feclearexcept, fegetexceptflag, feraiseexcept, fesetexceptflag, fetestexcept,
fegetenv, fegetround, feholdexcept, fesetround, fesetenv,
feupdateenv - C99 floating point rounding and exception handling
void feclearexcept(int excepts);
void fegetexceptflag(fexcept_t *flagp, int excepts);
void feraiseexcept(int excepts);
void fesetexceptflag(const fexcept_t *flagp, int excepts);
int fetestexcept(int excepts);
int fesetround(int rounding_mode);
void fegetenv(fenv_t *envp);
int feholdexcept(fenv_t *envp);
void fesetenv(const fenv_t *envp);
void feupdateenv(const fenv_t *envp);
These eleven functions were defined in C99, and describe the handling
of floating point rounding and exceptions (overflow, zero-divide etc.).
Exceptions [Toc] [Back]
The DivideByZero exception occurs when an operation on finite numbers
produces infinity as exact answer.
The Overflow exception occurs when a result has to be represented as a
floating point number, but has (much) larger absolute value than the
largest (finite) floating point number that is representable.
The Underflow exception occurs when a result has to be represented as a
floating point number, but has smaller absolute value than the smallest
positive normalized floating point number (and would lose much accuracy
when represented as a denormalized number).
The Inexact exception occurs when the rounded result of an operation is
not equal to the infinite precision result. It may occur whenever
Overflow or Underflow occurs.
The Invalid exception occurs when there is no well-defined result for
an operation, as for 0/0 or infinity - infinity or sqrt(-1).
Exception handling [Toc] [Back]
Exceptions are represented in two ways: as a single bit (exception
present/absent), and these bits correspond in some implementationdefined
way with bit positions in an integer, and also as an opaque
structure that may contain more information about the exception (perhaps
the code address where it occurred).
Each of the macros FE_DIVBYZERO, FE_INEXACT, FE_INVALID, FE_OVERFLOW,
FE_UNDERFLOW is defined when the implementation supports handling of
the corresponding exception, and if so then defines the corresponding
bit(s), so that one can call exception handling functions e.g. using
the integer argument FE_OVERFLOW|FE_UNDERFLOW. Other exceptions may be
supported. The macro FE_ALL_EXCEPT is the bitwise OR of all bits corresponding
to supported exceptions.
The feclearexcept function clears the supported exceptions represented
by the bits in its argument.
The fegetexceptflag function stores a representation of the state of
the exception flags represented by the argument excepts in the opaque
The feraiseexcept function raises the supported exceptions represented
by the bits in excepts.
The fesetexceptflag function sets the complete status for the exceptions
represented by excepts to the value *flagp. This value must have
been obtained by an earlier call of fegetexceptflag with a last argument
that contained all bits in excepts.
The fetestexcept function returns a word in which the bits are set that
were set in the argument excepts and for which the corresponding exception
is currently set.
Rounding [Toc] [Back]
Each of the macros FE_DOWNWARD, FE_TONEAREST, FE_TOWARDZERO, FE_UPWARD
is defined when the implementation supports getting and setting the
corresponding rounding direction.
The fegetround function returns the macro corresponding to the current
The fesetround function sets the rounding mode as specified by its
argument and returns zero when it was successful.
Floating point environment [Toc] [Back]
The entire floating point environment, including control modes and status
flags, can be handled as one opaque object, of type fenv_t. The
default environment is denoted by FE_DFL_ENV (of type const fenv_t *).
This is the environment setup at program start and it is defined by ISO
C to have round to nearest, all exceptions cleared and a non-stop (continue
on exceptions) mode.
The fegetenv function saves the current floating point environment in
the object *envp.
The feholdexcept function does the same, then clears all exception
flags, and sets a non-stop (continue on exceptions) mode, if available.
It returns zero when successful.
The fesetenv function restores the floating point environment from the
object *envp. This object must be known to be valid, e.g., the result
of a call to fegetenv or feholdexcept or equal to FE_DFL_ENV. This
call does not raise exceptions.
The feupdateenv function installs the floating-point environment represented
by the object *envp, except that currently raised exceptions are
not cleared. After calling this function, the raised exceptions will
be a bitwise OR of those previously set with those in *envp. As
before, the object *envp must be known to be valid.
If possible, the GNU C Library defines a macro FE_NOMASK_ENV which represents
an environment where every exception raised causes a trap to
occur. You can test for this macro using #ifdef. It is only defined
if _GNU_SOURCE is defined. The C99 standard does not define a way to
set individual bits in the floating point mask, e.g. to trap on specific
flags. glibc 2.2 will support the functions feenableexcept and
fedisableexcept to set individual floating point traps, and fegetexcept
to query the state.
int feenableexcept (int excepts);
int fedisableexcept (int excepts);
int fegetexcept (void);
The feenableexcept and fedisableexcept functions enable (disable) traps
for each of the exceptions represented by excepts and return the previous
set of enabled exceptions when successful, and -1 otherwise. The
fegetexcept function returns the set of all currently enabled exceptions.
IEC 60559 (IEC 559:1989), ANSI/IEEE 854, ISO C99 (ISO/IEC 9899:1999).
Linux Manpage 2000-08-12 FENV(3)
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