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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       last, lastb - show listing of last logged in users

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       last [-R] [-num] [ -n num ] [-adiox] [ -f file ] [name...]  [tty...]
       lastb [-R] [-num] [ -n num ] [ -f file ] [-adiox] [name...]  [tty...]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       Last  searches  back through the file /var/log/wtmp (or the file designated
 by the -f flag) and displays a list of all users logged  in  (and
       out)  since  that  file	was  created.  Names of users and tty's can be
       given, in which case last will show only  those	entries  matching  the
       arguments.   Names  of ttys can be abbreviated, thus last 0 is the same
       as last tty0.

       When last catches a SIGINT signal (generated by the interrupt key, usually
 control-C) or a SIGQUIT signal (generated by the quit key, usually
       control-\), last will show how far it has searched through the file; in
       the case of the SIGINT signal last will then terminate.

       The  pseudo user reboot logs in each time the system is rebooted.  Thus
       last reboot will show a log of all reboots since the log file was  created.

       Lastb is the same as last, except that by default it shows a log of the
       file /var/log/btmp, which contains all the bad login attempts.

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       -num   This is a count telling last how many lines to show.

       -n num The same.

       -R     Suppresses the display of the hostname field.

       -a     Display the hostname in the last column. Useful  in  combination
	      with the next flag.

       -d     For non-local logins, Linux stores not only the host name of the
	      remote host but its IP number as well.  This  option  translates
	      the IP number back into a hostname.

       -i     This  option is like -d in that it displays the IP number of the
	      remote host, but it displays the IP number  in  numbers-and-dots

       -o     Read  an	old-type  wtmp	file  (written by linux-libc5 applications).

       -x     Display the system shutdown entries and run level changes.

NOTES    [Toc]    [Back]

       The files wtmp and btmp might not be found. The system only logs information
  in  these files if they are present. This is a local configuration
 issue. If you want the files to be used, they can be created  with
       a simple touch(1) command (for example, touch /var/log/wtmp).

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]


AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]

       Miquel van Smoorenburg, miquels@cistron.nl

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       shutdown(8), login(1), init(8)

				 Jul 29, 1999			 LAST,LASTB(1)
[ Back ]
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