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dhcp_bootp(1M)							dhcp_bootp(1M)

NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     dhcp_bootp	- proclaim server for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     /usr/etc/dhcp_bootp [ -fd ] [ -o dhcp_options_file	]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     dhcp_bootp	is the server that communicates	with other DHCP	and
     proclaim(1M) clients to provide configuration parameters, including at
     least an IP address.  The format of DHCP messages is based	on bootp
     messages (see RFC 951).  A	detailed protocol specification	for DHCP is
     contained in RFC 1541, available from the Network Information Center.

     The DHCP protocol uses UDP/IP as its transport mechanism.	The DHCP
     server receives service requests at the UDP port indicated	in the bootp
     service description contained in the file /etc/services (see
     services(4)).  The	proclaim server	can be used together with one or more
     proclaim relay-agents (see	dhcp_relay(1M))	to enable clients to obtain
     address-leases across networks.  The dhcp_bootp server responds to
     multiple interfaces on a multihomed gateway machine, for dynamic IP

     dhcp_bootp	replaces the standard bootp(1M)	server application and serves
     both bootp	and DHCP clients. If the client	sends a	non-DHCP request, then
     this bootp	request	is processed as	described in the bootp(1M) man page
     and the /etc/bootptab configuration file is used to determine the
     response to the client.

     -f	  This enables cross network forwarding	if the client is requesting
	  for service from a dhcp server which is reachable via	this server
	  and on a different wire.

     -d	  This enables the dhcp_server into a debug mode in which it logs
	  messages to /var/adm/SYSLOG.

     -o	  The path of the dhcp_options_file can	be mentioned using this
	  option. The default location is /etc/config/dhcp_bootp.options.

CONFIGURATION    [Toc]    [Back]

     dhcp_bootp	execution can be controlled through the	following steps.

     1)	 Specify the additional	DHCP-related options in	the
	 /etc/config/dhcp_bootp.options	file as	follows:

	 -y   If you are using NIS to propagate	the hosts and ethers map, this
	      system is	required to be the NIS master server for proclaim to
	      work correctly.

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dhcp_bootp(1M)							dhcp_bootp(1M)

	 -w hosts_map
	      Specifies	the optional location of the hosts map.	 The default
	      is /etc/hosts.

	 -e ethers_map
	      Specifies	the optional location of the ethers map.  The default
	      is /etc/ethers.

	 -u sysname
	      Specifies	the name for an	optional sysname file.	The default is

	 -c proclaim_config_dir
	      Specifies	the optional proclaim server configuration directory.
	      The default directory is /var/dhcp/config.

	 -t seconds
	      A	timeout	period for the dhcp_bootp server can be	set else the
	      default period will be used.If a timeout period of 0 seconds is
	      used then	the dhcp_bootp server will become a persistent daemon.

	 -x   This option is used in conjunction with a	Domain Name Server
	      that provides the	IP address to hostname mapping for the initial
	      assignment of IP addresses to hosts by the DHCP server. The
	      option has been found to be particularly useful in an Internet
	      Service Provider type of setup where the IP address to hostname
	      mapping may be required to remain	fixed. Once an IP address is
	      assigned it is written to	the etherToIP.pag file.	 When this
	      option is	in effect, etherToIP.pag is the	only file consulted to
	      determine	whether	a particular IP	address	or hostname is already

	 -n   Specifies	that the server	should return a	netmask	with its reply
	      regardless of whether a client requested it or not.

	 -m options
	      Specifies	additional options to be sent by the server to clients
	      irrespective of whether the client requests them or not. The
	      additional options are specified as a comma or colon separated
	      list with	no spaces.

	 -r script_file_path
	      Specifies	an optional script file	to execute when	the server
	      changes the etherToIP database. The complete path	to the script
	      must be specified	as an a	argument. The server calls the script
	      with several command-line	arguments: -c client_identifier	-m
	      physical_address -i ip_address -h	hostname -l lease -o operation
	      -t dhcp_message_type. The	script is executed in the background.
	      The value	of the operation argument is 0 if it was a record
	      creation,	1 if it	was a deletion,	and 2 if the lease was
	      updated. The dhcp_message_type is	the same as defined message
	      types in the DHCP	literature. If a message is sent to the	client

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dhcp_bootp(1M)							dhcp_bootp(1M)

	      that message type	is passed as an	argument, otherwise the
	      message type received from the client is passed. This script may
	      be used to perform other functions such as dynamic DNS updates.

	 -W   Specifies	that the the hosts map file or /etc/hosts file should
	      not be updated when leases are added or removed.

	 -E   Specifies	that the ethers	map file or/etc/ethers file should not
	      be updated when leases are added or removed.

	 -pn  Specifies	that a ping be sent before an address is leased	to
	      check if a host is using the IP address. If a reply is received
	      then a message is	logged in the SYSLOG indicating	that "Address
	      <addr> appears to	be STOLEN" and a record	is added into the
	      database with a lease time of -2 for this	IP address. The	DHCP
	      administrator should investigate the occurrence and remove the
	      entry in the database with the dhcpdb command once it has	been
	      resolved.	The DHCP server	tries to give out another address to
	      the requesting client. The server	attempts to recycle stolen
	      addresses	when it	runs out of addresses and at a frequency
	      specified	by the lease time in the configuration files.

	 -pt ping_timeout
	      Specifies	the timeout for	the ping. If a reply to	a ping is not
	      received in ping_timeout seconds the address is considered to be
	      not taken. The default value for the timeout is 1	second.	Note
	      that the server processes	requests from other DHCP clients while
	      waiting for the timeout to expire. The server does not block
	      waiting for a reply to a ping request. If	blocking pings are
	      required for some	reason use the -pb option instead of the -pn

	 -pl number_of_outstanding_pings
	      This is the maximum number of pings outstanding. Once this value
	      is reached the server automatically stops	sending	ping to	check
	      if an IP address is taken. The server begins to send ping
	      request once the number of outstanding ping requests falls below
	      this value. It is	set to 16 by default.

	 -pd This option is available for backward compatibility
	      with earlier versions. In	prior versions (if -x was not
	      specified) while assigning a new address the server would	make a
	      gethostbyaddr(3N)	call to	check if it could assign an IP address
	      to a client for which it had no prior binding. If	a binding was
	      found in DNS maps	then the particular address was	not assigned.
	      In the new version of the	server to obtain this older behavior
	      it is necessary to specify the -pd option. If this is not
	      specified	the server will	not perform a gethostbyaddr(3N)	call
	      to check if an IP	address	is available.

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dhcp_bootp(1M)							dhcp_bootp(1M)

	 The following options (-dx,-l)	can be set only	with
	      the Enhanced DHCP	server product.

	 -dn Specifies that dynamic DNS	updates	are on.	The
	      behavior of DNS updates are modified by the following
	      (-da-db-dc-ds-dt)	additional options. Note that if the -x	DHCP
	      server option is specified then the -dn option is	silently
	      ignored. With the	-x option DNS maps are pre-populated so	it
	      does not make any	sense to update	DNS dynamically.

	 -da Ordinarily	the server will	perform	dynamic	DNS updates
	      (if the -dn option is specified) only if the Dynamic DNS option
	      is sent by the client (option 81 as per the draft). If this (-
	      da) option is used the server will update	DNS regardless of
	      whether option 81	was sent by the	client or not.

	 -db If	this is	specified the DNS updates are performed
	      before an	ACKnowledgement	is sent	to the client. By default the
	      dynamic DNS updates are performed	after the ACK is sent to the

	 -dc If	this is	specified the DNS A RR is also updated
	      by the server. Otherwise whether the A RR	is updated or not
	      depends on the flags value sent in the dynamic DNS update	option
	      by the client.

	 -ds Specifies that the	security feature should	not be
	      used. By default secure updates are performed using TSIG for
	      those networks for which a key is	specified.

	 -df filename
	      Specifies	the file that contains the (TSIG) keys for the various
	      networks served by the DHCP server. The default file name	is
	      /var/dhcp/config/dhcp_ddns.conf. A key must be specified for
	      each network number for which secured updates are	required. Each
	      line in this file	specifies the network number (netnumber)
	      followed by the keyname, algorithm, and the base 64 encoded
	      secret key. Fields are separated with spaces or tabs. The
	      keyname and algorithm-name are the same as that used in the BIND
	      8.2 configuration	file.

	 -dt time_to_live
	      Specifies	the time to live (ttl in seconds) for records that are
	      added to the DNS.	The ttl	specified by the DHCP server in	the
	      DNS update is the	minimum	of this	value and the lease duration.

	 -l /var/dhcp/config/dhcp_ldap.conf
	      This option specifies that the ldap related options should be
	      picked from the /var/dhcp/ldap/dhcp_ldap.conf file. See the file
	      /var/dhcp/ldap/dhcp_ldap.conf to see various options and what
	      may need to be specified in order	to use the DHCP	server with an
	      LDAP server to store configuration and leases.

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dhcp_bootp(1M)							dhcp_bootp(1M)

     2)	 Create	one or more network configuration files	based on the network
	 numbers this server is	responsible for.  A default configuration file
	 is provided: /var/dhcp/config/config.Default.	The new	file(s)	should
	 be named config.<netnumber> in	the same directory.  For example, if
	 this server is	serving	clients	on the 192.26.61 network, the
	 configuration file should be named config.	 See below for
	 a list	of configuration parameters.

     3)	 The DHCP server also provides MAC address based filtering. The
	 filters are specified in the /var/dhcp/config/dhcpmtab	file. MAC
	 addresses can be specified as either complete addresses or as a
	 regular expression to specify a set of	addresses. The regular
	 expression syntax is described	in the man pages for regcmp(3G).

	 If a DHCP packet from a client	with a matching	mac address is
	 received then the corresponding actions are taken. Regular expression
	 matching is attempted only if a complete match	is not found. The
	 length	and hardware type must also match for non-regular expression
	 entries. The length may not match for entries that have regular
	 expressions. Once a match is found the	remaining entries are not
	 searched. An example of the configuration file	is as follows

	  # dhcpmtab - mac address based filtering for DHCP
	  #len htype	 mac		action
	  6    1    01:02:03:8a:8b:8c	K
	  0    1    01:02:*		L|K

     The actions can be	specified as a combination of L	and K. Each of the
     actions L=log request, and	K=drop request,	is acted upon in that order.
     The system	log is updated if the L	action is requested. If	the K action
     is	specified and an L is not specified then the packet is silently

     4)	 The DHCP server can be	configured to send specific user defined
	 options based on the value of the vendor class	option sent by the
	 DHCP client. To define	new options for	this purpose use the
	 /var/dhcp/config/dhcp_option_types file. The format of	this file is
	 described as comments within this file. Each line consists of a user
	 selected name,	an option number, and the type of the option. The
	 value to be returned by the DHCP server can be	specified in the
	 /var/dhcp/config/vendor_options file. See the file for	the format.
	 The vendor class and the network number to which option values	apply
	 can be	specified within the file.

     4)	 Enable	the proclaim server by giving the command:
	 chkconfig proclaim_server on

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dhcp_bootp(1M)							dhcp_bootp(1M)

     5)	 Replace the "bootp" entry in /usr/etc/inetd.conf with this line:
	 bootp dgram udp wait root /usr/etc/dhcp_bootp dhcp_bootp -o \

     6)	 Issue this command, to	restart	inetd with /etc/killall	-HUP inetd:
	 /etc/killall bootp

   Configuration Parameters    [Toc]    [Back]
     These parameters can be supplied in the configuration file	for each
     network.  All of the address fields can either be in standard IP address
     dot notation, or as a hex number prefixed with a 0x.  Most	of the fields
     can be left blank to render them non-applicable.

	  This integer field specifies the host	number for the next IP
	  address.  The	next address is	constructed using the counter and
	  checked through the range of the assignable addresses.  The first
	  available address in the range is assigned.

	  This integer field specifies the starting number appended to the
	  pro_host_prefix to generate a	new hostname.  This counter is
	  incremented and a new	hostname generated until a unique unused name
	  is found.

	  This field takes a netmask in	address	form.  For more	information on
	  netmasks, see	the IRIX Admin:	Networking and Mail guide.  This field
	  specifies the	subnetmask used	by the client systems.

	  This unsigned	integer	field specifies	the client address lease time
	  in seconds.  This implementation of the DHCP server assigns 3	year
	  leases by default, and the leases are	expired	only when explicitly
	  surrendered by the client.

	  This string field specifies the default text prefix for generating
	  client hostnames.  For example, the prefix iris directs proclaim to
	  generate hostnames of	the form iris1,	iris2, iris3, and so on.

	  This boolean (true or	false) flag specifies whether the client
	  systems are allowed to choose	their own hostname or whether they
	  must be assigned the name given to them by the server.  A value of 1
	  (true) in this field brings up a dialog box on the client system
	  giving the user the option of	either taking the name offered by the
	  server or entering a hostname	of the user's choice.  If the user
	  selects a name, the server allows this name if it passes basic tests
	  for syntax and uniqueness, otherwise the server/client dialogue
	  continues until a mutually acceptable	name is	submitted.  A value of
	  0 (false) in this field indicates that the user on the client	system

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dhcp_bootp(1M)							dhcp_bootp(1M)

	  must accept the name provided	by the server. This option can be used
	  with SGI DHCP	clients	and servers only. The client and server
	  exchange DHCPREQUEST and DHCPOFFER packets until a mutually
	  acceptable name is chosen. This option is being deprecated; use the
	  -H host-name option with SGI clients to specify host names.

	  This field takes an entry of integers	using standard numeric range
	  rules.  The entry defines the	range of host number addresses
	  assignable by	this server.  For example, if the value	is: 1-3, 5-7,
	  9.  The server issues	IP addresses with the base address specified
	  in the configuration filename	(such as config.

	  Each client is issued	an IP address matching the name	of the
	  configuration	file, suffixed with the	numbers	1 through 3, and 5
	  through 7, and 9, but	not 4 or 8.  This option can be	to restrict
	  the IP addresses offered by a	given server.  This is very useful if
	  the administrator wants to assign only certain block(s) of addresses
	  using	proclaim, or in	the absence of a server	to server protocol,
	  wishes to have multiple servers serve	clients	on the same subnet.

	  This field of	comma-separated	IP addresses specifies a list of
	  addresses for	network	routers	on the client's	subnet.	 Routers
	  should be listed in the order	of preference for their	use.

	  Specifies length in 512-octet	blocks of the default boot image for
	  the client.

	  Specifies offset of the client's subnet from Coordinated Universal
	  Time (UTC) in	seconds.

	  Specifies a file for dumping a core image in case the	client

	  Specifies the	directory that contains	the client's root disk

	  Specifies a TFTP file	containing vendor extensions for bootp.	 On
	  SGI systems the this file has	the same format	as the
	  config.netnumber file.

	  Specifies a TFTP server for the client.

									Page 7

dhcp_bootp(1M)							dhcp_bootp(1M)

	  Specifies the	pathname of the	default	boot image for the client.

	  This text field specifies the	domain name that client	should use
	  when resolving hostnames using DNS.

	  This field of	comma-separated	IP addresses specifies a list of
	  addresses for	Domain Name System servers available to	the client.
	  Servers should be listed in the order	of preference for their	use.

	  This IP address specifies the	address	of the propel server that
	  serves the clients on	this subnet.  Additional information about
	  propel can be	found in Chapter 2, "Software Distribution, User, and
	  Host Management With propel,"	of the IRIXpro Administrator's Guide.

	  This field of	comma-separated	IP addresses specifies a list of
	  addresses for	time servers available to the client.  Addresses
	  should be listed in the order	of preference for their	use.

	  Specifies a list of UDP log servers available	to the client.

	  Specifies a list of RFC 865 cookie servers available to the client.

	  Specifies a list of RFC 1179 line printer servers available to the

	  Specifies a list of RFC 887 resource location	servers	available to
	  the client.

	  Specifies the	IP address of the client's swap	server.

	  This text field specifies the	name of	the client's NIS domain.

	  This field of	comma-separated	IP addresses specifies a list of
	  addresses indicating NIS servers available to	the client.  Servers
	  should be listed in the order	of preference for their	use.

	  This unsigned	short integer field specifies the MTU (maximum
	  transmission unit) to	use on the network interface configured	in
	  this file.  The minimum legal	value for the MTU is 68.

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dhcp_bootp(1M)							dhcp_bootp(1M)

	  This boolean (true/false) field specifies whether or not the client
	  can assume that all other subnets of the IP network to which the
	  client is connected use the same MTU as the subnet to	which the
	  client is directly connected.	 A value of 1 (true) indicates that
	  all subnets share the	same MTU.  A value of 0	(false)	means that the
	  client should	assume that some other subnets can have	smaller	MTUs.

	  This IP address field	specifies the broadcast	address	in use on the
	  client's subnet.

	  This boolean (true/false) Perform Mask Discovery field specifies
	  whether or not the client should perform subnet mask discovery using
	  ICMP.	 A value of 1 (true) means that	the client should perform mask
	  discovery, while a value of 0	(false)	indicates that the client
	  should not perform mask discovery.

	  This boolean (true/false) Mask Supplier field	specifies whether or
	  not the client should	respond	to subnet mask requests	using ICMP.  A
	  value	of 1 (true) means that the client should respond.  A value of
	  0 (false) in this field means	that the client	should not respond.

	  This field takes a comma-separated list of routes in the following
	  dest_address - router_address, dest_address2 - router_address2.
	  The static route field specifies a list of static routes that	the
	  client should	install	in its routing cache.  If multiple routes to
	  the same destination are specified, they should be listed in
	  descending order of priority.	 The routes consist of a list of IP
	  address pairs.  The first address is the destination address;	its
	  counterpart address, separated by a dash (-),	is the address of the
	  router to the	destination.  The default route	( is an
	  illegal destination for a static route.

	  Toggle DHCP serving of this subnet.

     Other Options
	  The Proclaim server also handles other options listed	in RFC 1533.
	  To set values	for these options use of the ProclaimServerMgr(1M)
	  graphical user interface is recommended.  You	can view the standard
	  config.Default file in the /var/dhcp/config directory	to see all the
	  supported options.

     The following are the active lines	only from a working config.netnumber
     configuration file:

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dhcp_bootp(1M)							dhcp_bootp(1M)

	  Serve_This_Network: 1
	  pro_address_counter: 1
	  pro_host_pfx_counter:	1
	  pro_lease: 604800
	  pro_host_prefix: n6634
	  pro_choose_name: 1
	  pro_ipaddress_range: 1-254
	  pro_dns_domain: engr.sgi.com
	  pro_nis_domain: engr.sgi.com
	  pro_mtu: 1500
	  pro_allnets_local: 1
	  pro_domask_disc: 0
	  pro_resp_mask_req: 0

NOTES    [Toc]    [Back]

     Debugging may be enabled by sending a SIGUSR1 signal to the server	and
     may be disabled by	sending	SIGUSR2. To increase the level of debugging
     send multiple SIGUSR1 signals, for	example, killall -USR1 dhcp_bootp.
     Sending a SIGHUP signal to	the server will	cause the server to reload its
     configuration files.

     The dhcp_bootp server database is maintained in ndbm files	with (.dir)
     and (.pag)	extensions. The	dhcpdb(1M) utility may be used to manage the
     DHCP database. This utility also allows leases to be imported or exported
     from/to text files.

     The /usr/sbin/dbmToEthIP utility can be used to view the contents of the
     database. It converts the ndbm format to the text format and outputs the
     text onto the standard output.In case of situations where it is needed to
     generate the ndbm files the /usr/etc/ethIPToDbm utility may be used to
     convert a etherToIP file (in text format) to ndbm formatted files.
     dbmToEthIP	and ethIPToDbm may be discontinued in the future. Use dhcpdb

     To	use the	bootp server with DHCP style options, specify the options in
     the /etc/config/bootp-rfc1533.options file. See this file to check	what
     options are supported.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]


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dhcp_bootp(1M)							dhcp_bootp(1M)


SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     bootp(1M),	chkconfig(1M), dhcp_relay(1M), dhcpdb(1M), inetd(1M),
     proclaim(1M), ProclaimServerMgr(1M), syslogd(1M), ethers(4), hosts(4).

     IETF RFCs 1541, 1533, 1534, 1535.

								       PPPPaaaaggggeeee 11111111
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