [Toc]    [Back]

     LIBDIR      the directory where the lint libraries specified by the
                 -llibrary option must exist. If this environment variable is
                 undefined, then the default path /usr/libdata/lint will be
                 used to search for the libraries.

     TMPDIR      usually the path for temporary files can be redefined by setting
 this environment variable.

     CC          Location of the C compiler program.  Defaults to /usr/bin/cc.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     /usr/libexec/lint[12]         programs
     /usr/libdata/lint/llib-l*.ln  various prebuilt lint libraries
     /tmp/lint*                    temporaries

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     cc(1), cpp(1), make(1)

AUTHORS    [Toc]    [Back]

     Jochen Pohl

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The routines exit(3), longjmp(3) and other functions that do not return
     are not understood; this causes various incorrect diagnostics.

     Static functions which are used only before their first extern declaration
 are reported as unused.

     Libraries created by the -o option will, when used in later lint runs,
     cause certain errors that were reported when the libraries were created
     to be reported again, and cause line numbers and file names from the
     original source used to create those libraries to be reported in error
     messages. For these reasons, it is recommended to use the -C option to
     create lint libraries.

BSD                              May 24, 2001                              BSD
[ Back ]
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