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     XSERVER(1)		X Version 11 (Release 6.4)	    XSERVER(1)

     NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
	  Xserver - X Window System display server

     SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]
	  X [option ...]

     DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
	  X is the generic name	for the	X Window System	display
	  server.  It is frequently a link or a	copy of	the
	  appropriate server binary for	driving	the most frequently
	  used server on a given machine.

     STARTING THE SERVER    [Toc]    [Back]
	  The X	server is usually started from the X Display Manager
	  program xdm(1).  This	utility	is run from the	system boot
	  files	and takes care of keeping the server running,
	  prompting for	usernames and passwords, and starting up the
	  user sessions.

	  Installations	that run more than one window system may need
	  to use the xinit(1) utility instead of xdm.  However,	xinit
	  is to	be considered a	tool for building startup scripts and
	  is not intended for use by end users.	 Site administrators
	  are strongly urged to	use xdm, or build other	interfaces for
	  novice users.

	  The X	server may also	be started directly by the user,
	  though this method is	usually	reserved for testing and is
	  not recommended for normal operation.	 On some platforms,
	  the user must	have special permission	to start the X server,
	  often	because	access to certain devices (e.g.	/dev/mouse) is

	  When the X server starts up, it typically takes over the
	  display.  If you are running on a workstation	whose console
	  is the display, you may not be able to log into the console
	  while	the server is running.

     OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]
	  All of the X servers accept the following command line

		  the X	server runs as the given displaynumber,	which
		  by default is	0.  If multiple	X servers are to run
		  simultaneously on a host, each must have a unique
		  display number.  See the DISPLAY NAMES section of
		  the X(1) manual page to learn	how to specify which
		  display number clients should	try to use.

	  -a number
		  sets pointer acceleration (i.e. the ratio of how

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     XSERVER(1)		X Version 11 (Release 6.4)	    XSERVER(1)

		  much is reported to how much the user	actually moved
		  the pointer).

	  -ac	  disables host-based access control mechanisms.
		  Enables access by any	host, and permits any host to
		  modify the access control list.  Use with extreme
		  caution.  This option	exists primarily for running
		  test suites remotely.

	  -audit level
		  Sets the audit trail level.  The default level is 1,
		  meaning only connection rejections are reported.
		  Level	2 additionally reports all successful
		  connections and disconnects.	Level 4	enables
		  messages from	the SECURITY extension,	if present,
		  including generation and revocation of
		  authorizations and violations	of the security
		  policy.  Level 0 turns off the audit trail.  Audit
		  lines	are sent as standard error output.

	  -auth	authorization-file
		  Specifies a file which contains a collection of
		  authorization	records	used to	authenticate access.
		  See also the xdm and Xsecurity manual	pages.

	  bc	  disables certain kinds of error checking, for	bug
		  compatibility	with previous releases (e.g., to work
		  around bugs in R2 and	R3 xterms and toolkits).

	  -bs	  disables backing store support on all	screens.

	  -c	  turns	off key-click.

	  c volume
		  sets key-click volume	(allowable range: 0-100).

	  -cc class
		  sets the visual class	for the	root window of color
		  screens.  The	class numbers are as specified in the
		  X protocol.  Not obeyed by all servers.

	  -co filename
		  sets name of RGB color database.  The	default	is
		  <XRoot>/lib/X11/rgb, where <XRoot> refers to the
		  root of the X11 install tree.

	  -config filename
		  reads	more options from the given file.  Options in
		  the file may be separated by newlines	if desired.
		  If a '#' character appears on	a line,	all characters
		  between it and the next newline are ignored,

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     XSERVER(1)		X Version 11 (Release 6.4)	    XSERVER(1)

		  providing a simple commenting	facility.  The -config
		  option itself	may appear in the file.

	  -core	  causes the server to generate	a core dump on fatal

	  -dpi resolution
		  sets the resolution of the screen, in	dots per inch.
		  To be	used when the server cannot determine the
		  screen size from the hardware.

	  -deferglyphs whichfonts
		  specifies the	types of fonts for which the server
		  should attempt to use	deferred glyph loading.
		  whichfonts can be all	(all fonts), none (no fonts),
		  or 16	(16 bit	fonts only).

	  -f volume
		  sets feep (bell) volume (allowable range: 0-100).

	  -fc cursorFont
		  sets default cursor font.

	  -fn font
		  sets the default font.

	  -fp fontPath
		  sets the search path for fonts.  This	path is	a
		  comma	separated list of directories which the	X
		  server searches for font databases.

	  -help	  prints a usage message.

	  -I	  causes all remaining command line arguments to be

	  -kb	  disables the XKEYBOARD extension if present.

	  -p minutes
		  sets screen-saver pattern cycle time in minutes.

	  -pn	  permits the server to	continue running if it fails
		  to establish all of its well-known sockets
		  (connection points for clients), but establishes at
		  least	one.

	  -r	  turns	off auto-repeat.

	  r	  turns	on auto-repeat.

	  -s minutes
		  sets screen-saver timeout time in minutes.

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	  -su	  disables save	under support on all screens.

	  -t number
		  sets pointer acceleration threshold in pixels	(i.e.
		  after	how many pixels	pointer	acceleration should
		  take effect).

		  causes the server to terminate at server reset,
		  instead of continuing	to run.

	  -to seconds
		  sets default connection timeout in seconds.

	  -tst	  disables all testing extensions (e.g., XTEST,	XTrap,
		  XTestExtension1, RECORD).

	  ttyxx	  ignored, for servers started the ancient way (from

	  v	  sets video-off screen-saver preference.

	  -v	  sets video-on	screen-saver preference.

	  -wm	  forces the default backing-store of all windows to
		  be WhenMapped.  This is a backdoor way of getting
		  backing-store	to apply to all	windows.  Although all
		  mapped windows will have backing store, the backing
		  store	attribute value	reported by the	server for a
		  window will be the last value	established by a
		  client.  If it has never been	set by a client, the
		  server will report the default value,	NotUseful.
		  This behavior	is required by the X protocol, which
		  allows the server to exceed the client's backing
		  store	expectations but does not provide a way	to
		  tell the client that it is doing so.

	  -x extension
		  loads	the specified extension	at init.  This is a
		  no-op	for most implementations.

		  enable(+) or disable(-) XINERAMA extension. Default
		  is disabled.

     SERVER DEPENDENT OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]
	  Some X servers accept	the following options:

	  -ld kilobytes
		  sets the data	space limit of the server to the
		  specified number of kilobytes.  A value of zero
		  makes	the data size as large as possible.  The

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		  default value	of -1 leaves the data space limit

	  -lf files
		  sets the number-of-open-files	limit of the server to
		  the specified	number.	 A value of zero makes the
		  limit	as large as possible.  The default value of -1
		  leaves the limit unchanged.

	  -ls kilobytes
		  sets the stack space limit of	the server to the
		  specified number of kilobytes.  A value of zero
		  makes	the stack size as large	as possible.  The
		  default value	of -1 leaves the stack space limit

	  -logo	  turns	on the X Window	System logo display in the
		  screen-saver.	 There is currently no way to change
		  this from a client.

	  nologo  turns	off the	X Window System	logo display in	the
		  screen-saver.	 There is currently no way to change
		  this from a client.

     XDMCP OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]
	  X servers that support XDMCP have the	following options.
	  See the X Display Manager Control Protocol specification for
	  more information.

	  -query host-name
		  Enable XDMCP and send	Query packets to the specified

		  Enable XDMCP and broadcast BroadcastQuery packets to
		  the network.	The first responding display manager
		  will be chosen for the session.

	  -indirect host-name
		  Enable XDMCP and send	IndirectQuery packets to the
		  specified host.

	  -port	port-num
		  Use an alternate port	number for XDMCP packets.
		  Must be specified before any -query, -broadcast or
		  -indirect options.

	  -class display-class
		  XDMCP	has an additional display qualifier used in
		  resource lookup for display-specific options.	 This
		  option sets that value, by default it	is "MITUnspecified"
 (not a very useful value).

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     XSERVER(1)		X Version 11 (Release 6.4)	    XSERVER(1)

	  -cookie xdm-auth-bits
		  When testing XDM-AUTHENTICATION-1, a private key is
		  shared between the server and	the manager.  This
		  option sets the value	of that	private	data (not that
		  it is	very private, being on the command line!).

	  -displayID display-id
		  Yet another XDMCP specific value, this one allows
		  the display manager to identify each display so that
		  it can locate	the shared key.

     XKEYBOARD OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]
	  X servers that support the XKEYBOARD extension accept	the
	  following options:

	  -xkbdir directory
		  base directory for keyboard layout files

	  -xkbmap filename
		  keyboard description to load on startup

		  enable(+) or disable(-) AccessX key sequences

	  -ar1 milliseconds
		  sets the length of time in milliseconds that a key
		  must be depressed before autorepeat starts

	  -ar2 milliseconds
		  sets the length of time in milliseconds that should
		  elapse between autorepeat-generated keystrokes

	  Many servers also have device-specific command line options.
	  See the manual pages for the individual servers for more

	  X servers that support the SECURITY extension	accept the
	  following option:

	  -sp filename
		  causes the server to attempt to read and interpret
		  filename as a	security policy	file with the format
		  described below.  The	file is	read at	server startup
		  and reread at	each server reset.

	  The syntax of	the security policy file is as follows.
	  Notation: "*"	means zero or more occurrences of the
	  preceding element, and "+" means one or more occurrences.
	  To interpret <foo/bar>, ignore the text after	the /; it is
	  used to distinguish between instances	of <foo> in the	next

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     XSERVER(1)		X Version 11 (Release 6.4)	    XSERVER(1)

	  <policy file>	::= <version line> <other line>*

	  <version line> ::= <string/v>	'\n'

	  <other line >	::= <comment> |	<access	rule> |	<site policy> |	<blank line>

	  <comment> ::=	# <not newline>* '\n'

	  <blank line> ::= <space> '\n'

	  <site	policy>	::= sitepolicy <string/sp> '\n'

	  <access rule>	::= property <property/ar> <window> <perms> '\n'

	  <property> ::= <string>

	  <window> ::= any | root | <required property>

	  <required property> ::= <property/rp>	| <property with value>

	  <property with value>	::= <property/rpv> = <string/rv>

	  <perms> ::= [	<operation> | <action> | <space> ]*

	  <operation> ::= r | w	| d

	  <action> ::= a | i | e

	  <string> ::= <dbl quoted string> | <single quoted string> | <unqouted	string>

	  <dbl quoted string> ::= <space> " <not dqoute>* " <space>

	  <single quoted string> ::= <space> ' <not squote>* ' <space>

	  <unquoted string> ::=	<space>	<not space>+ <space>

	  <space> ::= [	' ' | '\t' ]*

	  Character sets:

	  <not newline>	::= any	character except '\n'
	  <not dqoute>	::= any	character except "
	  <not squote>	::= any	character except '
	  <not space>	::= any	character except those in <space>

	  The semantics	associated with	the above syntax are as

	  <version line>, the first line in the	file, specifies	the
	  file format version.	If the server does not recognize the
	  version <string/v>, it ignores the rest of the file.	The
	  version string for the file format described here is

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     XSERVER(1)		X Version 11 (Release 6.4)	    XSERVER(1)

	  "version-1" .

	  Once past the	<version line>,	lines that do not match	the
	  above	syntax are ignored.

	  <comment> lines are ignored.

	  <sitepolicy> lines are currently ignored.  They are intended
	  to specify the site policies used by the XC-QUERY-SECURITY-1
	  authorization	method.

	  <access rule>	lines specify how the server should react to
	  untrusted client requests that affect	the X Window property
	  named	<property/ar>.	The rest of this section describes the
	  interpretation of an <access rule>.

	  For an <access rule> to apply	to a given instance of
	  <property/ar>, <property/ar> must be on a window that	is in
	  the set of windows specified by <window>.  If	<window> is
	  any, the rule	applies	to <property/ar> on any	window.	 If
	  <window> is root, the	rule applies to	<property/ar> only on
	  root windows.

	  If <window> is <required property>, the following apply.  If
	  <required property> is a <property/rp>, the rule applies
	  when the window also has that	<property/rp>, regardless of
	  its value.  If <required property> is	a <property with
	  value>, <property/rpv> must also have	the value specified by
	  <string/rv>.	In this	case, the property must	have type
	  STRING and format 8, and should contain one or more nullterminated
 strings.  If any of the strings match
	  <string/rv>, the rule	applies.

	  The definition of string matching is simple case-sensitive
	  string comparison with one elaboration: the occurence	of the
	  character '*'	in <string/rv> is a wildcard meaning "any
	  string."  A <string/rv> can contain multiple wildcards
	  anywhere in the string.  For example,	"x*" matches strings
	  that begin with x, "*x" matches strings that end with	x,
	  "*x*"	matches	strings	containing x, and "x*y*" matches
	  strings that start with x and	subsequently contain y.

	  There	may be multiple	<access	rule> lines for	a given
	  <property/ar>.  The rules are	tested in the order that they
	  appear in the	file.  The first rule that applies is used.

	  <perms> specify operations that untrusted clients may
	  attempt, and the actions that	the server should take in
	  response to those operations.

	  <operation> can be r (read), w (write), or d (delete).  The
	  following table shows	how X Protocol property	requests map

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     XSERVER(1)		X Version 11 (Release 6.4)	    XSERVER(1)

	  to these operations in The Open Group	server implementation.

	  GetProperty	 r, or r and d if delete = True
	  ChangeProperty w
	  RotateProperties    r	and w
	  DeleteProperty d
	  ListProperties none, untrusted clients can always list all properties

	  <action> can be a (allow), i (ignore), or e (error).	Allow
	  means	execute	the request as if it had been issued by	a
	  trusted client.  Ignore means	treat the request as a no-op.
	  In the case of GetProperty, ignore means return an empty
	  property value if the	property exists, regardless of its
	  actual value.	 Error means do	not execute the	request	and
	  return a BadAtom error with the atom set to the property
	  name.	 Error is the default action for all properties,
	  including those not listed in	the security policy file.

	  An <action> applies to all <operation>s that follow it,
	  until	the next <action> is encountered.  Thus, irwad	means
	  ignore read and write, allow delete.

	  GetProperty and RotateProperties may do multiple operations
	  (r and d, or r and w).  If different actions apply to	the
	  operations, the most severe action is	applied	to the whole
	  request; there is no partial request execution.  The
	  severity ordering is:	allow <	ignore < error.	 Thus, if the
	  <perms> for a	property are ired (ignore read,	error delete),
	  and an untrusted client attempts GetProperty on that
	  property with	delete = True, an error	is returned, but the
	  property value is not.  Similarly, if	any of the properties
	  in a RotateProperties	do not allow both read and write, an
	  error	is returned without changing any property values.

	  Here is an example security policy file.


	  # Allow reading of application resources, but	not writing.
	  property RESOURCE_MANAGER	root	  ar iw
	  property SCREEN_RESOURCES	root	  ar iw

	  # Ignore attempts to use cut buffers.	 Giving	errors causes apps to crash,
	  # and	allowing access	may give away too much information.
	  property CUT_BUFFER0		root	  irw
	  property CUT_BUFFER1		root	  irw
	  property CUT_BUFFER2		root	  irw
	  property CUT_BUFFER3		root	  irw
	  property CUT_BUFFER4		root	  irw
	  property CUT_BUFFER5		root	  irw
	  property CUT_BUFFER6		root	  irw
	  property CUT_BUFFER7		root	  irw

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     XSERVER(1)		X Version 11 (Release 6.4)	    XSERVER(1)

	  # If you are using Motif, you	probably want these.
	  property _MOTIF_DEFAULT_BINDINGS	  rootar iw
	  property _MOTIF_DRAG_WINDOW	root	  ar iw
	  property _MOTIF_DRAG_TARGETS	any	  ar iw
	  property _MOTIF_DRAG_ATOMS	any	  ar iw
	  property _MOTIF_DRAG_ATOM_PAIRS	  any ar iw

	  # The	next two rules let xwininfo -tree work when untrusted.
	  property WM_NAME		any	  ar

	  # Allow read of WM_CLASS, but	only for windows with WM_NAME.
	  # This might be more restrictive than	necessary, but demonstrates
	  # the	<required property> facility, and is also an attempt to
	  # say	"top level windows only."
	  property WM_CLASS		WM_NAME	  ar

	  # These next three let xlsclients work untrusted.  Think carefully
	  # before including these; giving away	the client machine name	and command
	  # may	be exposing too	much.
	  property WM_STATE		WM_NAME	  ar
	  property WM_CLIENT_MACHINE	WM_NAME	  ar
	  property WM_COMMAND		WM_NAME	  ar

	  # To let untrusted clients use the standard colormaps	created	by
	  # xstdcmap, include these lines.
	  property RGB_DEFAULT_MAP	root	  ar
	  property RGB_BEST_MAP		root	  ar
	  property RGB_RED_MAP		root	  ar
	  property RGB_GREEN_MAP	root	  ar
	  property RGB_BLUE_MAP		root	  ar
	  property RGB_GRAY_MAP		root	  ar

	  # To let untrusted clients use the color management database created
	  # by xcmsdb, include these lines.
	  property XDCCC_LINEAR_RGB_CORRECTION	  rootar
	  property XDCCC_LINEAR_RGB_MATRICES	  rootar
	  property XDCCC_GRAY_CORRECTION	  rootar

	  # To let untrusted clients use the overlay visuals that many vendors
	  # support, include this line.
	  property SERVER_OVERLAY_VISUALS	  rootar

	  # Dumb examples to show other	capabilities.

	  # oddball property names and explicit	specification of error conditions
	  property "property with spaces"	  'property with "'aw er ed

	  # Allow deletion of Woo-Hoo if window	also has property OhBoy	with value
	  # ending in "son".  Reads and	writes will cause an error.
	  property Woo-Hoo		OhBoy =	"*son"ad

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     NETWORK CONNECTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]
	  The X	server supports	client connections via a platformdependent
 subset of the following transport types: TCP/IP,
	  Unix Domain sockets, DECnet, and several varieties of	SVR4
	  local	connections.  See the DISPLAY NAMES section of the
	  X(1) manual page to learn how	to specify which transport
	  type clients should try to use.

     GRANTING ACCESS    [Toc]    [Back]
	  The X	server implements a platform-dependent subset of the
	  following authorization protocols: MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1, XDMAUTHORIZATION-1,
 SUN-DES-1, and MIT-KERBEROS-5.  See the
	  Xsecurity(1) manual page for information on the operation of
	  these	protocols.

	  Authorization	data required by the above protocols is	passed
	  to the server	in a private file named	with the -auth command
	  line option.	Each time the server is	about to accept	the
	  first	connection after a reset (or when the server is
	  starting), it	reads this file.  If this file contains	any
	  authorization	records, the local host	is not automatically
	  allowed access to the	server,	and only clients which send
	  one of the authorization records contained in	the file in
	  the connection setup information will	be allowed access.
	  See the Xau manual page for a	description of the binary
	  format of this file.	See xauth(1) for maintenance of	this
	  file,	and distribution of its	contents to remote hosts.

	  The X	server also uses a host-based access control list for
	  deciding whether or not to accept connections	from clients
	  on a particular machine.  If no other	authorization
	  mechanism is being used, this	list initially consists	of the
	  host on which	the server is running as well as any machines
	  listed in the	file /etc/Xn.hosts, where n is the display
	  number of the	server.	 Each line of the file should contain
	  either an Internet hostname (e.g. expo.lcs.mit.edu) or a
	  DECnet hostname in double colon format (e.g. hydra::).
	  There	should be no leading or	trailing spaces	on any lines.
	  For example:


	  Users	can add	or remove hosts	from this list and enable or
	  disable access control using the xhost command from the same
	  machine as the server.

	  If the X FireWall Proxy (xfwp) is being used without a
	  sitepolicy, host-based authorization must be turned on for
	  clients to be	able to	connect	to the X server	via the	xfwp.

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	  If xfwp is run without a configuration file and thus no
	  sitepolicy is	defined, if xfwp is using an X server where
	  xhost	+ has been run to turn off host-based authorization
	  checks, when a client	tries to connect to this X server via
	  xfwp,	the X server will deny the connection.	See xfwp(1)
	  for more information about this proxy.

	  The X	protocol intrinsically does not	have any notion	of
	  window operation permissions or place	any restrictions on
	  what a client	can do;	if a program can connect to a display,
	  it has full run of the screen. X servers that	support	the
	  SECURITY extension fare better because clients can be
	  designated untrusted via the authorization they use to
	  connect; see the xauth(1) manual page	for details.
	  Restrictions are imposed on untrusted	clients	that curtail
	  the mischief they can	do.  See the SECURITY extension
	  specification	for a complete list of these restrictions.

	  Sites	that have better authentication	and authorization
	  systems might	wish to	make use of the	hooks in the libraries
	  and the server to provide additional security	models.

     SIGNALS    [Toc]    [Back]
	  The X	server attaches	special	meaning	to the following

	  SIGHUP  This signal causes the server	to close all existing
		  connections, free all	resources, and restore all
		  defaults.  It	is sent	by the display manager
		  whenever the main user's main	application (usually
		  an xterm or window manager) exits to force the
		  server to clean up and prepare for the next user.

	  SIGTERM This signal causes the server	to exit	cleanly.

	  SIGUSR1 This signal is used quite differently	from either of
		  the above.  When the server starts, it checks	to see
		  if it	has inherited SIGUSR1 as SIG_IGN instead of
		  the usual SIG_DFL.  In this case, the	server sends a
		  SIGUSR1 to its parent	process	after it has set up
		  the various connection schemes.  Xdm uses this
		  feature to recognize when connecting to the server
		  is possible.

     FONTS    [Toc]    [Back]
	  The X	server can obtain fonts	from directories and/or	from
	  font servers.	 The list of directories and font servers the
	  X server uses	when trying to open a font is controlled by
	  the font path.

	  The default font path	is "<XRoot>/lib/X11/fonts/misc/,
	  <XRoot>/lib/X11/fonts/Speedo/, <XRoot>/lib/X11/fonts/Type1/,

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	  <XRoot>/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi/,	<XRoot>/lib/X11/fonts/100dpi/"
	  .  where <XRoot> refers to the root of the X11 install tree.

	  The font path	can be set with	the -fp	option or by xset(1)
	  after	the server has started.

     FILES    [Toc]    [Back]
	  /etc/Xn.hosts			Initial	access control list
					for display number n

	  <XRoot>/lib/X11/fonts/misc, <XRoot>/lib/X11/fonts/75dpi,
					Bitmap font directories

	  <XRoot>/lib/X11/fonts/Speedo,	<XRoot>/lib/X11/fonts/Type1
					Outline	font directories

	  <XRoot>/lib/X11/fonts/PEX	PEX font directories

	  <XRoot>/lib/X11/rgb.txt	Color database

	  /tmp/.X11-unix/Xn		Unix domain socket for display
					number n

	  /tmp/rcXn			Kerberos 5 replay cache	for
					display	number n

	  /usr/adm/Xnmsgs		Error log file for display
					number n if run	from init(8)

					Default	error log file if the
					server is run from xdm(1)

	  Note:	<XRoot>	refers to the root of the X11 install tree.

     SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
	  General information: X(1)

	  Protocols:  X	Window System Protocol,	The X Font Service
	  Protocol, X Display Manager Control Protocol

	  Fonts: bdftopcf(1), mkfontdir(1), xfs(1), xlsfonts(1),
	  xfontsel(1), xfd(1), X Logical Font Description Conventions

	  Security: Xsecurity(1), xauth(1), Xau(1), xdm(1), xhost(1),
	  xfwp(1) Security Extension Specification

	  Starting the server: xdm(1), xini
,	xsetroot(1),

     Page 13					     (printed 10/9/01)

     XSERVER(1)		X Version 11 (Release 6.4)	    XSERVER(1)

	  Server-specific man pages: Xsgi(1), Xnest(1),	Xvfb(1)

	  Server internal documentation:  Definition of	the Porting
	  Layer	for the	X v11 Sample Server

     AUTHORS    [Toc]    [Back]
	  The sample server was	originally written by Susan
	  Angebranndt, Raymond Drewry, Philip Karlton, and Todd
	  Newman, from Digital Equipment Corporation, with support
	  from a large cast.  It has since been	extensively rewritten
	  by Keith Packard and Bob Scheifler, from MIT.	 Dave Wiggins
	  took over post-R5 and	made substantial improvements.

     Page 14					     (printed 10/9/01)

[ Back ]
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