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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       rmmod - unload loadable modules

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       rmmod [ -aehrsvV ] module ...

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       rmmod unloads loadable modules from the running kernel.

       rmmod  tries  to  unload  a  set  of  modules from the kernel, with the
       restriction that they are not in use and that they are not referred  to
       by other modules.

       If  more than one module is named on the command line, the modules will
       be removed in the given	order.	This  supports	unloading  of  stacked

       With the option '-r', a recursive removal of modules will be attempted.
       This means that if a top module in a stack  is  named  on  the  command
       line, all modules that are used by this module will be removed as well,
       if possible.

   OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]
       -a, --all
	      Do autoclean: tag unused modules as "to be  cleaned",  and  also
	      remove already tagged modules.  Modules stay tagged if they stay
	      unused  since  previous  autoclean.   These  two	passes	 avoid
	      removing transiently unused modules.

       -e, --persist
	      Save  persistent	data  for the named modules, without unloading
	      any modules.  If no module names	are  specified	then  data  is
	      saved  for  all modules that have persistent data.  Data is only
	      saved if both the kernel and modutils  support  persistent  data
	      and /proc/ksyms contains an entry

       -h, --help
	      Display a summary of options and immediately exit.

       -r, --stacks
	      Remove a module stack.

       -s, --syslog
	      Output everything to syslog(3) instead of the terminal.

       -v, --verbose
	      Be verbose.

       -V, --version
	      Print the version of modutils.

PERSISTENT DATA    [Toc]    [Back]

       If   a	module	 contains   persistent	 data	(see   insmod(8)   and
       modules.conf(5)) then removing the module always writes the  persistent
       data  to  the  filename	in the __insmod _P symbol entry.  You can also
       save the persistent data at any time by rmmod -e, this will not	unload
       any modules.

       When  the  persistent  data  is	written  to  file, it is preceded by a
       generated comment line,
       #% kernel_version timestamp
       Generated comment lines start with '#%',  all  generated  comments  are
       stripped  from  the  existing  file, other comments are preserved.  The
       saved data values are written to  the  file,  preserving  the  existing
       order  of comments and assignments.  New values are added at the end of
       the file.  If the file contains values that do not exist in the	module
       then these values are preserved but are preceded by a generated comment
       warning that they are not being used.  The latter  operation  allows  a
       user  to  switch  between  kernels  without  losing persistent data and
       without getting any error messages.

       Note: Comments are only supported when the first non-space character on
       a  line	is  '#'.   Any	non-blank lines that do not start with '#' are
       module options, one per line.  The option  lines  have  leading	spaces
       removed,  the  remainder  of the line is passed to insmod as an option,
       including any trailing characters.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       insmod(8), lsmod(8), ksyms(8), modprobe(8).

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

       rmmod [-V | --version] should display version information and then exit
       immediately.  Instead, it prints the version information and behaves as
       if no options were given.

HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

       Module support was first conceived by Anonymous
       Initial Linux version by Bas Laarhoven <bas@vimec.nl>
       Version 0.99.14 by Jon Tombs <jon@gtex02.us.es>
       Extended by Bjorn Ekwall <bj0rn@blox.se>
       Updated for 2.1.17 by Richard Henderson <rth@tamu.edu>
       Updated for 2.2.2 by by Bjorn Ekwall <bj0rn@blox.se>
       Updated for modutils 2.3.20 by by Keith Owens <kaos@ocs.com.au>
       Persistent data for modutils 2.3.22 by by Keith Owens <kaos@ocs.com.au>

Linux			       February 6, 2002 		      RMMOD(8)
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