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RDIST(1)							      RDIST(1)

NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     rdist - remote file distribution client program

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     rdist [ -DFn ] [ -A num ] [ -a num	] [ -d var=value ] [ -l	<local
     logopts> ]	[ -L <remote logopts> ]	[ -f distfile ]	[ -M maxproc ] [ -m
     host ] [ -odistopts ] [ -t	timeout	] [ -p <rdistd-path> ] [ -P <rsh-path>
     ] [ name ... ]

     rdist [ -DFn ] -c name ...	[login@]host[:dest]

     rdist -Server

     rdist -V

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     Rdist is a	program	to maintain identical copies of	files over multiple
     hosts. It preserves the owner, group, mode, and mtime of files if
     possible and can update programs that are executing.  Rdist reads
     commands from distfile to direct the updating of files and/or
     directories.  If distfile is `-', the standard input is used.  If no -f
     option is present,	the program looks first	for `distfile',	then
     `Distfile'	to use as the input.  If no names are specified	on the command
     line, rdist will update all of the	files and directories listed in
     distfile.	Otherwise, the argument	is taken to be the name	of a file to
     be	updated	or the label of	a command to execute. If label and file	names
     conflict, it is assumed to	be a label.  These may be used together	to
     update specific files using specific commands.

     The -c option forces rdist	to interpret the remaining arguments as	a
     small distfile.  The equivalent distfile is as follows.

	  ( name ... ) -> [login@]host
	       install	 [dest]	;

     The -Server option	is recognized to provide partial backward compatible
     support for older versions	of rdist which used this option	to put rdist
     into server mode.	If rdist is started with the -Server command line
     option, it	will attempt to	exec (run) the old version of rdist. This will
     only work if /usr/bsd/ordist is available at run time.

     Rdist can use either the rcmd(3) function call or the rsh(1c), remote
     shell, command to access each target host.	 The method used is selected
     at	compile-time.  If the rsh(1c) method is	used, then rdist runs the


     where HOST	is the name of the target host,	USER is	the name of the	user
     to	make the connection as and, RDISTD is the rdist	server command on the
     target host as shown below.  If the rcmd(3) method	is used, then rdist

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RDIST(1)							      RDIST(1)

     makes the connection to the target	host itself and	runs the rdistd	server
     program as	shown below.  The default, and preferred method, is to use
     rsh(1c) to	make the connection to target hosts.  This allows rdist	to be
     run without being setuid to ``root''.

     On	each target host Rdist will attempt to run the command

	  rdistd -S


	  <rdistd path>	-S

     if	the -p option was specified.  If no -p option is included, or the
     <rdistd path> is a	simple filename, rdistd	or <rdistd path> must be
     somewhere in the $PATH of the user	running	rdist on the remote (target)

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

     -A	num
	  Set the minimum number of free files (inodes)	on a filesystem	that
	  must exist for rdist to update or install a file.

     -a	num
	  Set the minimum amount of free space (in bytes) on a filesystem that
	  must exist for rdist to update or install a file.

     -D	  Enable copious debugging messages.

     -d	var=value
	  Define var to	have value.  This option is used to define or override
	  variable definitions in the distfile.	 Value can be the empty
	  string, one name, or a list of names surrounded by parentheses and
	  separated by tabs and/or spaces.

     -F	  Do not fork any child	rdist processes.  All clients are updated

     -f	distfile
	  Set the name of the distfile to use to be distfile . If distfile is
	  specified as ``-'' (dash) then read from standard input (stdin).

     -l	logopts
	  Set local logging options.  See the section MESSAGE LOGGING for
	  details on the syntax	for logopts.

     -L	logopts
	  Set remote logging options.  logopts is the same as for local
	  logging except the values are	passed to the remote server (rdistd).
	  See the section MESSAGE LOGGING for details on the syntax for

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RDIST(1)							      RDIST(1)

     -M	num
	  Set the maximum number of simultaneously running child rdist
	  processes to num. The	default	is 4.

     -m	machine
	  Limit	which machines are to be updated. Multiple -m arguments	can be
	  given	to limit updates to a subset of	the hosts listed in the

     -n	  Print	the commands without executing them. This option is useful for
	  debugging distfile.

	  Specify the dist options to enable.  distopts	is a comma separated
	  list of options which	are listed below.  The valid values for
	  distopts are:

	       Verify that the files are up to date on all the hosts. Any
	       files that are out of date will be displayed but	no files will
	       be changed nor any mail sent.

	       Whole mode. The whole file name is appended to the destination
	       directory name.	Normally, only the last	component of a name is
	       used when renaming files.  This will preserve the directory
	       structure of the	files being copied instead of flattening the
	       directory structure. For	example, rdisting a list of files such
	       as /path/dir1/f1	and /path/dir2/f2 to /tmp/dir would create
	       files /tmp/dir/path/dir1/f1 and /tmp/dir/path/dir2/f2 instead
	       of /tmp/dir/dir1/f1 and /tmp/dir/dir2/f2.

	       Automatically exclude executable	files that are in a.out(5)
	       format from being checked or updated.

	       Younger mode. Files are normally	updated	if their mtime and
	       size (see stat(2)) disagree. This option	causes rdist not to
	       update files that are younger than the master copy.  This can
	       be used to prevent newer	copies on other	hosts from being
	       replaced.  A warning message is printed for files which are
	       newer than the master copy.

	       Binary comparison. Perform a binary comparison and update files
	       if they differ rather than comparing dates and sizes.

	       Follow symbolic links. Copy the file that the link points to
	       rather than the link itself.

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RDIST(1)							      RDIST(1)

	       Ignore unresolved links.	 Rdist will normally try to maintain
	       the link	structure of files being transferred and warn the user
	       if all the links	cannot be found.

	       Do not check or update files on target host that	reside on NFS

	       Enable check on target host to see if a file resides on a
	       read-only filesystem.  If a file	does, then no checking or
	       updating	of the file is attempted.

	       If the target on	the remote host	is a symbolic link, but	is not
	       on the master host, the remote target will be left a symbolic
	       link.  This behavior is generally considered a bug in the
	       original	version	of rdist, but is present to allow
	       compatibility with older	versions.

	       Quiet mode. Files that are being	modified are normally printed
	       on standard output. This	option suppresses this.

	       Remove extraneous files.	If a directory is being	updated, any
	       files that exist	on the remote host that	do not exist in	the
	       master directory	are removed.  This is useful for maintaining
	       truly identical copies of directories.

	       Do not check user ownership of files that already exist.	 The
	       file ownership is only set when the file	is updated.

	       Do not check group ownership of files that already exist.  The
	       file ownership is only set when the file	is updated.

	       Do not check file and directory permission modes.  The
	       permission mode is only set when	the file is updated.

	       Do not descend into a directory.	 Normally rdist	will
	       recursively check directories.  If this option is enabled, then
	       any files listed	in the file list in the	distfile that are
	       directories are not recursively scanned.	 Only the existence,
	       ownership, and mode of the directory are	checked.

									Page 4

RDIST(1)							      RDIST(1)

	       Use the numeric group id	(gid) to check group ownership instead
	       of the group name.

	       Use the numeric user id (uid) to	check user ownership instead
	       of the user name.

	       Save files that are updated instead of removing them.  Any
	       target file that	is updates is first rename from	file to

     -p	<rdistd-path>
	  Set the path where the rdistd	server is searched for on the target

     -P	<rsh-path>
	  Set the path to the rsh(1c) command.	The rsh-path may be a colon
	  separated list of possible pathnames.	 In this case, the first
	  component of the path	to exist is used.  i.e.
	  /usr/ucb/rsh:/usr/bin/remsh ,	/usr/bsd/rsh.

     -t	timeout
	  Set the timeout period (in seconds) for waiting for responses	from
	  the remote rdist server.  The	default	is 900 seconds.

     -V	  Print	version	information and	exit.

     Rdist uses	a collection of	predefined message facilities that each
     contain a list of message types specifying	which types of messages	to
     send to that facility. The	local client (rdist) and the remote server
     (rdistd) each maintain their own copy of what types of messages to	log to
     what facilities.

     The -l logopts option to rdist tells rdist	what logging options to	use
     locally.  The -L logopts option to	rdist tells rdist what logging options
     to	pass to	the remote rdistd server.

     The form of logopts should	be of form


     The valid facility	names are:

	       Messages	to standard output.

	  file Log to a	file.  To specify the file name, use the format
	       ``file=filename=types''.	 e.g.

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RDIST(1)							      RDIST(1)

	       Use the syslogd(8) facility.

	       Use the internal	rdist notify facility.	This facility is used
	       in conjunction with the notify keyword in a distfile to specify
	       what messages are mailed	to the notify address.

     types should be a comma separated list of message types.  Each message
     type specified enables that message level.	 This is unlike	the syslog(3)
     system facility which uses	an ascending order scheme.  The	following are
     the valid types:

	       Things that change.  This includes files	that are installed or
	       updated in some way.

	  info General information.

	       General info about things that change.  This includes things
	       like making directories which are needed	in order to install a
	       specific	target,	but which are not explicitly specified in the

	       Normal errors that are not fatal.

	       Fatal errors.

	       Warnings	about errors which are not as serious as nerror	type

	       Detailed	status messages.

	       Debugging information.

	  all  All but debug messages.

     Here is a sample command line option:

	  -l stdout=all:syslog=change,notice:file=/tmp/rdist.log=all

     This entry	will set local message logging to have all but debug messages
     sent to standard output, change and notice	messages will be sent to
     syslog(3),	and all	messages will be written to the	file /tmp/rdist.log.

									Page 6

RDIST(1)							      RDIST(1)

DISTFILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     The distfile contains a sequence of entries that specify the files	to be
     copied, the destination hosts, and	what operations	to perform to do the
     updating. Each entry has one of the following formats.

	  <variable name> `=' <name list>
	  [ label: ] <source list> `->'	<destination list> <command list>
	  [ label: ] <source list> `::'	<time_stamp file> <command list>

     The first format is used for defining variables.  The second format is
     used for distributing files to other hosts.  The third format is used for
     making lists of files that	have been changed since	some given date.  The
     source list specifies a list of files and/or directories on the local
     host which	are to be used as the master copy for distribution.  The
     destination list is the list of hosts to which these files	are to be
     copied.  Each file	in the source list is added to a list of changes if
     the file is out of	date on	the host which is being	updated	(second
     format) or	the file is newer than the time	stamp file (third format).

     Labels are	optional. They are used	to identify a command for partial

     Newlines, tabs, and blanks	are only used as separators and	are otherwise
     ignored. Comments begin with `#' and end with a newline.

     Variables to be expanded begin with `$' followed by one character or a
     name enclosed in curly braces (see	the examples at	the end).

     The source	and destination	lists have the following format:

	  `(' <zero or more names separated by white-space> `)'

     These simple lists	can be modified	by using one level of set addition,
     subtraction, or intersection like this:

	  list '-' list
	  list '+' list
	  list '&' list

     If	additional modifications are needed (e.g., ``all servers and client
     machines except for the OSF/1 machines'') then the	list will have to be
     explicitly	constructed in steps using "temporary" variables.

     The shell meta-characters `[', `]', `{', `}', `*',	and `?'	 are
     recognized	and expanded (on the local host	only) in the same way as
     csh(1).  They can be escaped with a backslash.  The `~' character is also
     expanded in the same way as csh but is expanded separately	on the local
     and destination hosts.  When the -owhole option is	used with a file name

									Page 7

RDIST(1)							      RDIST(1)

     that begins with `~', everything except the home directory	is appended to
     the destination name.  File names which do	not begin with `/' or `~' use
     the destination user's home directory as the root directory for the rest
     of	the file name.

     The command list consists of zero or more commands	of the following

	  `install'	<options>    opt_dest_name `;'
	  `notify'	<name list>  `;'
	  `except'	<name list>  `;'
	  `except_pat'	<pattern list>`;'
	  `special'	<name list>  string `;'
	  `cmdspecial'	<name list>  string `;'

     The install command is used to copy out of	date files and/or directories.
     Each source file is copied	to each	host in	the destination	list.
     Directories are recursively copied	in the same way.  Opt_dest_name	is an
     optional parameter	to rename files.  If no	install	command	appears	in the
     command list or the destination name is not specified, the	source file
     name is used.  Directories	in the path name will be created if they do
     not exist on the remote host.  The	-odistopts option as specified above
     under OPTIONS, has	the same semantics as on the command line except they
     only apply	to the files in	the source list.  The login name used on the
     destination host is the same as the local host unless the destination
     name is of	the format ``login@host".

     The notify	command	is used	to mail	the list of files updated (and any
     errors that may have occurred) to the listed names.  If no	`@' appears in
     the name, the destination host is appended	to the name (e.g., name1@host,
     name2@host, ...).

     The except	command	is used	to update all of the files in the source list
     except for	the files listed in name list.	This is	usually	used to	copy
     everything	in a directory except certain files.

     The except_pat command is like the	except command except that pattern
     list is a list of regular expressions (see	ed(1) for details).  If	one of
     the patterns matches some string within a file name, that file will be
     ignored.  Note that since `\' is a	quote character, it must be doubled to
     become part of the	regular	expression.  Variables are expanded in pattern
     list but not shell	file pattern matching characters.  To include a	`$',
     it	must be	escaped	with `\'.

     The special command is used to specify sh(1) commands that	are to be
     executed on the remote host after the file	in name	list is	updated	or
     installed.	 If the	name list is omitted then the shell commands will be
     executed for every	file updated or	installed. String starts and ends with
     `"' and can cross multiple	lines in distfile. Multiple commands to	the
     shell should be separated by `;'.	Commands are executed in the user's
     home directory on the host	being updated.	The special command can	be

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RDIST(1)							      RDIST(1)

     used to rebuild private databases,	etc.  after a program has been
     updated.  The following environment variables are set for each special

     FILE The full pathname of the local file that was just updated.

     REMFILE    [Toc]    [Back]
	  The full pathname of the remote file that was	just updated.

     BASEFILE    [Toc]    [Back]
	  The basename of the remote file that was just	updated.

     The cmdspecial command is similar to the special command, except it is
     executed only when	the entire command is completed	instead	of after each
     file is updated.  The list	of files is placed in the environment variable
     $FILES. Each file name in $FILES is separated by a	`:' (semi-colon).

     If	a hostname ends	in a ``+'' (plus sign),	then the plus is stripped off
     and NFS checks are	disabled.  This	is equivalent to disabling the
     -ochknfs option just for this one host.

     The following is a	small example.

	  HOSTS	= ( matisse root@arpa)

	  FILES	= ( /bin /lib /usr/bin /usr/games
			/usr/lib /usr/man/man? /usr/ucb	/usr/local/rdist )

	  EXLIB	= ( Mail.rc aliases aliases.dir	aliases.pag crontab dshrc
			sendmail.cf sendmail.fc	sendmail.hf sendmail.st	uucp vfont )

	  ${FILES} -> ${HOSTS}
			install	-oremove,chknfs	;
			except /usr/lib/${EXLIB} ;
			except /usr/games/lib ;
			special	/usr/lib/sendmail "/usr/lib/sendmail -bz" ;

	  /usr/src/bin -> arpa
			except_pat ( \\.o\$ /SCCS\$ ) ;

	  IMAGEN = (ips	dviimp catdvi)

	  /usr/local/${IMAGEN} -> arpa
			install	/usr/local/lib ;
			notify ralph ;

	  ${FILES} :: stamp.cory
			notify root@cory ;

									Page 9

RDIST(1)							      RDIST(1)

ENVIRONMENT    [Toc]    [Back]

	  Name of temporary directory to use.  Default is /tmp.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     distfile	    - input command file
     $TMPDIR/rdist* - temporary	file for update	lists

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     sh(1), csh(1), ordist(1), stat(2),	rsh(1c), rcmd(3)

DIAGNOSTICS    [Toc]    [Back]

     If	the basename of	a file	(the last component in the pathname) is	".",
     then rdist	assumes	the remote (destination) name is a directory.  i.e.
     /tmp/. means that /tmp should be a	directory on the remote	host.

     The following options are still recognized	for backwards compatibility:

	  -v -N	-O -q -b -r -R -s -w -y	-h -i -x

     Rdist will	not work with clients that are running an old (pre-5.3)
     version of	rdist.	The old	version	ordist(1) is retained for backwards
     compatibility.  You should	use ordist if you are pushing files to old

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     Source files must reside on the local host	where rdist is executed.

     Variable expansion	only works for name lists; there should	be a general
     macro facility.

     Rdist aborts on files which have a	negative mtime (before Jan 1, 1970).

     If	a hardlinked file is listed more than once in the same target, then
     rdist will	report missing links.  Only one	instance of a link should be
     listed in each target.

								       PPPPaaaaggggeeee 11110000
[ Back ]
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