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PAX(1)									PAX(1)

NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     pax - portable archive exchange

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     pax [-cdnv] [-E limit] [-f	archive] [-s replstr ] ...  [-U	user ] ...
	 [-G group ] ...  [-T [from_date][,to_date] ] ...  [pattern...]

     pax -r [-cdiknuvDYZ] [-E limit] [-f archive] [-o options ]	...  [-p
	    string ] ...  [-s replstr ]	...  [-U user ]	...  [-G group ] ...
	    [-T	[from_date][,to_date] ]	...  [pattern...]

     pax -w [-dituvHLPX] [-b blocksize]	[[-a] [-f archive]] [-x	format]	[-B
	    bytes] [-s replstr ] ...  [-o options ] ...	 [-U user ] ...	 [-G
	    group ] ...	 [-T [from_date][,to_date]][ /[c][m]]] ...  [file...]

     pax -rw [-diklntuvDHLPXYZ]	[-p string ] ...  [-s replstr ]	...  [-U user
	     ] ...  [-G	group ]	...  [-T [from_date][,to_date][/[c][m]]] ...
	     [file...]	directory

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     Pax reads and writes archive files	which conform to the
     Archive/Interchange File Format specified in IEEE Std. 1003.1-1988.  Pax
     can also read, but	not write, a number of other file formats in addition
     to	those specified	in the Archive/Interchange File	Format description.
     Support for these traditional file	formats, such as V7 tar	and System V
     binary cpio format	archives, is provided for backward compatibility and
     to	maximize portability.

     Pax will also support traditional cpio and	System V tar interfaces	if
     invoked with the name "cpio" or "tar" respectively.  See the cpio(1) or
     tar(1) manual pages for more details.

     Combinations of the -r and	-w command line	arguments specify whether pax
     will read,	write or list the contents of the specified archive, or	move
     the specified files to another directory.

     The command line arguments	are:

     -w	  writes the contents of the file operands to the standard output in
	  an archive format. If	no file	operands are specified,	a list of
	  files	to copy, one per line, will be read from the standard input. A
	  file of type directory will include all of the files in the file
	  hierarchy rooted at the file.

     -r	  Pax extracts the members of the archive file read from the standard
	  input, with pathnames	matching the specified patterns. If an
	  extracted file is of type directory, the file	hierarchy rooted at
	  that file will be extracted as well. The extracted files is created
	  relative to the current file hierarchy. By default, the owner	and
	  group	of selected files will be that of the invoking process,	and
	  the permissions and modification times will be the sames as those in
	  the archive.

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PAX(1)									PAX(1)

	  The supported	archive	formats	are automatically detected on input.
	  The default output format is ustar, but may be overridden by the -x
	  format option	described below.

     -rw  Pax copies the file operands to the destination directory. If	no
	  file operands	are specified, a list of files to copy,	one per	line,
	  will be read from the	standard input.	A file of type directory will
	  include all of the files in the file hierarchy rooted	at the file.
	  The directory	named by the directory operand must exist and have the
	  proper permissions before the	copy can occur.

     If	neither	the -r or -w options are given,	then pax will list the
     contents of the specified archive.	 In this mode, pax lists normal	files
     one per line, hard	link pathnames as

	       pathname	== linkname

     and symbolic link pathnames (if supported by the implementation) as

	       pathname	-> linkname

     where pathname is the name	of the file being extracted, and linkname is
     the name of a file	which appeared earlier in the archive.

     If	the -v option is specified, then pax list normal pathnames in the same
     format used by the	ls utility with	the -l option.	Hard links are shown

	       <ls -l listing> == linkname

     and symbolic links	(if supported) are shown as

	       <ls -l listing> -> linkname

     Pax is capable of reading and writing archives which span multiple
     physical volumes.	Upon detecting an end of medium	on an archive which is
     not yet completed,	pax will prompt	the user for the next volume of	the
     archive and will allow the	user to	specify	the location of	the next

   Options    [Toc]    [Back]
     The following options are available:

     -a	       Append files to the end of archive.

     -b	blocksize
	       Block the output	at blocksize bytes per write to	the archive
	       file.  A	k suffix multiplies blocking by	1024, a	b suffix
	       multiplies blocking by 512 and a	m suffix multiplies blocking
	       by 1048576 (1 megabyte).	 For machines with 16-bit int's
	       (VAXen, XENIX-286, etc.), the maximum buffer size is 32k-1.  If

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PAX(1)									PAX(1)

	       not specified, blocksize	is automatically determined on input
	       and is ignored for -rw.

     -c	       Match all file or archive members except	those specified	by the
	       pattern or file operands.

     -d	       Cause files of type directory being copied or archived or
	       archive members of type directory being extracted to match only
	       the file	or archive member itself and not the file hierarchy
	       rooted at the file.

     -f	archive
	       The archive option specifies the	pathname of the	input or
	       output archive, overriding the default of standard input	for -r
	       or standard output for -w.

     -i	       Interactively rename files.  Substitutions specified by -s
	       options (described below) are performed before requesting the
	       new file	name from the user.  A file is skipped if an empty
	       line is entered and pax exits with an exit status of 0 if EOF
	       is encountered.

     -k	       Prevent the overwriting of existing files.

     -l	       Files are linked	rather than copied when	possible.

     -n	       When -r is specified, but -w is not, the	pattern	arguments are
	       treated as ordinary file	names.	Only the first occurrence of
	       each of these files in the input	archive	is read.  The pax
	       utility exits with a zero exit status after all files in	the
	       list have been read.  If	one or more files in the list is not
	       found, pax writes a diagnostic to standard error	for each of
	       the files and exits with	a non-zero exit	status.	 the file
	       names are compared before either	the -i,	or -s, options are

     -o	options
	       Provide information to the implementation to modify the
	       algorithm for extracting	or writing files that is specific to
	       the file	format specified by -x.

     -p	string Specify one or more file	characteristic options (privileges).
	       The string option-argument must be a string specifying file
	       characteristics to be retained or discarded on extraction. The
	       string consists of the specification characters a, e, m,	o and
	       p. Multiple characteristics can be concatenated within the same
	       string and multiple -p options can be specified.	The meaning of
	       the specification characters are	as follows:
	       a Do not	preserve file access times.
	       e Preserve the user ID, group ID, file mode, access time, and
	       modification time.
	       m Do not	preserve file modification times.

									Page 3

PAX(1)									PAX(1)

	       o Preserve the user ID and group	ID.
	       p Preserve the file mode	bits.

	       In the preceding	list, "preserve" indicates that	an attribute
	       stored in the archive will be given to the extracted file,
	       subject to the permissions of the invoking process; otherwise,
	       the attribute will be determined	as part	of the normal file
	       creation	action.

	       If neither the e	nor the	o specification	character is
	       specified, or the user ID and group ID are not preserved	for
	       any reason, pax will not	set the	S_ISUID	and S_ISGID bits of
	       the file	mode.

	       If the preservation of any of these items fails for any reason,
	       pax will	write a	diagnostic message to standard error.  Failure
	       to preserve these items will affect the final exit status, but
	       will not	cause the extracted file to be deleted.

	       If file-characteristic letters in any of	the string optionarguments
 are duplicated	or conflict with each other, the ones
	       given last will take precedence.	For example, if	-p eme is
	       specified, file modification times will be preserved.

     -s	replstr
	       File names are modified according to the	substitution
	       expression using	the syntax of ed(1) as shown:

			 -s /old/new/[gp]

	       Any non null character may be used as a delimiter (a / is used
	       here as an example).  Multiple -s expressions may be specified;
	       the expressions are applied in the order	specified terminating
	       with the	first successful substitution.	The optional trailing
	       p causes	successful mappings to be listed on standard error.
	       The optional trailing g causes the old expression to be
	       replaced	each time it occurs in the source string.  Files that
	       substitute to an	empty string are ignored both on input and

     -t	       Cause the access	times of the archived files to be the same as
	       they were before	being read by pax.  -r and standard output for

     -u	       Copy each file only if it is newer than a pre-existing file
	       with the	same name.  This implies -a.

     -v	       List file names as they are encountered.	 Produces a verbose
	       table of	contents listing on the	standard output	when both -r
	       and -w are omitted, otherwise the file names are	printed	to
	       standard	error as they are encountered in the archive.

									Page 4

PAX(1)									PAX(1)

     -x	format Specifies the output archive format.  The input format, which
	       must be one of the following, is	automatically determined when
	       the -r option is	used.  The supported formats are:

	       cpio   The extended CPIO	interchange format specified in
		      Extended CPIO Format in IEEE Std.	1003.1-1988.

	       ustar  The extended TAR interchange format specified in
		      Extended TAR Format in IEEE Std. 1003.1-1988. This is
		      the default archive format.

     -B	bytes  Non-standard option on number of	bytes written on a single
	       archive volume.

     -D	       On extraction check file	inode change time before the
	       modification of the file	name. Non standard option.

     -E	limit  Non-standard limit on read faults 0 indicates stop after	first
	       error, values indicate a	limit, "NONE" try forever

     -G	group  Non-standard option for selecting files within an archive by
	       group (gid or name)

     -H	       Follow command line symlinks only.  Non standard	option.

     -L	       Follow symlinks.	 Non standard option.

     -P	       Do NOT follow symlinks (default).

     -T	from_date,to_date
	       Non-standard option for selecting files within an archive by
	       modification time range (lower,upper)

     -U	user   Non-standard option for selecting files within an archive by
	       user (uid or name).

     -X	       Do not pass over	mount points in	the file system.  Non standard

     -Y	       On extraction check file	inode change time after	the
	       modification of the file	name. Non standard option.

     -Z	       On extraction check modification	time after the modification of
	       the file	name. Non standard option.

     When writing to an	archive, the standard input is used as a list of
     pathnames if no pathname operands are specified.  The format is one
     pathname per line.	 Otherwise, the	standard input is the archive file,
     which is formatted	according to one of the	specifications in
     Archive/Interchange File format in	IEEE Std. 1003.1-1988, or some other
     implementation-defined format.

									Page 5

PAX(1)									PAX(1)

     The user ID and group ID of the process, together with the	appropriate
     privileges, affect	the ability of pax to restore ownership	and
     permissions attributes of the archived files.  (See format-reading
     utility in	Archive/Interchange File Format	in IEEE	Std. 1003.1-1988.)

   Operands    [Toc]    [Back]
     The following operands are	available:

     directory The destination directory pathname for copies when both the -r
	       and -w options are specified.  The directory must exist and be
	       writable	before the copy	or and error results.

     file      A pathname of a file to be copied or archived. When a directory
	       is named, all of	its files and (recursively) subdirectories are
	       copied as well.

     pattern   A pattern is given in the standard shell	pattern	matching
	       notation.  The default if no pattern is	specified is *,	which
	       selects all files.

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

     The following command

	       pax -w -f /dev/rmt0 .

     copies the	contents of the	current	directory to tape drive	0.

     The commands

	       mkdir newdir
	       cd olddir
	       pax -rw . newdir

     copies the	contents of olddir to newdir .

     The command

	       pax -r -s ',//*usr//*,,'	-f pax.out

     reads the archive pax.out with all	files rooted in	"/usr" in the archive
     extracted relative	to the current directory.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     /dev/tty  used to prompt the user for information when the	-i option are

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     cpio(1), find(1), tar(1), cpio(5),	tar(5)

									Page 6

PAX(1)									PAX(1)

     Pax will terminate	immediately, without processing	any additional files
     on	the command line or in the archive.

EXIT CODES    [Toc]    [Back]

     Pax will exit with	one of the following values:

     0	  All files in the archive were	processed successfully.

     >0	  Pax aborted due to errors encountered	during operation.

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     Special permissions may be	required to copy or extract special files.

     Device, user ID, and group	ID numbers larger than 65535 cause additional
     header records to be output.  These records are ignored by	some
     historical	version	of cpio(1) and tar(1).

     The archive formats described in Archive/Interchange File Format have
     certain restrictions that have been carried over from historical usage.
     For example, there	are restrictions on the	length of pathnames stored in
     the archive.

     When getting an "ls -l" style listing on tar format archives, link	counts
     are listed	as zero	since the ustar	archive	format does not	keep link
     count information.

     On	16 bit architectures, the largest buffer size is 32k-1.	 This is due,
     in	part, to using integers	in the buffer allocation schemes, however, on
     many of these machines, it	is not possible	to allocate blocks of memory
     larger than 32k.

COPYRIGHT    [Toc]    [Back]

     Copyright (c) 1989	Mark H.	Colburn.
     All rights	reserved.

     Redistribution and	use in source and binary forms are permitted provided
     that the above copyright notice is	duplicated in all such forms and that
     any documentation,	advertising materials, and other materials related to
     such distribution and use acknowledge that	the software was developed by
     Mark H. Colburn and sponsored by The USENIX Association.


AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]

     Mark H. Colburn
     Minnetech Consulting, Inc.
     117 Mackubin Street, Suite	1
     St. Paul, MN 55102

									Page 7

PAX(1)									PAX(1)

     Sponsored by The USENIX Association for public distribution.

									PPPPaaaaggggeeee 8888
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