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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       st - SCSI tape device

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       #include <sys/mtio.h>

       int ioctl(int fd, int request [, (void *)arg3])
       int ioctl(int fd, MTIOCTOP, (struct mtop *)mt_cmd)
       int ioctl(int fd, MTIOCGET, (struct mtget *)mt_status)
       int ioctl(int fd, MTIOCPOS, (struct mtpos *)mt_pos)

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The st driver provides the interface to a variety of SCSI tape devices.
       Currently, the driver takes control of all  detected  devices  of  type
       "sequential-access."  The st driver uses major device number 9.

       Each  device  uses eight minor device numbers. The lower-most five bits
       in the minor numbers are assigned sequentially in the order  of	detection.
  The  minor numbers can be grouped into two sets of four numbers:
       the principal (auto-rewind) minor device numbers, n, and a  "no-rewind"
       device  numbers,  (n+  128).  Devices opened using the principal device
       number will be sent a REWIND command when  they	are  closed.   Devices
       opened  using the "no-rewind" device number will not.  (Note that using
       an auto-rewind device for positioning the tape with, for  instance,  mt
       does  not  lead to the desired result: the tape is rewound after the mt
       command and the next command starts from the beginning of the tape).

       Within each group, four minor numbers are available to  define  devices
       with different characteristics (block size, compression, density, etc.)
       When the system starts up, only the  first  device  is  available.  The
       other  three are activated when the default characteristics are defined
       (see below). (By changing compile-time constants,  it  is  possible  to
       change  the  balance  between the maximum number of tape drives and the
       number of minor numbers for each drive. The default  allocation	allows
       control	of 32 tape drives.  For instance, it is possible to control up
       to 64 tape drives with two minor numbers for different options.)

       Devices are typically created by:
	      mknod -m 666 /dev/st0 c 9 0
	      mknod -m 666 /dev/st0l c 9 32
	      mknod -m 666 /dev/st0m c 9 64
	      mknod -m 666 /dev/st0a c 9 96
	      mknod -m 666 /dev/nst0 c 9 128
	      mknod -m 666 /dev/nst0l c 9 160
	      mknod -m 666 /dev/nst0m c 9 192
	      mknod -m 666 /dev/nst0a c 9 224

       There is no corresponding block device.

       The driver uses an internal buffer that has to be large enough to  hold
       at least one tape block. In kernels before 2.1.121, the buffer is allocated
 as one contiguous block.  This  limits  the  block  size  to  the
       largest	contiguous  block  of memory the kernel allocator can provide.
       The limit is currently 128 kB for the 32-bit architectures and  256  kB
       for the 64-bit architectures. In newer kernels the driver allocates the
       buffer in several parts if necessary. By default, the maximum number of
       parts is 16. This means that the maximum block size is very large (2 MB
       if allocation of 16 blocks of 128 kB succeeds).

       The driver's internal buffer size is determined by a compile-time  constant
  which  can be overridden with a kernel startup option.  In addition
 to this, the driver tries to allocate a larger temporary buffer at
       run-time if necessary. However, run-time allocation of large contiguous
       blocks of memory may fail and it is advisable not to rely too  much  on
       dynamic buffer allocation with kernels older than 2.1.121 (this applies
       also to demand-loading the driver with kerneld or kmod).

       The driver does not specifically support any tape drive brand or model.
       After  system start-up the tape device options are defined by the drive
       firmware. For example, if the drive firmware selects fixed block  mode,
       the  tape device uses fixed block mode. The options can be changed with
       explicit ioctl() calls and remain in effect when the device  is	closed
       and reopened.  Setting the options affects both the auto-rewind and the
       non-rewind device.

       Different options can be specified for the different devices within the
       subgroup  of  four.  The options take effect when the device is opened.
       For example, the system administrator can define one device that writes
       in  fixed block mode with a certain block size, and one which writes in
       variable block mode (if the drive supports both modes).

       The driver supports tape partitions if they are supported by the drive.
       (Note that the tape partitions have nothing to do with disk partitions.
       A partitioned tape can be seen as  several  logical  tapes  within  one
       medium.)  Partition  support  has to be enabled with an ioctl. The tape
       location is preserved within each partition across  partition  changes.
       The  partition  used for subsequent tape operations is selected with an
       ioctl. The partition switch is executed together  with  the  next  tape
       operation in order to avoid unnecessary tape movement. The maximum number
 of partitions on a tape  is	defined  by  a	compile-time  constant
       (originally  four). The driver contains an ioctl that can format a tape
       with either one or two partitions.

       Device /dev/tape is usually created as a  hard  or  soft  link  to  the
       default tape device on the system.

DATA TRANSFER    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  driver  supports  operation  in both fixed block mode and variable
       block mode (if supported by the drive). In fixed block mode  the  drive
       writes blocks of the specified size and the block size is not dependent
       on the byte counts of the write system calls. In  variable  block  mode
       one tape block is written for each write call and the byte count determines
 the size of the corresponding tape block. Note that the blocks on
       the  tape do don't contain any information about the writing mode: when
       reading, the only important thing is to use commands  that  accept  the
       block sizes on the tape.

       In  variable  block mode the read byte count does not have to match the
       tape block size exactly. If the byte count  is  larger  than  the  next
       block on tape, the driver returns the data and the function returns the
       actual block size. If the block size is larger than the byte count, the
       requested  amount  of  data from the start of the block is returned and
       the rest of the block is discarded.

       In fixed block mode the read byte counts can be arbitrary if  buffering
       is  enabled,  or a multiple of the tape block size if buffering is disabled.
 Kernels before 2.1.121 allow writes with arbitrary byte count if
       buffering  is  enabled.	In all other cases (kernel before 2.1.121 with
       buffering disabled or newer kernel) the write byte count must be a multiple
 of the tape block size.

       A  filemark is automatically written to tape if the last tape operation
       before close was a write.

       When a filemark is encountered while reading, the following happens. If
       there  are data remaining in the buffer when the filemark is found, the
       buffered data is returned. The next read returns zero bytes.  The  following
  read  returns data from the next file. The end of recorded data
       is signaled by returning zero bytes for two consecutive read calls. The
       third read returns an error.

IOCTLS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  driver  supports three ioctl requests.  Requests not recognized by
       the st driver are passed to the SCSI driver.  The definitions below are
       from /usr/include/linux/mtio.h:

   MTIOCTOP - Perform a tape operation    [Toc]    [Back]
       This request takes an argument of type (struct mtop *).	Not all drives
       support all operations.	The driver returns an EIO error if  the  drive
       rejects an operation.

       /* Structure for MTIOCTOP - mag tape op command: */
       struct mtop {
	   short  mt_op;    /* operations defined below */
	   int	  mt_count; /* how many of them */

       Magnetic Tape operations for normal tape use:
       MTBSF	     Backward space over mt_count filemarks.
       MTBSFM	     Backward  space  over mt_count filemarks.	Reposition the
		     tape to the EOT side of the last filemark.
       MTBSR	     Backward space over mt_count records (tape blocks).
       MTBSS	     Backward space over mt_count setmarks.
       MTCOMPRESSION Enable compression of  tape  data	within	the  drive  if
		     mt_count  is non-zero and disable compression if mt_count
		     is zero. This command uses the MODE page 15 supported  by
		     most DATs.
       MTEOM	     Go  to  the  end  of  the	recorded  media (for appending
       MTERASE	     Erase tape.
       MTFSF	     Forward space over mt_count filemarks.
       MTFSFM	     Forward space over mt_count  filemarks.   Reposition  the
		     tape to the BOT side of the last filemark.
       MTFSR	     Forward space over mt_count records (tape blocks).
       MTFSS	     Forward space over mt_count setmarks.
       MTLOAD	     Execute  the  SCSI load command. A special case is available
 for some HP autoloaders. If mt_count is the constant
		     MT_ST_HPLOADER_OFFSET  plus  a number, the number is sent
		     to the drive to control the autoloader.
       MTLOCK	     Lock the tape drive door.
       MTMKPART      Format the tape into one or two partitions.  If  mt_count
		     is non-zero, it gives the size of the first partition and
		     the second partition contains the rest of	the  tape.  If
		     mt_count  is  zero, the tape is formatted into one partition.
  This command is not allowed for a drive unless the
		     partition	 support   is	enabled  for  the  drive  (see
		     MT_ST_CAN_PARTITIONS below).
       MTNOP	     No op - flushes the driver's buffer  as  a  side  effect.
		     Should be used before reading status with MTIOCGET.
       MTOFFL	     Rewind and put the drive off line.
       MTRESET	     Reset drive.
       MTRETEN	     Retension tape.
       MTREW	     Rewind.
       MTSEEK	     Seek  to  the  tape  block  number specified in mt_count.
		     This operation requires either a SCSI-2 drive  that  supports
  the  LOCATE command (device-specific address) or a
		     Tandberg-compatible  SCSI-1  drive   (Tandberg,   Archive
		     Viper,  Wangtek,  ...  ).	The block number should be one
		     that was previously returned by MTIOCPOS  if  device-specific
 addresses are used.
       MTSETBLK      Set  the  drive's	block length to the value specified in
		     mt_count.	A block length of zero sets the drive to variable
 block size mode.
       MTSETDENSITY  Set  the  tape density to the code in mt_count.  The density
 codes supported by a drive can  be  found  from  the
		     drive documentation.
       MTSETPART     The  active partition is switched to mt_count .  The partitions
 are numbered  from  zero.	This  command  is  not
		     allowed  for  a  drive  unless  the  partition support is
		     enabled for the drive (see MT_ST_CAN_PARTITIONS below).
       MTUNLOAD      Execute the SCSI  unload  command	(does  not  eject  the
       MTUNLOCK      Unlock the tape drive door.
       MTWEOF	     Write mt_count filemarks.
       MTWSM	     Write mt_count setmarks.

       Magnetic  Tape  operations  for setting of device options (by the superuser):

	       Set various drive and driver options according to bits  encoded
	       in  mt_count.   These consist of the drive's buffering mode, 13
	       Boolean driver options, the buffer  write  threshold,  defaults
	       for  the  block size and density, and timeouts (only in kernels
	       >= 2.1).  A single operation can affect only one  item  in  the
	       list above (the Booleans counted as one item.)

	       A  value  having zeros in the high-order 4 bits will be used to
	       set the drive's buffering mode.	The buffering modes are:

		   0   The drive will not report GOOD status on write commands
		       until  the  data  blocks  are  actually	written to the
		   1   The drive may report GOOD status on write  commands  as
		       soon  as  all  the  data  has  been  transferred to the
		       drive's internal buffer.
		   2   The drive may report GOOD status on write  commands  as
		       soon  as  (a)  all the data has been transferred to the
		       drive's internal buffer, and (b) all buffered data from
		       different  initiators  has been successfully written to
		       the medium.

	       To control the write  threshold	the  value  in	mt_count  must
	       include	the constant MT_ST_WRITE_THRESHOLD logically ORed with
	       a block count in the low 28 bits.  The block  count  refers  to
	       1024-byte blocks, not the physical block size on the tape.  The
	       threshold cannot exceed the driver's internal buffer size  (see
	       DESCRIPTION, above).

	       To set and clear the Boolean options the value in mt_count must
	       include one the	constants  MT_ST_BOOLEANS,  MT_ST_SETBOOLEANS,
	       MT_ST_CLEARBOOLEANS,  or  MT_ST_DEFBOOLEANS logically ORed with
	       whatever combination  of  the  following  options  is  desired.
	       Using  MT_ST_BOOLEANS  the  options  can  be  set to the values
	       defined in the corresponding bits. With	MT_ST_SETBOOLEANS  the
	       options	can  be  selectively  set  and	with MT_ST_DEFBOOLEANS
	       selectively cleared.

	       The default options for a tape device are set  with  MT_ST_DEFBOOLEANS.
  A non-active tape device (e.g., device with minor 32
	       or 160) is activated  when  the	default  options  for  it  are
	       defined	the  first time. An activated device inherits from the
	       device activated at start-up the options not set explicitly.

	       The Boolean options are:

	       MT_ST_BUFFER_WRITES  (Default: true)
		      Buffer all write operations in  fixed  block  mode.   If
		      this  option  is	false and the drive uses a fixed block
		      size, then all write operations must be for  a  multiple
		      of  the  block  size.   This option must be set false to
		      write reliable multi-volume archives.
	       MT_ST_ASYNC_WRITES  (Default: true)
		      When this options is true write operations return  immediately
  without	waiting for the data to be transferred
		      to the drive if the data fits into the driver's  buffer.
		      The  write threshold determines how full the buffer must
		      be before a new  SCSI  write  command  is  issued.   Any
		      errors reported by the drive will be held until the next
		      operation.  This option must be set false to write reliable
 multi-volume archives.
	       MT_ST_READ_AHEAD  (Default: true)
		      This  option causes the driver to provide read buffering
		      and read-ahead in fixed block mode.  If this  option  is
		      false  and  the  drive uses a fixed block size, then all
		      read operations must be for  a  multiple	of  the  block
	       MT_ST_TWO_FM  (Default: false)
		      This  option modifies the driver behavior when a file is
		      closed.  The normal action is to write  a  single  filemark.
   If  the option is true the driver will write two
		      filemarks and backspace over the second one.

		      Note: This option should not be set true	for  QIC  tape
		      drives  since  they  are unable to overwrite a filemark.
		      These drives detect the end of recorded data by  testing
		      for  blank  tape	rather than two consecutive filemarks.
		      Most  other  current  drives  also  detect  the  end  of
		      recorded	data and using two filemarks is usually necessary
 only when interchanging tapes with some other  systems.

	       MT_ST_DEBUGGING	(Default: false)
		      This option turns on various debugging messages from the
		      driver (effective only if the driver was	compiled  with
		      DEBUG defined non-zero).
	       MT_ST_FAST_EOM  (Default: false)
		      This  option  causes  the  MTEOM	operation  to  be sent
		      directly to the drive, potentially speeding up the operation
  but  causing the driver to lose track of the current
 file  number  normally  returned  by  the  MTIOCGET
		      request.	 If  MT_ST_FAST_EOM  is  false the driver will
		      respond to an MTEOM  request  by	forward  spacing  over
	       MT_ST_AUTO_LOCK (Default: false)
		      When  this option is true, the drive door is locked when
		      the device is opened and unlocked when it is closed.
	       MT_ST_DEF_WRITES (Default: false)
		      The tape options (block size, mode,  compression,  etc.)
		      may  change  when  changing  from one device linked to a
		      drive to another device linked to the same drive depending
  on how the devices are defined. This option defines
		      when the changes are enforced by the driver using  SCSIcommands
 and when the drives auto-detection capabilities
		      are relied upon. If this option  is  false,  the	driver
		      sends  the  SCSI-commands immediately when the device is
		      changed. If the option is true,  the  SCSI-commands  are
		      not  sent  until	a write is requested. In this case the
		      drive firmware is allowed to detect the  tape  structure
		      when reading and the SCSI-commands are used only to make
		      sure that a tape is written  according  to  the  correct
	       MT_ST_CAN_BSR (Default: false)
		      When  read-ahead	is  used,  the	tape must sometimes be
		      spaced backward to the correct position when the	device
		      is  closed  and the SCSI command to space backwards over
		      records is used for  this  purpose.  Some  older	drives
		      can't  process this command reliably and this option can
		      be used to instruct the driver not to use  the  command.
		      The  end result is that, with read-ahead and fixed block
		      mode, the tape may not be correctly positioned within  a
		      file when the device is closed.
	       MT_ST_NO_BLKLIMS (Default: false)
		      Some drives don't accept the READ BLOCK LIMITS SCSI command.
 If this is used, the driver does not use the  command.
 The drawback is that the driver can't check before
		      sending commands if the selected block size  is  acceptable
 to the drive.
	       MT_ST_CAN_PARTITIONS (Default: false)
		      This  option  enables  support  for  several  partitions
		      within a tape. The option applies to all devices	linked
		      to a drive.
	       MT_ST_SCSI2LOGICAL (Default: false)
		      This  option  instructs  the  driver  to use the logical
		      block addresses defined in the SCSI-2 standard when performing
  the  seek and tell operations (both with MTSEEK
		      and MTIOCPOS commands and when changing tape partition).
		      Otherwise the device-specific addresses are used.  It is
		      highly advisable to set this option if  the  drive  supports
  the  logical  addresses  because  they count also
		      filemarks. There are some drives that only  support  the
		      logical block addresses.
	       MT_ST_SYSV (Default: false)
		      When  this  option  is enabled, the tape devices use the
		      SystemV semantics. Otherwise the BSD semantics are used.
		      The  most  important difference between the semantics is
		      what happens when a device used for reading  is  closed:
		      in  SYSV	semantics  the tape is spaced forward past the
		      next filemark if this has not happened while  using  the
		      device.  In  BSD	semantics  the	tape  position	is not
		      struct mtop mt_cmd;
		      mt_cmd.mt_op = MTSETDRVBUFFER;
		      mt_cmd.mt_count = MT_ST_BOOLEANS |
		      ioctl(fd, MTIOCTOP, &mt_cmd);

	       The  default  block  size  for  a  device  can  be   set   with
	       MT_ST_DEF_BLKSIZE  and the default density code can be set with
	       MT_ST_DEFDENSITY. The values for the parameters are  ORed  with
	       the operation code.

	       With  kernels  2.1.x  and  later, the timeout values can be set
	       with the subcommand MT_ST_SET_TIMEOUT or'ed with the timeout in
	       seconds.  The long timeout (used for rewinds and other commands
	       that may take a long time) can be set with MT_ST_SET_LONG_TIMEOUT.
 The kernel defaults are very long to make sure that a successful
 command is not timed out with  any  drive.  Because  of
	       this  the  driver may seem stuck even if it is only waiting for
	       the timeout. These commands can be used to set  more  practical
	       values  for  a  specific drive. The timeouts set for one device
	       apply for all devices linked to the same drive.

   MTIOCGET - Get status    [Toc]    [Back]
       This request takes an argument of type (struct mtget *).

       /* structure for MTIOCGET - mag tape get status command */
       struct mtget {
	   long   mt_type;
	   long   mt_resid;
	   /* the following registers are device dependent */
	   long   mt_dsreg;
	   long   mt_gstat;
	   long   mt_erreg;
	   /* The next two fields are not always used */
	   daddr_t	    mt_fileno;
	   daddr_t	    mt_blkno;

       mt_type	  The header file defines many values  for  mt_type,  but  the
		  current  driver  reports  only  the generic types MT_ISSCSI1
		  (Generic SCSI-1 tape) and MT_ISSCSI2 (Generic SCSI-2	tape).
       mt_resid   contains the current tape partition number.
       mt_dsreg   reports  the drive's current settings for block size (in the
		  low 24 bits) and density (in the high 8 bits).  These fields
		  are	defined  by  MT_ST_BLKSIZE_SHIFT,  MT_ST_BLKSIZE_MASK,
       mt_gstat   reports generic  (device  independent)  status  information.
		  The  header  file  defines  macros  for testing these status
		  GMT_EOF(x): The tape is positioned  just  after  a  filemark
		      (always false after an MTSEEK operation).
		  GMT_BOT(x):  The  tape is positioned at the beginning of the
		      first file (always false after an MTSEEK operation).
		  GMT_EOT(x): A tape operation has reached the physical End Of
		  GMT_SM(x):  The  tape  is  currently positioned at a setmark
		      (always false after an MTSEEK operation).
		  GMT_EOD(x): The tape is positioned at the  end  of  recorded
		  GMT_WR_PROT(x):  The	drive  is  write-protected.   For some
		      drives this can also mean that the drive does  not  support
 writing on the current medium type.
		  GMT_ONLINE(x):  The  last open() found the drive with a tape
		      in place and ready for operation.
		  GMT_D_6250(x), GMT_D_1600(x), GMT_D_800(x):  This  "generic"
		      status  information  reports the current density setting
		      for 9-track 1/2" tape drives only.
		  GMT_DR_OPEN(x): The drive does not have a tape in place.
		  GMT_IM_REP_EN(x): Immediate report mode. This bit is set  if
		      there  are  no  guarantees that the data has been physically
 written to the tape when the write	call  returns.
		      It is set zero only when the driver does not buffer data
		      and the drive is set not to buffer data.
       mt_erreg   The only field defined in mt_erreg is  the  recovered  error
		  count  in the low 16 bits (as defined by MT_ST_SOFTERR_SHIFT
		  and MT_ST_SOFTERR_MASK).  Due to inconsistencies in the  way
		  drives  report  recovered  errors,  this  count is often not
		  maintained (most drives do not by default report soft errors
		  but this can be changed with a SCSI MODE SELECT command).
       mt_fileno  reports the current file number (zero-based).  This value is
		  set to -1 when the file number is unknown (e.g., after MTBSS
		  or MTSEEK).
       mt_blkno   reports  the	block  number  (zero-based) within the current
		  file.  This value is set to -1  when	the  block  number  is
		  unknown (e.g., after MTBSF, MTBSS, or MTSEEK).

   MTIOCPOS - Get tape position    [Toc]    [Back]
       This request takes an argument of type (struct mtpos *) and reports the
       drive's notion of the current tape block number, which is not the  same
       as  mt_blkno  returned  by MTIOCGET.  This drive must be a SCSI-2 drive
       that supports the READ POSITION command (device-specific address) or  a
       Tandberg-compatible SCSI-1 drive (Tandberg, Archive Viper, Wangtek, ...

       /* structure for MTIOCPOS - mag tape get position command */
       struct	  mtpos {
	   long   mt_blkno; /* current block number */

RETURN VALUE    [Toc]    [Back]

       EIO	     The requested operation could not be completed.

       ENOSPC	     A write operation could not be completed because the tape
		     reached end-of-medium.

       EACCES	     An  attempt  was made to write or erase a write-protected
		     tape.  (This error is not detected during open().)

       EFAULT	     The command parameters point to memory not  belonging  to
		     the calling process.

       ENXIO	     During opening, the tape device does not exist.

       EBUSY	     The  device is already in use or the driver was unable to
		     allocate a buffer.

       EOVERFLOW     An attempt was made to read or  write  a  variable-length
		     block that is larger than the driver's internal buffer.

       EINVAL	     An  ioctl() had an illegal argument, or a requested block
		     size was illegal.

       ENOSYS	     Unknown ioctl().

       EROFS	     Open is attempted with O_WRONLY or O_RDWR when  the  tape
		     in the drive is write-protected.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

       /dev/st*  : the auto-rewind SCSI tape devices
       /dev/nst* : the non-rewind SCSI tape devices

AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  driver  has  been  written by Kai Makisara (Kai.Makisara@metla.fi)
       starting from a driver written by Dwayne Forsyth. Several other	people
       have also contributed to the driver.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]


       The  file  README.st  in  the  kernel  sources contains the most recent
       information about the driver and it's configuration possibilities.

NOTES    [Toc]    [Back]

       1. When exchanging data between systems, both systems have to agree  on
       the  physical  tape block size. The parameters of a drive after startup
       are often not the ones most operating systems use with  these  devices.
       Most  systems  use  drives in variable block mode if the drive supports
       that mode. This applies to most	modern	drives,  including  DATs,  8mm
       helical scan drives, DLTs, etc. It may be advisable use these drives in
       variable block mode also in Linux (i.e., use MTSETBLK or MTSETDEFBLK at
       system  startup	to  set  the mode), at least when exchanging data with
       foreign system. The drawback of this is that a fairly large tape  block
       size  has  to be used to get acceptable data transfer rates on the SCSI

       2. Many programs (e.g., tar) allow the user  to	specify  the  blocking
       factor  on  command  line. Note that this determines the physical block
       size on tape only in variable block mode.

       3. In order to use SCSI tape drives, the basic  SCSI  driver,  a  SCSIadapter
	driver and the SCSI tape driver must be either configured into
       the kernel or loaded  as  modules.  If  the  SCSI-tape  driver  is  not
       present, the drive is recognized but the tape support described in this
       page is not available.

       4. The driver writes error messages to the console/log. The SENSE codes
       written into some messages are automatically translated to text if verbose
 SCSI messages are enabled in kernel configuration.

COPYRIGHT    [Toc]    [Back]

       Copyright (C) 1995 Robert K. Nichols.
       Copyright (C) 1999 Kai Makisara.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim  copies  of  this
       manual  provided  the  copyright  notice and this permission notice are
       preserved on all copies.  Additional permissions are contained  in  the
       header of the source file.

Linux 2.0 - 2.2 		  1999-01-18				 ST(4)
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