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SNETD(1M)							     SNETD(1M)

NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     snetd - DLPI network daemon

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     snetd [-nt] [ config_file | - ]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     snetd configures a	STREAMS	network	from a specification given in a
     configuration file	whose format is	described in the Configuration

     By	default	the configuration is taken from	the file
     /etc/config/snetd.options.	An alternative file may	be specified as	a
     command line argument (config_file).  The special filename	'-' is taken
     to	mean the standard input.

     Upon system startup, if the state of the snetd daemon is on, the daemon
     is	started	by /etc/init.d/network.	You may	use chkconfig(1M) to check the
     state of the daemon or to change its state.

     The -t option may be used to debug	a configuration	file.  It produces
     trace information indicating the sequence of opens, links,	etc. performed
     by	snetd to create	the STREAMS architecture defined by the	configuration.

     The -n option, which also implies -t , inhibits the actual	building of
     the STREAMS network.

CONFIGURATION    [Toc]    [Back]

     This section describes the	configuration of the STREAMS network
     constructed by snetd.

     The file is in two	sections, module and streams , separated by a line
     consisting	of the character sequence '%%'.	 Blank lines may be used
     freely throughout the file, and a token (see below) beginning with	an
     unquoted '#' (hash) denotes a comment which lasts till the	end of the
     line.  In addition, a backslash (\) immediately preceding the end of a
     line results in the newline being treated as whitespace (except at	the
     end of comment lines).

     Tokens consist either of

     a)	  a single occurrence of the special characters	{ '=', '{', ',', '}' }

     (Note:  '=' is not	a special character within the brace-enclosed argument
     list of a control message;	',' is only a special character	in this

     b)	  strings of arbitrary characters enclosed in single or	double quotes
	  (''' or '"'),	but not	containing a newline - each quoting character
	  quotes the other, for	example, "foo 'bar'" or	'"foo" bar'

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SNETD(1M)							     SNETD(1M)

     (Newlines occurring within	quoted strings will silently terminate the

     c)	  sequences of non-whitespace characters not including any of the
	  special characters or	quotes

     All strings are case-sensitive, and are silently truncated	to 200

     The modules section describes the individual modules and drivers from
     which the STREAMS network configuration will be built.

     tcp    dc	  /dev/tcp
     arp    m	  arp
     x25    dc	  /dev/x25
     lapb0  dc	  /dev/lapb0

     Each line (such as	the examples above) consists of	three tokens
     (separated	by whitespace or tabs) as follows.

     The module	identifier is the name by which	the module or driver will be
     known in the streams section (see below).

     The module	type is	a sequence of character	flags describing the module or
     driver.  The flag 'd' describes a STREAMS driver ,	whereas	'm' describes
     a module. The 'c' flag specifies a	driver to be cloneable.	(See the
     STREAMS Programmer's Guide	for a detailed description of modules and

     The module	name is	the character device name for a	driver,	or the
     pushable module name for a	module.

     The streams section describes the architecture of the network in terms of
     how the previously	defined	modules	and drivers are	to be combined (by
     means of the appropriate PUSHes and LINKs)	into streams.  Multiplexing
     and cloning are handled automatically by the snetd(1M) utility.

     ip	   arp	    IP_NET=
     x25   lapb0    SHELL="x25tune -P -s A def.dte.x25"	\
		    X25_SET_SNID={A, LC_LAPBDTE, , }

     Lines in this section (such as the	above examples)	are of the following

     The first two tokens on a line are	names (module identifiers as defined
     in	the previous section) of drivers or modules which are to form the
     upstream and downstream components	respectively of	a STREAMS link.

     Each link performed between token 1 and token 2 generates a mux_id
     (multiplexing identifier) which is	associated with	that link.  It is
     possible to override the generated	link by	replacing token	2 with an
     explicit mux_id, for example:

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SNETD(1M)							     SNETD(1M)

     lapb0    1	    LL_SET_SNID=A \
		    SHELL="lltune -P -p	lapb -s	B -d /dev/lapb0	def.lapb"

     This sets the mux_id associated with the link to 1	.

     These names may be	qualified by a suffix consisting of a colon (:)	and a
     number (for example arp:1)	to signify a particular	instantiation of a
     module.  (An uninstantiated name is an abbreviation for name:0.)  Each
     instantiation of a	module can be thought of as a separate block in	a
     STREAMS Architecture diagram.  Separate instantiations would be
     appropriate for, say, a module pushed above more than one driver, but not
     for a cloneable multiplexed driver.

     Instantiations are	used in	the 'streams' section only, to instantiate
     modules defined in	the 'modules' section.	The following networking
     example would run IP over two distinct networks:

     ip	      dc     /dev/ip
     arp      m	     arp
     ethr0    dc     /dev/ethr0
     ethr1    dc     /dev/ethr1


     ip	     arp:0   IP_NET=
     arp:0   ethr0   ARP_TYPE

     ip	     arp:1   IP_NET=
     arp:1   ethr1   ARP_TYPE

     The remainder of each line	consists of a (possibly	null) sequence of
     control actions to	be performed on	completion of the link in the order

     Each control action is of the form	function = argument-list, where	the
     argument-list is either a single string argument or a comma-separated
     list enclosed in braces ({	and }).	 Control actions requiring no
     arguments may consist simply of the function component.  Arguments
     containing	whitespace or any of the special characters listed above must
     be	quoted.

     The following control actions are currently defined:

     IP_NET={internet-address, subnet-mask, forwb=boolean}

			 This specifies	the network address and	subnet mask
			 for a stream below IP,	and whether broadcasts are to
			 be forwarded from other networks to that network.

			 This is typically used	when a network is multiplexed
			 below an IP (Internet Protocol) driver.  The Internet
			 address and Subnet mask are given in standard

									Page 3

SNETD(1M)							     SNETD(1M)

			 Internet dot format, and may be omitted (supplied as
			 a null	string)	when not relevant, in which case they
			 will be passed	as zero.  The broadcast	flag is
			 specified as a	boolean	value:	y or n (for
			 'yes'/'true' -	'do forward' - or 'no'/'false' -
			 'don't	forward'), or may be omitted in	the default
			 case (don't forward).

			 Note:	A broadcast packet for transmission to a
			 network either	originates from	the host or has
			 previously been received from another network.	The
			 first type is always transmitted.  The	second type is
			 only transmitted if the forward broadcast flag	forwb
			 is set	to 'y'.	This flag is only relevant when	using

			 In cases where	only the network address is supplied,
			 the following syntax may be used


			 This specifies	that this stream is to be registered
			 with the network driver below as the stream on	which
			 incoming IP packets are to be received.

			 In addition, trailers may take	the value trailers or
			 notrailers (the default), to specify whether trailer
			 encapsulated packets should be	sent on	the network


			 This registers	the subnetwork identifier (subnet-id)
			 to be associated with this link.  The subnetwork
			 identifier provides a unique name for an outlet to a
			 board and its associated higher level streams.	 It is
			 a single alphanumeric character and is	a mandatory

     X25_SET_SNID={subnet-id, class, local-SAP,	loop-SAP}

			 This registers	the subnetwork identifier to be
			 associated with this link, the	class of the network
			 below the link, and the local-	and loop-SAPs to be
			 associated with this subnetwork.

			 The class can be one of the following:

			 LC_LLC1	LLC-1,
			 LC_LLC2	LLC-2,

									Page 4

SNETD(1M)							     SNETD(1M)

			 LC_LAPBXDTE	LAPB - DTE and extended	addressing,
			 LC_LAPBXCDE	LAPB - DCE and extended	addressing.

			 The SAPs are only required for	classes	'LC_LLC2' and
			 'LC_LLC1'. They are two digit hexadecimal numbers.
			 The SAPs must be even,	non-zero and different.	 If
			 the class is 'LC_LLC2', and the SAPs are not present,
			 the defaults for local	and loop SAPs are 0x7E and
			 0x70 respectively.  If	the class is 'LC_LLC1',	and
			 the SAP is not	present, the default for local SAP is
			 0x7E.	For any	other class, the SAPs are not used.

			 The subnet-id and class parameters are	mandatory, but
			 the local-SAP and loop-SAP parameters are optional.


			 This allows calls to the shell.  Utilities may	then
			 be called at an intermediate stage in the building of
			 the STREAMS network.  For example:

			 ip	 -	SHELL="	ixemap -Z; ixemap -P "

			 This particular shell call to the ixemap(1M) utility
			 deals with the	IXE module internal table of X.25 and
			 Internet address associations (as described in

			 A special dummy link exists, where no link is formed,
			 but the control action	is executed.  This occurs when
			 token 2 is a hyphen ( '-' ) .

			 For example:

			 x25	 -	 SHELL="pvcmap -P"

			 which is simply a shell call to execute pvcmap	.

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

     When the DLPI subsystem is	installed, a sample configuration file is
     installed at /etc/config/snetd.options, if	the file does not already
     exist.  The file contains sample configuration lines for three
     interfaces: one token ring	interface, one ethernet	interface and one fddi
     interface.	As 'sample' configuration lines, the configuration lines are
     commented out with	an '#' sign at column one. To activate a particular
     interface,	the '#'	signs must be removed.	The sample configuration file
     installed by the product might contain the	following network description
     depending on your system configuration.  Please note that the line

									Page 5

SNETD(1M)							     SNETD(1M)

     numbers will not be in the	shipped	file but they are put in here for
     reference purposes.

     /*line1*/ #fv0    d       /dev/fv0
     /*line2*/ #ec0    d       /dev/ec0
     /*line3*/ #ipg0   d       /dev/ipg0
     /*line4*/ llc2    dc      /dev/llc2
     /*line6*/ %%
     /*line8*/ #llc2   fv0     LL_SET_SNID=A   \
     /*line9*/ #      SHELL="lltune -P -p llc2 -s A -d /dev/llc2 def.tokenring"
     /*line10*/#llc2   ec0     LL_SET_SNID=B   \
     /*line11*/#      SHELL="lltune -P -p llc2 -s B -d /dev/llc2 def.ether"
     /*line12*/#llc2   ipg0    LL_SET_SNID=C   \
     /*line13*/#      SHELL="lltune -P -p llc2 -s C -d /dev/llc2 def.fddi"

     To	activate the token ring	interface fv0, you need	only take out the '#'
     signs at the beginning of the line	#1, #8,	and #9.	Line 9 is to execute
     lltune(1M)	command	to set default LLC2 tuning parameters for this token
     ring interface.

     A typical configuration file for X.25 only, might contain the following
     network description.

     echo    m	     echo
     ec0     dc	     /dev/ec0
     lapb    dc	     /dev/lapb
     llc2    dc	     /dev/llc2
     wan0    dc	     /dev/wan0
     x25     dc	     /dev/x25


     llc2    ec0     LL_SET_SNID=C \
		     SHELL="lltune -P -p llc2 -s C -d /dev/llc2	def.llc2"
     x25     llc2    SHELL="x25tune -P -s C -d /dev/x25	-a 0000000000007E \
		     def.lan.x25"   X25_SET_SNID={C, LC_LLC2, 7E, 70}

     lapb    wan0    LL_SET_SNID=A \
		     SHELL="wantune -P -d /dev/wan0 -s A def.wan" \
		     SHELL="lltune -P -p lapb -s A -d /dev/lapb	def.lapb"
     x25     lapb    SHELL="x25tune -P -s A -d /dev/x25	def.dte80.x25" \
		     X25_SET_SNID={A, LC_LAPBDTE, , }

     lapb    wan0    LL_SET_SNID=B \
		     SHELL="wantune -P -d /dev/wan0 -s B def.wan" \
		     SHELL="lltune -P -p lapb -s B -d /dev/lapb	def.lapb"
     x25     lapb    SHELL="x25tune -P -s B -d /dev/x25	def.dte80.x25" \
		     X25_SET_SNID={B, LC_LAPBDTE, , }

									Page 6

SNETD(1M)							     SNETD(1M)

     x25     -	     SHELL="pvcmap -P"

     echo    ec0     ECHO_TYPE

     Here, wan0	and ec0	are WAN	and Ethernet drivers respectively, and your
     real Ethernet driver may be ec0 , et0 , or	enp0 , depending on your
     system configuration.  Note that the above	is an example where lapb,
     llc2, wan0	and ec0	are in-kernel.	Instantiations are used.  Each
     instantiation can be thought of as	a separate block in a STREAMS
     Architecture diagram.

     When TCP is to be run over	X.25 a typical configuration file might
     contain the following extra entries to cater for the IP to	X.25
     Encapsulation driver, IXE (see ixe(7)).

     ixe     dc	     /dev/ixe


     ip	     ixe     IP_NET={,, forwb=n}
     ip	     ixe     IP_NET={,, forwb=n}
     ixe     x25
     ixe     x25
     ixe     x25

     ip	     -	     SHELL="ixemap -Z" SHELL="ixemap -P" SHELL="ixetune"

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]


SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     dlpi(7), lltune(1M), ixemap(1M), pvcmap(1M), ixemapconf(4), ixe(7).

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