res_init, res_query, res_search, res_querydomain, res_mkquery,
res_send, dn_comp, dn_expand - resolver routines
extern struct state _res;
int res_query(const char *dname, int class, int type,
unsigned char *answer, int anslen);
int res_search(const char *dname, int class, int type,
unsigned char *answer, int anslen);
int res_querydomain(const char *name, const char *domain,
int class, int type, unsigned char *answer,
int res_mkquery(int op, const char *dname, int class,
int type, char *data, int datalen, struct rrec *newrr,
char *buf, int buflen);
int res_send(const char *msg, int msglen, char *answer,
int dn_comp(unsigned char *exp_dn, unsigned char *comp_dn,
int length, unsigned char **dnptrs, unsigned char *exp_dn,
unsigned char **lastdnptr);
int dn_expand(unsigned char *msg, unsigned char *eomorig,
unsigned char *comp_dn, unsigned char *exp_dn,
These functions make queries to and interpret the responses from Internet
domain name servers.
The res_init() function reads the configuration files (see resolv+(8))
to get the default domain name, search order and name server
address(es). If no server is given, the local host is tried. If no
domain is given, that associated with the local host is used. It can
be overridden with the environment variable LOCALDOMAIN. res_init() is
normally executed by the first call to one of the other functions.
The res_query() function queries the name server for the fully-qualified
domain name name of specified type and class. The reply is left
in the buffer answer of length anslen supplied by the caller.
The res_search() function makes a query and waits for the response like
res_query(), but in addition implements the default and search rules
controlled by RES_DEFNAMES and RES_DNSRCH (see description of _res
The res_querydomain() function makes a query using res_query() on the
concatenation of name and domain.
The following functions are lower-level routines used by res_query().
The res_mkquery() function constructs a query message in buf of length
buflen for the domain name dname. The query type op is usually QUERY,
but can be any of the types defined in <arpa/nameser.h>. newrr is currently
The res_send() function sends a pre-formatted query given in msg of
length msglen and returns the answer in answer which is of length
anslen. It will call res_init(), if it has not already been called.
The dn_comp() function compresses the domain name exp_dn and stores it
in the buffer comp_dn of length length. The compression uses an array
of pointers dnptrs to previously compressed names in the current message.
The first pointer points to the beginning of the message and the
list ends with NULL. The limit of the array is specified by lastdnptr.
if dnptr is NULL, domain names are not compressed. If lastdnptr is
NULL, the list of labels is not updated.
The dn_expand() function expands the compressed domain name comp_dn to
a full domain name, which is placed in the buffer exp_dn of size
length. The compressed name is contained in a query or reply message,
and msg points to the beginning of the message.
The resolver routines use global configuration and state information
contained in the structure _res, which is defined in <resolv.h>. The
only field that is normally manipulated by the user is _res.options.
This field can contain the bitwise ``or'' of the following options:
RES_INIT [Toc] [Back]
True if res_init() has been called.
RES_DEBUG [Toc] [Back]
Print debugging messages.
RES_AAONLY [Toc] [Back]
Accept authoritative answers only. res_send() continues until
it fins an authoritative answer or returns an error. [Not currently
RES_USEVC [Toc] [Back]
Use TCP connections for queries rather than UDP datagrams.
RES_PRIMARY [Toc] [Back]
Query primary domain name server only.
RES_IGNTC [Toc] [Back]
Ignore truncation errors. Don't retry with TCP. [Not currently
RES_RECURSE [Toc] [Back]
Set the recursion desired bit in queries. Recursion is carried
out by the domain name server, not by res_send(). [Enabled by
RES_DEFNAMES [Toc] [Back]
If set, res_search() will append the default domain name to single
component names, ie. those that do not contain a dot.
[Enabled by default].
RES_STAYOPEN [Toc] [Back]
Used with RES_USEVC to keep the TCP connection open between
RES_DNSRCH [Toc] [Back]
If set, res_search() will search for host names in the current
domain and in parent domains. This option is used by gethostby-
name(3). [Enabled by default].
The res_init() function returns 0 on success, or -1 if an error occurs.
The res_query(), res_search(), res_querydomain(), res_mkquery() and
res_send() functions return the length of the response, or -1 if an
The dn_comp() and dn_expand() functions return the length of the compressed
name, or -1 if an error occurs.
/etc/resolv.conf resolver configuration file
/etc/host.conf resolver configuration file
gethostbyname(3), hostname(7), named(8), resolv+(8)
BSD 1993-05-21 RESOLVER(3)
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