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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     glob, globfree -- generate pathnames matching a pattern

LIBRARY    [Toc]    [Back]

     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     #include <glob.h>

     glob(const char *pattern, int flags,
	 const int (*errfunc)(const char *, int), glob_t *pglob);

     globfree(glob_t *pglob);

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The glob() function is a pathname generator that implements the rules for
     file name pattern matching used by the shell.

     The include file glob.h defines the structure type glob_t, which contains
     at least the following fields:

     typedef struct {
	     int gl_pathc;	     /* count of total paths so far */
	     int gl_matchc;	     /* count of paths matching pattern */
	     int gl_offs;	     /* reserved at beginning of gl_pathv */
	     int gl_flags;	     /* returned flags */
	     char **gl_pathv;	     /* list of paths matching pattern */
     } glob_t;

     The argument pattern is a pointer to a pathname pattern to be expanded.
     The glob() argument matches all accessible pathnames against the pattern
     and creates a list of the pathnames that match.  In order to have access
     to a pathname, glob() requires search permission on every component of a
     path except the last and read permission on each directory of any filename
 component of pattern that contains any of the special characters
     `*', `'?  or [`'.

     The glob() argument stores the number of matched pathnames into the
     gl_pathc field, and a pointer to a list of pointers to pathnames into the
     gl_pathv field.  The first pointer after the last pathname is NULL.  If
     the pattern does not match any pathnames, the returned number of matched
     paths is set to zero.

     It is the caller's responsibility to create the structure pointed to by
     pglob.  The glob() function allocates other space as needed, including
     the memory pointed to by gl_pathv.

     The argument flags is used to modify the behavior of glob().  The value
     of flags is the bitwise inclusive OR of any of the following values
     defined in glob.h:

     GLOB_APPEND      Append pathnames generated to the ones from a previous
		      call (or calls) to glob().  The value of gl_pathc will
		      be the total matches found by this call and the previous
		      call(s).	The pathnames are appended to, not merged with
		      the pathnames returned by the previous call(s).  Between
		      calls, the caller must not change the setting of the
		      GLOB_DOOFFS flag, nor change the value of gl_offs when
		      GLOB_DOOFFS is set, nor (obviously) call globfree() for

     GLOB_DOOFFS      Make use of the gl_offs field.  If this flag is set,
		      gl_offs is used to specify how many NULL pointers to
		      prepend to the beginning of the gl_pathv field.  In
		      other words, gl_pathv will point to gl_offs NULL pointers,
 followed by gl_pathc pathname pointers, followed by
		      a NULL pointer.

     GLOB_ERR	      Causes glob() to return when it encounters a directory
		      that it cannot open or read.  Ordinarily, glob() continues
 to find matches.

     GLOB_MARK	      Each pathname that is a directory that matches pattern
		      has a slash appended.

     GLOB_NOCHECK     If pattern does not match any pathname, then glob()
		      returns a list consisting of only pattern, with the number
 of total pathnames is set to 1, and the number of
		      matched pathnames set to 0.

     GLOB_NOSORT      By default, the pathnames are sorted in ascending ASCII
		      order; this flag prevents that sorting (speeding up

     The following values may also be included in flags, however, they are
     non-standard extensions to IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'').

     GLOB_ALTDIRFUNC  The following additional fields in the pglob structure
		      have been initialized with alternate functions for glob
		      to use to open, read, and close directories and to get
		      stat information on names found in those directories.

			      void *(*gl_opendir)(const char * name);
			      struct dirent *(*gl_readdir)(void *);
			      void (*gl_closedir)(void *);
			      int (*gl_lstat)(const char *name, struct stat *st);
			      int (*gl_stat)(const char *name, struct stat *st);

		      This extension is provided to allow programs such as
		      restore(8) to provide globbing from directories stored
		      on tape.

     GLOB_BRACE       Pre-process the pattern string to expand `{pat,pat,...}'
		      strings like csh(1).  The pattern `{}' is left unexpanded
 for historical reasons (csh(1) does the same
		      thing to ease typing of find(1) patterns).

     GLOB_MAGCHAR     Set by the glob() function if the pattern included globbing
 characters.	See the description of the usage of
		      the gl_matchc structure member for more details.

     GLOB_NOMAGIC     Is the same as GLOB_NOCHECK but it only appends the
		      pattern if it does not contain any of the special characters
 ``*'', ``?'' or ``[''.  GLOB_NOMAGIC is provided
		      to simplify implementing the historic csh(1) globbing
		      behavior and should probably not be used anywhere else.

     GLOB_NOESCAPE    Disable the use of the backslash (`\') character for

     GLOB_TILDE       Expand patterns that start with `~' to user name home

     GLOB_LIMIT       Limit the amount of memory used by matches to ARG_MAX
		      This option should be set for programs that can be
		      coerced to a denial of service attack via patterns that
		      expand to a very large number of matches, such as a long
		      string of */../*/..

     If, during the search, a directory is encountered that cannot be opened
     or read and errfunc is non-NULL, glob() calls (*errfunc)(path, errno).
     This may be unintuitive: a pattern like `*/Makefile' will try to stat(2)
     `foo/Makefile' even if `foo' is not a directory, resulting in a call to
     errfunc.  The error routine can suppress this action by testing for
     ENOENT and ENOTDIR; however, the GLOB_ERR flag will still cause an immediate
 return when this happens.

     If errfunc returns non-zero, glob() stops the scan and returns
     GLOB_ABORTED after setting gl_pathc and gl_pathv to reflect any paths
     already matched.  This also happens if an error is encountered and
     GLOB_ERR is set in flags, regardless of the return value of errfunc, if
     called.  If GLOB_ERR is not set and either errfunc is NULL or errfunc
     returns zero, the error is ignored.

     The globfree() function frees any space associated with pglob from a previous
 call(s) to glob().

     The historical GLOB_QUOTE flag is no longer supported.  Per IEEE Std
     1003.2-1992 (``POSIX.2''), backslash escaping of special characters is
     the default behaviour; it may be disabled by specifying the GLOB_NOESCAPE

RETURN VALUES    [Toc]    [Back]

     On successful completion, glob() returns zero.  In addition the fields of
     pglob contain the values described below:

     gl_pathc	   contains the total number of matched pathnames so far.
		   This includes other matches from previous invocations of
		   glob() if GLOB_APPEND was specified.

     gl_matchc	   contains the number of matched pathnames in the current
		   invocation of glob().

     gl_flags	   contains a copy of the flags parameter with the bit
		   GLOB_MAGCHAR set if pattern contained any of the special
		   characters ``*'', ``?'' or ``['', cleared if not.

     gl_pathv	   contains a pointer to a NULL-terminated list of matched
		   pathnames.  However, if gl_pathc is zero, the contents of
		   gl_pathv are undefined.

     If glob() terminates due to an error, it sets errno and returns one of
     the following non-zero constants, which are defined in the include file

     GLOB_ABORTED     The scan was stopped because an error was encountered
		      and either GLOB_ERR was set or (*errfunc)() returned

     GLOB_NOMATCH     The pattern does not match any existing pathname, and
		      GLOB_NOCHECK was not set int flags.

     GLOB_NOSPACE     An attempt to allocate memory failed, or if errno was 0
		      GLOB_LIMIT was specified in the flags and ARG_MAX patterns
 were matched.

     The historical GLOB_ABEND return constant is no longer supported.	Portable
 applications should use the GLOB_ABORTED constant instead.

     The arguments pglob->gl_pathc and pglob->gl_pathv are still set as specified

ENVIRONMENT    [Toc]    [Back]

     HOME  If defined, used as the home directory of the current user in tilde

EXAMPLE    [Toc]    [Back]

     A rough equivalent of `ls -l *.c *.h' can be obtained with the following

	   glob_t g;

	   g.gl_offs = 2;
	   glob("*.c", GLOB_DOOFFS, NULL, &g);
	   glob("*.h", GLOB_DOOFFS | GLOB_APPEND, NULL, &g);
	   g.gl_pathv[0] = "ls";
	   g.gl_pathv[1] = "-l";
	   execvp("ls", g.gl_pathv);

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     sh(1), fnmatch(3), regexp(3)

STANDARDS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The glob() function is expected to be IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'') compatible
 with the exception that the flags GLOB_ALTDIRFUNC, GLOB_BRACE
     gl_matchc and gl_flags should not be used by applications striving for
     strict POSIX conformance.

HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

     The glob() and globfree() functions first appeared in 4.4BSD.

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     Patterns longer than MAXPATHLEN may cause unchecked errors.

     The glob() function may fail and set errno for any of the errors specified
 for the library routines stat(2), closedir(3), opendir(3),
     readdir(3), malloc(3), and free(3).

FreeBSD 5.2.1			March 31, 1998			 FreeBSD 5.2.1
GLOB(3) 		   Linux Programmer's Manual		       GLOB(3)

NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       glob,  globfree	-  find pathnames matching a pattern, free memory from

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       #include <glob.h>

       int glob(const char *pattern, int flags,
		int errfunc(const char * epath, int eerrno),
		glob_t *pglob);
       void globfree(glob_t *pglob);

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The glob() function searches for all  the  pathnames  matching  pattern
       according  to  the  rules  used	by  the shell (see glob(7)).  No tilde
       expansion or parameter substitution is done; if	you  want  these,  use

       The globfree() function frees the dynamically allocated storage from an
       earlier call to glob().

       The results of a glob() call are stored in the structure pointed to  by
       pglob, which is a glob_t which is declared in <glob.h> and includes the
       following elements defined by POSIX.2 (more may be present as an extension):

	  typedef struct
		  size_t gl_pathc;    /* Count of paths matched so far	*/
		  char **gl_pathv;    /* List of matched pathnames.  */
		  size_t gl_offs;     /* Slots to reserve in `gl_pathv'.  */
	  } glob_t;

       Results are stored in dynamically allocated storage.

       The  parameter  flags is made up of bitwise OR of zero or more the following
 symbolic constants, which modify the of behaviour of glob():

       GLOB_ERR    [Toc]    [Back]
	      which means to return upon read error (because a directory  does
	      not have read permission, for example),

       GLOB_MARK    [Toc]    [Back]
	      which  means to append a slash to each path which corresponds to
	      a directory,

       GLOB_NOSORT    [Toc]    [Back]
	      which means don't sort  the  returned  pathnames	(they  are  by

       GLOB_DOOFFS    [Toc]    [Back]
	      which  means  that  pglob->gl_offs slots will be reserved at the
	      beginning of the list of strings in pglob->pathv,

       GLOB_NOCHECK    [Toc]    [Back]
	      which means that, if no pattern matches, to return the  original

       GLOB_APPEND    [Toc]    [Back]
	      which means to append to the results of a previous call.	Do not
	      set this flag on the first invocation of glob().

       GLOB_NOESCAPE    [Toc]    [Back]
	      which means that meta  characters  cannot  be  quoted  by  backslashes.

       The  flags may also include some of the following, which are GNU extensions
 and not defined by POSIX.2:

       GLOB_PERIOD    [Toc]    [Back]
	      which means that a leading period can be matched by meta characters,

       GLOB_ALTDIRFUNC    [Toc]    [Back]
	      which   means  that  alternative	functions  pglob->gl_closedir,
	      pglob->gl_readdir,   pglob->gl_opendir,	pglob->gl_lstat,   and
	      pglob->gl_stat  are  used  for file system access instead of the
	      normal library functions,

       GLOB_BRACE    [Toc]    [Back]
	      which  means  that  csh(1)  style  brace	expresions  {a,b}  are

       GLOB_NOMAGIC    [Toc]    [Back]
	      which  means  that  the  pattern	is  returned if it contains no

       GLOB_TILDE    [Toc]    [Back]
	      which means that tilde expansion is carried out, and

       GLOB_ONLYDIR    [Toc]    [Back]
	      which means that only directories are matched.

       If errfunc is not NULL, it will be called in case of an error with  the
       arguments  epath,  a  pointer to the path which failed, and eerrno, the
       value of errno as returned from one of the calls  to  opendir(),  read-
       dir(),  or stat().  If errfunc returns non-zero, or if GLOB_ERR is set,
       glob() will terminate after the call to errfunc.

       Upon successful return, pglob->gl_pathc contains the number of  matched
       pathnames  and  pglob->gl_pathv	a pointer to the list of matched pathnames.
  The first pointer after the last pathname is NULL.

       It is possible to  call	glob()	several  times.   In  that  case,  the
       GLOB_APPEND flag has to be set in flags on the second and later invocations.

       As a GNU extension, pglob->gl_flags is set to the flags specified, ored
       with GLOB_MAGCHAR if any metacharacters were found.

RETURN VALUE    [Toc]    [Back]

       On  successful completion, glob() returns zero.	Other possible returns

       GLOB_NOSPACE    [Toc]    [Back]
	      for running out of memory,

       GLOB_ABORTED    [Toc]    [Back]
	      for a read error, and

       GLOB_NOMATCH    [Toc]    [Back]
	      for no found matches.

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

       One example of use is the following code, which simulates typing ls  -l
       *.c ../*.c in the shell.

	  glob_t globbuf;

	  globbuf.gl_offs = 2;
	  glob("*.c", GLOB_DOOFFS, NULL, &globbuf);
	  glob("../*.c", GLOB_DOOFFS | GLOB_APPEND, NULL, &globbuf);
	  globbuf.gl_pathv[0] = "ls";
	  globbuf.gl_pathv[1] = "-l";
	  execvp("ls", &globbuf.gl_pathv[0]);

CONFORMING TO    [Toc]    [Back]


BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  glob()  function  may  fail  due to failure of underlying function
       calls, such as malloc() or opendir().  These  will  store  their  error
       code in errno.

NOTES    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  structure  elements gl_pathc and gl_offs are declared as size_t in
       glibc 2.1, as they should according to POSIX.2, but are declared as int
       in libc4, libc5 and glibc 2.0.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       ls(1),  sh(1),  stat(2),  exec(3),  malloc(3),  opendir(3), readdir(3),

GNU				  1999-09-12			       GLOB(3)
[ Back ]
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