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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       python  - an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       python [ -d ] [ -i ] [ -O ] [ -S ] [ -t ] [ -u ] [ -v ] [ -x ] [ -h ] [
       -V ] [ -W argument ]
	      [ -c command | script | - ] [ arguments ]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       Python is an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language
 that combines remarkable power with very clear  syntax.   For  an
       introduction  to  programming  in Python you are referred to the Python
       Tutorial.  The Python Library Reference documents built-in and standard
       types, constants, functions and modules.  Finally, the Python Reference
       Manual describes the syntax and semantics of the core language in (perhaps
  too) much detail.	(These documents may be located via the INTER-
       NET RESOURCES below; they may be installed on your system as well.)

       Python's basic power can be extended with your own modules written in C
       or  C++.   On  most  systems  such  modules  may be dynamically loaded.
       Python is also adaptable as an extension language for existing applications.
  See the internal documentation for hints.

       Documentation  for  installed Python modules and packages can be viewed
       by running the pydoc program.


       -d     Turn on parser debugging output (for wizards only, depending  on
	      compilation options).

       -i     When  a  script  is passed as first argument or the -c option is
	      used, enter interactive mode after executing the script  or  the
	      command.	It does not read the $PYTHONSTARTUP file.  This can be
	      useful to inspect global variables  or  a  stack	trace  when  a
	      script raises an exception.

       -O     Turn  on	basic optimizations.  This changes the filename extension
 for compiled (bytecode) files from  .pyc  to  .pyo.	 Given
	      twice, causes docstrings to be discarded.

       -S     Disable  the  import  of	the module site and the site-dependent
	      manipulations of sys.path that it entails.

       -t     Issue a warning when a source file mixes	tabs  and  spaces  for
	      indentation  in a way that makes it depend on the worth of a tab
	      expressed in spaces.  Issue an error when the  option  is  given

       -u     Force stdin, stdout and stderr to be totally unbuffered.

       -v     Print  a	message each time a module is initialized, showing the
	      place (filename or built-in module) from	which  it  is  loaded.
	      When  given twice, print a message for each file that is checked
	      for when searching for a module.	Also provides  information  on
	      module cleanup at exit.

       -x     Skip  the  first line of the source.  This is intended for a DOS
	      specific hack only.  Warning: the line numbers in error messages
	      will be off by one!

       -h     Prints the usage for the interpreter executable and exits.

       -V     Prints the Python version number of the executable and exits.

       -W argument
	      Warning  control.   Python  sometimes  prints warning message to
	      sys.stderr.  A typical warning message has the  following  form:
	      file:line:  category:  message.	By  default,  each  warning is
	      printed once for each source line where it occurs.  This	option
	      controls	how  often  warnings are printed.  Multiple -W options
	      may be given; when a warning matches more than one  option,  the
	      action  for  the	last matching option is performed.  Invalid -W
	      options are ignored (a warning message is printed about  invalid
	      options when the first warning is issued).  Warnings can also be
	      controlled from within a Python program using the warnings  module.

	      The  simplest  form  of  argument is one of the following action
	      strings (or a unique abbreviation): ignore to ignore  all  warnings;
 default to explicitly request the default behavior (printing
 each warning once per source line); all to print  a  warning
	      each  time it occurs (this may generate many messages if a warning
 is triggered repeatedly  for	the  same  source  line,  e.g.
	      inside a loop); module to print each warning only only the first
	      time it occurs in each module; once to print each  warning  only
	      the  first  time	it occurs in the program; or error to raise an
	      exception instead of printing a warning message.

	      The  full  form  of  argument  is   action:message:category:mod-
	      ule:line.   Here,  action is as explained above but only applies
	      to messages that match the remaining fields.  Empty fields match
	      all  values;  trailing empty fields may be omitted.  The message
	      field matches the start of the  warning  message	printed;  this
	      match is case-insensitive.  The category field matches the warning
 category.  This must be a class name; the match test whether
	      the  actual warning category of the message is a subclass of the
	      specified warning category.  The full class name must be	given.
	      The module field matches the (fully-qualified) module name; this
	      match is case-sensitive.	The line field matches the  line  number,
  where zero matches all line numbers and is thus equivalent
	      to an omitted line number.

       -c command
	      Specify the command to execute (see next section).  This	terminates
 the option list (following options are passed as arguments
	      to the command).


       The interpreter interface resembles that of the UNIX shell: when called
       with  standard input connected to a tty device, it prompts for commands
       and executes them until an EOF is read; when called with  a  file  name
       argument  or  with  a  file  as standard input, it reads and executes a
       script from that file; when called with -c  command,  it  executes  the
       Python  statement(s) given as command.  Here command may contain multiple
 statements separated by newlines.  Leading whitespace  is  significant
  in  Python statements!  In non-interactive mode, the entire input
       is parsed befored it is executed.

       If available, the script name and additional arguments  thereafter  are
       passed  to the script in the Python variable sys.argv , which is a list
       of strings (you must first import sys to be able to access it).	If  no
       script  name  is  given, sys.argv[0] is an empty string; if -c is used,
       sys.argv[0] contains the string '-c'.  Note that options interpreted by
       the Python interpreter itself are not placed in sys.argv.

       In  interactive	mode,  the  primary prompt is `>>>'; the second prompt
       (which appears when a command is not complete) is `...'.   The  prompts
       can  be	changed  by assignment to sys.ps1 or sys.ps2.  The interpreter
       quits when it reads an EOF at a prompt.	When  an  unhandled  exception
       occurs,	a  stack  trace  is printed and control returns to the primary
       prompt; in non-interactive mode, the interpreter exits  after  printing
       the  stack  trace.   The  interrupt signal raises the KeyboardInterrupt
       exception; other UNIX signals are not caught (except  that  SIGPIPE  is
       sometimes  ignored, in favor of the IOError exception).	Error messages
       are written to stderr.


       These are subject to difference depending on local installation conventions;
  ${prefix}  and  ${exec_prefix}  are  installation-dependent and
       should be interpreted as for GNU software; they may be the  same.   The
       default for both is /usr/local.

	      Recommended location of the interpreter.

	      Recommended locations of the directories containing the standard

	      Recommended locations of the directories containing the  include
	      files  needed for developing Python extensions and embedding the

	      User-specific initialization file loaded by the user module; not
	      used by default or by most applications.


	      Change  the  location  of  the  standard	Python	libraries.  By
	      default, the libraries are searched in ${prefix}/lib/python<version>
  and  ${exec_prefix}/lib/python<version>,  where ${prefix}
	      and ${exec_prefix} are installation-dependent directories,  both
	      defaulting  to  /usr/local.  When $PYTHONHOME is set to a single
	      directory, its value replaces both ${prefix} and ${exec_prefix}.
	      To specify different values for these, set $PYTHONHOME to ${prefix}:${exec_prefix}.

	      Augments the default search path for module files.   The	format
	      is  the  same  as the shell's $PATH: one or more directory pathnames
  separated	by  colons.   Non-existant   directories   are
	      silently	ignored.   The	default  search  path  is installation
	      dependent, but generally begins  with  ${prefix}/lib/python<version>
 (see PYTHONHOME above).  The default search path is always
	      appended to $PYTHONPATH.	If a script  argument  is  given,  the
	      directory containing the script is inserted in the path in front
	      of $PYTHONPATH.  The search path can be manipulated from	within
	      a Python program as the variable sys.path .

	      If  this	is the name of a readable file, the Python commands in
	      that file are executed before the first prompt is  displayed  in
	      interactive  mode.   The file is executed in the same name space
	      where interactive commands are executed so that objects  defined
	      or  imported  in	it  can  be  used without qualification in the
	      interactive session.  You can also change  the  prompts  sys.ps1
	      and sys.ps2 in this file.

	      If  this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying
 the -d option.

	      If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to	specifying
 the -i option.

	      If  this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying
 the -u option.

	      If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to	specifying
 the -v option.

AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]

       Guido van Rossum

       E-mail: guido@python.org

       And a cast of thousands.


       Main website: http://www.python.org
       Community website: http://starship.python.net
       Developer resources:
       FTP: ftp://ftp.python.org/pub/python
       Module repository: http://www.vex.net/parnassus/
       Newsgroups: comp.lang.python, comp.lang.python.announce

LICENSING    [Toc]    [Back]

       Python  is  distributed	under  an  Open  Source license.  See the file
       "LICENSE" in the Python source distribution for information on terms  &
       conditions  for	accessing  and	otherwise  using Python and for a DISCLAIMER

			       5 September, 2000		     PYTHON(1)
[ Back ]
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