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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     sendmail -	an electronic mail transport agent

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     sendmail [flags] [address ...]
     mailq [-v]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     Sendmail sends a message to one or	more recipients, routing the message
     over whatever networks are	necessary.  Sendmail does internetwork forwarding
 as	necessary to deliver the message to the	correct	place.

     Sendmail is not intended as a user	interface routine; other programs provide
 user-friendly	front ends; sendmail is	used only to deliver pre-formatted

     With no flags, sendmail reads its standard	input up to an end-of-file or
     a line consisting only of a single	dot and	sends a	copy of	the message
     found there to all	of the addresses listed.  It determines	the network(s)
     to	use based on the syntax	and contents of	the addresses.

     Local addresses are looked	up in a	file and aliased appropriately.
     Aliasing can be prevented by preceding the	address	with a backslash.
     Normally the sender is not	included in any	alias expansions, e.g.,	if
     `john' sends to `group', and `group' includes `john' in the expansion,
     then the letter will not be delivered to `john'.

   Parameters    [Toc]    [Back]

     -Btype	 Set the body type to type. Current legal values 7BIT or

     -ba	 Go into ARPANET mode.	All input lines	must end with a	CR-LF,
		 and all messages will be generated with a CR-LF at the	end.
		 Also, the ``From:'' and ``Sender:'' fields are	examined for
		 the name of the sender.

     -bd	 Run as	a daemon.  This	requires Berkeley IPC. Sendmail	will
		 fork and run in background listening on socket	25 for incoming
 SMTP connections.	This is	normally run from /etc/rc.

     -bD	 Same as -bd except runs in foreground.

     -bh	 Print the persistent host status database.

     -bH	 Purge the persistent host status database.

     -bi	 Initialize the	alias database.

     -bm	 Deliver mail in the usual way (default).

     -bp	 Print a listing of the	queue.

     -bs	 Use the SMTP protocol as described in RFC821 on standard input
 and output.  This flag implies all	the operations of the
		 -ba flag that are compatible with SMTP.

     -bt	 Run in	address	test mode.  This mode reads addresses and
		 shows the steps in parsing; it	is used	for debugging configuration

     -bv	 Verify	names only - do	not try	to collect or deliver a	message.
	Verify mode is normally	used for validating users or
		 mailing lists.

     -Cfile	 Use alternate configuration file.  Sendmail refuses to	run as
		 root if an alternate configuration file is specified.

     -dX	 Set debugging value to	X.

     -Ffullname	 Set the full name of the sender.

     -fname	 Sets the name of the ``from'' person (i.e., the sender	of the
		 mail).	 -f can	only be	used by	``trusted'' users (normally
		 root, daemon, and network) or if the person you are trying to
		 become	is the same as the person you are.

     -hN	 Set the hop count to N. The hop count is incremented every
		 time the mail is processed.  When it reaches a	limit, the
		 mail is returned with an error	message, the victim of an
		 aliasing loop.	 If not	specified, ``Received:'' lines in the
		 message are counted.

     -i		 Ignore	dots alone on lines by themselves in incoming messages.
	 This should be	set if you are reading data from a

     -N	dsn	 Set delivery status notification conditions to	dsn, which can
		 be `never' for	no notifications or a comma separated list of
		 the values `failure' to be notified if	delivery failed,
		 `delay' to be notified	if delivery is delayed,	and `success'
		 to be notified	when the message is successfully delivered.

     -n		 Don't do aliasing.

     -O	option=value
		 Set option option to the specified value. This	form uses long
		 names.	 See below for more details.

     -ox value	 Set option x to the specified value. This form	uses single
		 character names only.	The short names	are not	described in
		 this manual page; see the Sendmail Installation and Operation
		 Guide for details.

     -pprotocol	 Set the name of the protocol used to receive the message.
		 This can be a simple protocol name such as ``UUCP'' or	a protocol
 and hostname, such as ``UUCP:ucbvax''.

     -q[time]	 Processed saved messages in the queue at given	intervals.  If
		 time is omitted, process the queue once.  Time	is given as a
		 tagged	number,	with `s' being seconds,	`m' being minutes, `h'
		 being hours, `d' being	days, and `w' being weeks.  For	example,
 `-q1h30m'	or `-q90m' would both set the timeout to one
		 hour thirty minutes.  If time is specified, sendmail will run
		 in background.	 This option can be used safely	with -bd.

     -qIsubstr	 Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as a substring
	of the queue id.

     -qRsubstr	 Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as a substring
	of one of the recipients.

     -qSsubstr	 Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as a substring
	of the sender.

     -R	return	 Set the amount	of the message to be returned if the message
		 bounces.  The return parameter	can be `full' to return	the

		 entire	message	or `hdrs' to return only the headers.

     -rname	 An alternate and obsolete form	of the -f flag.

     -t		 Read message for recipients.  To:, Cc:, and Bcc: lines	will
		 be scanned for	recipient addresses.  The Bcc: line will be
		 deleted before	transmission.

     -U		 Initial (user)	submission.  This should always	be set when
		 called	from a user agent such as Mail or exmh and never be
		 set when called by a network delivery agent such as rmail.

     -V	envid	 Set the original envelope id.	This is	propagated across SMTP
		 to servers that support DSNs and is returned in DSN-compliant
		 error messages.

     -v		 Go into verbose mode.	Alias expansions will be announced,

     -X	logfile	 Log all traffic in and	out of mailers in the indicated	log
		 file.	This should only be used as a last resort for debugging
 mailer bugs.  It will log	a lot of data very quickly.

     --		 Stop processing command flags and use the rest	of the arguments
 as addresses.

   Options    [Toc]    [Back]
     There are also a number of	processing options that	may be set.  Normally
     these will	only be	used by	a system administrator.	 Options may be	set
     either on the command line	using the -o flag (for short names), the -O
     flag (for long names), or in the configuration file.  This	is a partial
     list limited to those options that	are likely to be useful	on the command
     line and only shows the long names; for a complete	list (and details),
     consult the Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide. The	options	are:

		 Use alternate alias file.

		 On mailers that are considered	``expensive'' to connect to,
		 don't initiate	immediate connection.  This requires queueing.

		 Checkpoint the	queue file after every N successful deliveries
		 (default 10).	This avoids excessive duplicate	deliveries
		 when sending to long mailing lists interrupted	by system

		 Set the delivery mode to x. Delivery modes are	`i' for	interactive
	(synchronous) delivery,	`b' for	background (asynchronous)
 delivery, `q' for queue only	- i.e.,	actual delivery
 is	done the next time the queue is	run, and `d' for deferred
	- the same as `q' except that database lookups (notably
 DNS and NIS lookups) are	avoided.

		 Set error processing to mode x. Valid modes are `m' to	mail
		 back the error	message, `w' to	``write'' back the error message
 (or mail it back if the sender is	not logged in),	`p' to
		 print the errors on the terminal (default), `q' to throw away
		 error messages	(only exit status is returned),	and `e'	to do
		 special processing for	the BerkNet.  If the text of the message
 is not mailed back by modes `m' or `w' and if the	sender
		 is local to this machine, a copy of the message is appended

		 to the	file dead.letter in the	sender's home directory.

		 Save UNIX-style From lines at the front of messages.

     MaxHopCount= N
		 The maximum number of times a message is allowed to ``hop''
		 before	we decide it is	in a loop.

     IgnoreDots	 Do not	take dots on a line by themselves as a message terminator.

		 Send error messages in	MIME format.  If not set, the DSN (Delivery
	Status Notification) SMTP extension is disabled.

		 Set connection	cache timeout.

		 Set connection	cache size.

     LogLevel=n	 The log level.

     MeToo	 Send to ``me''	(the sender) also if I am in an	alias expansion.

		 Validate the right hand side of aliases during	a newaliases(1) command.

		 If set, this message may have old style headers.  If not set,
		 this message is guaranteed to have new	style headers (i.e.,
		 commas	instead	of spaces between addresses).  If set, an
		 adaptive algorithm is used that will correctly	determine the
		 header	format in most cases.

		 Select	the directory in which to queue	messages.

		 Save statistics in the	named file.

		 Set the timeout on undelivered	messages in the	queue to the
		 specified time.  After	delivery has failed (e.g., because of
		 a host	being down) for	this amount of time, failed messages
		 will be returned to the sender.  The default is five days.

		 If set, a user	database is consulted to get forwarding	information.
  You can consider this	an adjunct to the aliasing
		 mechanism, except that	the database is	intended to be distributed;
 aliases are local to	a particular host.  This may
		 not be	available if your sendmail does	not have the USERDB
		 option	compiled in.

		 Fork each job during queue runs.  May be convenient on	memory-poor

		 Strip incoming	messages to seven bits.

		 Set the handling of eight bit input to	seven bit destinations
		 to mode: m (mimefy) will convert to seven-bit MIME format, p
		 (pass)	will pass it as	eight bits (but	violates protocols),
		 and s (strict)	will bounce the	message.

		 Sets how long a job must ferment in the queue between attempts
	to send	it.

		 Sets the default character set	used to	label 8-bit data that
		 is not	otherwise labelled.

		 If opening a connection fails,	sleep for sleeptime seconds
		 and try again.	 Useful	on dial-on-demand sites.

		 Set the behaviour when	there are no recipient headers (To:,
		 Cc: or	Bcc:) in the message to	action:	none leaves the	message
 unchanged, add-to	adds a To: header with the envelope
		 recipients, add-apparently-to adds an Apparently-To: header
		 with the envelope recipients, add-bcc adds an empty Bcc:
		 header, and add-to-undisclosed	adds a header reading `To:

		 Sets the maximum number of children that an incoming SMTP
		 daemon	will allow to spawn at any time	to N.

		 Sets the maximum number of connections	per second to the SMTP
		 port to N.

     In	aliases, the first character of	a name may be a	vertical bar to	cause
     interpretation of the rest	of the name as a command to pipe the mail to.
     It	may be necessary to quote the name to keep sendmail from suppressing
     the blanks	from between arguments.	 For example, a	common alias is:

	   msgs: "|/usr/bin/msgs -s"

     Aliases may also have the syntax ``:include:filename'' to ask sendmail to
     read the named file for a list of recipients.  For	example, an alias such

	   poets: ":include:/usr/local/lib/poets.list"

     would read	/usr/local/lib/poets.list for the list of addresses making up
     the group.

     Sendmail returns an exit status describing	what it	did.  The codes	are
     defined in	<sysexits.h>:
	   EX_OK	   Successful completion on all	addresses.
	   EX_NOUSER	   User	name not recognized.
	   EX_UNAVAILABLE  Catchall meaning necessary resources	were not
	   EX_SYNTAX	   Syntax error	in address.
	   EX_SOFTWARE	   Internal software error, including bad arguments.
	   EX_OSERR	   Temporary operating system error, such as ``cannot
	   EX_NOHOST	   Host	name not recognized.
	   EX_TEMPFAIL	   Message could not be	sent immediately, but was

     If	invoked	as newaliases, sendmail	will rebuild the alias database.  If
     invoked as	mailq, sendmail	will print the contents	of the mail queue.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     Except for	the file /etc/sendmail.cf itself and the daemon	process	ID
     file, the following pathnames are all specified in	/etc/sendmail.cf.
     Thus, these values	are only approximations.

     /etc/aliases	   raw data for	alias names
     /etc/aliases.db	   data	base of	alias names
     /etc/sendmail.cf	   configuration file
     /etc/sendmail.hf	   help	file
     /var/log/sendmail.st  collected statistics
     /var/spool/mqueue/*   temp	files

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     binmail(1),  mail(1),  rmail(1),  syslog(3),  aliases(5),	mailaddr(7),

     DARPA Internet Request For	Comments RFC819, RFC821, RFC822.

     Sendmail -	An Internetwork	Mail Router, No. 9, SMM.

     Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide,	No. 8, SMM.

HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

     The sendmail command appeared in 4.2BSD.

4th Berkeley Distribution	August 2, 1998				     6

4th Berkeley Distribution	August 2, 1998				     6
[ Back ]
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