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 ppp.Systems(4)                                               ppp.Systems(4)

 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      ppp.Systems - PPP neighboring systems description file format

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      The file /etc/ppp/Systems describes how to connect with neighboring
      systems via PPP.

    Format    [Toc]    [Back]
      Entries are one to a line; blank lines are ignored.  Comments begin
      with a `#' and extend to the end of the line.  Upper/lower case
      distinctions are ignored in hostname specifications, but are
      significant elsewhere.  Fields on a line are separated by horizontal
      white space (blanks or tabs).  If a chat script ends with a backslash
      (`\'), the next line is considered a continuation of the chat script.
      Continuations may only occur in the midst of a chat script.

      Each entry must contain six fields, in the following order:

      name      The hostname or IP address of the destination machine, which
                should be resolvable locally.

      when      A string that indicates the days of the week and the times
                of day when the system can be called (for example,
                MoTuTh0800-1740).  The day portion may be a list containing
                any of Su, Mo, Tu, We, Th, Fr or Sa.  The day may also be Wk
                for any weekday (same as MoTuWeThFr) or Any for any day
                (same as SuMoTuWeThFrSa).

                You can indicate hours in a range (for example, 0800-1230).
                If you do not specify a time, calls will be allowed at any

                Note that a time range that spans 0000 is permitted.  For
                example, 0800-0600 means that all times are allowed except
                times between 6 AM and 8 AM.

                Multiple date specifications that are separated by a
                vertical bar (|) are allowed.  For example, Any0100-
                0600|Sa|Su means that the system can be called any day
                between 1 AM and 6 AM or any time on Saturday and Sunday.

                The entire (sequence of) days and times may be followed by a
                semicolon and up to three decimal numbers separated by

                one     If only one number follows the semicolon, it is used
                        as the redial delay, which is the initial time (in
                        seconds) before a failed call will be retried.  For
                        example, Any;60 means call any time, but wait at
                        least 60 seconds after a failure has occurred before
                        trying to call again.  If a call retry fails, pppd

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 ppp.Systems(4)                                               ppp.Systems(4)

                        will double the delay before trying again.  If no
                        initial retry delay is specified, 10 seconds is

                two     If two numbers follow the semicolon, the second
                        number is used as the maximum redial delay, which is
                        the maximum time (in seconds) to delay before
                        retrying a call.  The retry time will double with
                        each unsuccessful call until it reaches this value,
                        after which the call will be retried every time the
                        maximum number of seconds passes.  If no maximum
                        retry delay is specified, 3600 seconds is assumed.

                three   If three numbers follow the semicolon, the first is
                        used as the callback delay, the second as the redial
                        delay, and the third as the maximum redial delay.
                        The callback delay is the time (in seconds) to wait
                        before attempting to re-establish a previously
                        active connection that ended because of an abrupt
                        line disconnection (a Hangup or SIGHUP event in the
                        log file).  The default is not to delay before
                        calling back.

                During the delay following an unsuccessful call, any level 7
                debugging messages written to pppd.log will have the message
                `dial failed' appended.

      device    If set to `ACU', any device in Devices with a matching speed
                may be used.  The device's dialer chat script will be
                executed first, followed by the Systems chat script.

                If set to the name of a device in the /dev directory (tty00,
                cua, etc.), then there may be an optional corresponding
                Direct entry in Devices, Dialers will not be consulted, and
                only the Systems chat script will be executed.

                If set to `tcp', then it must be followed by a slash, then
                the hostname or IP address of the system that will serve as
                the destination of the PPP link, then another slash, then
                the socket number on which to contact the remote PPP daemon.

      speed     The speed of the connection.  If the device field is ACU,
                the speed field will be string matched against entries in
                Devices.  Speeds must either be valid speed numbers or must
                begin with them (2400, 38400, 19200-PEP, etc.).  If the
                device field is `tcp...' or `telnet...', the speed field is
                ignored, but must be present as a place-holder.

      phone number
                The value to replace the \T escape sequence in the dialer
                script.  If the device field names an entry in /dev, the

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 ppp.Systems(4)                                               ppp.Systems(4)

                phone number field is optional.  If the device field is
                `tcp...' or `telnet...', the phone number field is ignored
                if present, but must be present as a placeholder.

      chat script
                A description of the conversation that pppd holds with the
                remote machine.

    Chat Script Particulars    [Toc]    [Back]
      A chat script takes the form of a word to expect the remote end to
      send, followed by a word to send in response.  Unless a `send' string
      ends with \c, pppd will follow it by sending a carriage return
      character (ASCII 0x0d).

      Chat scripts are `expect send expect send ...'  or `expect-send-expect
      send ...', where the send following the hyphen is executed if the
      preceding expect fails to match received text.

      Certain special words may be used in chat script `send' strings to
      control the behavior of pppd as it attempts to dial.  Both ABORT and
      TIMEOUT must be in the `expect' phase of the chat script.

           ABORT abort-string       If pppd sees abort-string while
                                    executing the remainder of the chat
                                    script, abort the dialing attempt and
                                    note the failure in the log file.

           TIMEOUT timeout-time     While executing the current chat script,
                                    wait timeout-time seconds for an
                                    expected response before regarding the
                                    dialing attempt as having failed.
                                    Writes have a fixed 60-second timeout.

      The expect-send couplet of '"' P_WORD sets the line parity

           P_AUTO    Set transmission parity based on the parity observed in
                     characters received in `expect' strings.  This is the

           P_ZERO    Transmit characters with the parity bit set to zero (8
                     bits, no parity).

           P_ONE     Transmit characters with the parity bit set to one.

           P_EVEN    Transmit characters with even parity.

           P_ODD     Transmit characters with odd parity.

      The backquote character (`) surrounds the name of a program that is to
      be run before proceeding.  If the program is run in the `send' phase

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 ppp.Systems(4)                                               ppp.Systems(4)

      of a chat script couplet, its standard output will be sent to the peer
      when the program exits.  Chat script processing continues when the
      program exits.

      In the midst of either an `expect' string or a `send' string, ^x gets
      translated into the appropriate control character, and \x gets
      translated into x.  Other special sequences are:

           \s          Send or receive a space character (ASCII 0x20).

           \t          Send or receive a horizontal tab character (ASCII

           \n          Send or receive a line feed character (ASCII 0x0a).

           \r          Send or receive a carriage return character (ASCII

           \\          Send or receive a backslash character (ASCII 0x5c).

           \^          Send or receive a carat character (ASCII 0x5e).

           ^character  Send or receive the single character Ctrl-character
                       (ASCII 0x00 through 0x1f).

           \ddd        Send or receive a character, specified in octal

           \p          Pause for .25 second before proceeding (send only).

           \d          Delay for two seconds before proceeding (send only).

           \K          Send a break (.25 second of zero bits).

           \M          Disable hangups (sets CLOCAL or LNOHANG).

           \m          enable hangups (unsets CLOCAL or LNOHANG) (the

           \c          Don't append a carriage return character after
                       sending the preceding string (send only).

           \q          Don't print following send strings (e.g. a password)
                       in any debugging or logging output.  Subsequent \q
                       sequences toggle `quiet' mode.

           \A          Parse the incoming string as an IP address, written
                       as four decimal numbers separated by periods, and use
                       it for the local end of the point-to-point connection
                       (receive only).

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 ppp.Systems(4)                                               ppp.Systems(4)

 EXAMPLE    [Toc]    [Back]
      In the example below, we call host `everyone' using a Telebit PEP
      modem with its DTE interface set at 19200 bps.  We call host `nobody'
      using a V.32/V.42/V.42bis modem that's capable of driving a 38400 DTE,
      and we are connected to host `someone' via a direct cable attached to
      /dev/ttya, running asynchronous PPP.  We talk to `anyone' via a T1
      CSU/DSU attached to port 0 on a SnapLink.  And we connect with
      pseudo-one via a PPP connection tunneled across a TCP stream to port
      77 on realone.somewhere.com.

      If we are unsuccessful at connecting with `someone' we will try again
      in two seconds.  If that attempt fails, we will wait four seconds
      before the next attempt; then eight, then sixteen, then thirty two,
      then forty seconds.  We will continue attempting to contact `someone'
      every forty seconds.  Our retry intervals and maximum backoff values
      for `everyone' and `nobody' are the default `10-3600'.

      The notation "" "" means to expect nothing, then send nothing
      (followed by a carriage return).  The implicit carriage return is
      often useful for eliciting a response from a remote system.

           #       Systems - PPP systems file
           everyone Any ACU 19200-PEP 5551212 in:--in: Pwe word: \qfoObar
           nobody Any ACU 38400 5551213 in:--in: Pthey word: \qbaZz1ng
           someone Any;2-40 cua 38400 0 in:--in: Pthem word: \qmeumBle
           anyone Any rsd0a/0 1536000
           pseudo-one Any;2-2 tcp/realone.somewhere.com/57

 RECOMMENDATIONS    [Toc]    [Back]
      The default retry time and backoff (i.e. Any;10-3600) are appropriate
      for use with dialup connections where the PPP connection must be
      reestablished as quickly as possible after an interruption but where
      it is not desirable to continuously redial a host that may be down.  A
      much shorter maximum would be appropriate for a dedicated line between
      two systems, or where call attempts cost nothing.

      Moderate call retry times, such as 60 seconds, work well on systems
      that can establish connections in either direction using dialup
      modems, to avoid deadlocks waiting for telephone busy signals from
      each calling the other at the same time.  Because of the difference
      between the behaviors of originating and answering modems, the 60-
      second clocks will usually start ticking at different times, allowing
      one side to call the other without interference.  Alternatively,
      different call retry times may be specified at either end of a link to
      help keep the two systems from calling each other simultaneously.

      If you specify host names, be sure that their addresses are available
      locally, even with the connection down.  If you find that you must
      bring up a connection to resolve a domain name, consider using that

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 ppp.Systems(4)                                               ppp.Systems(4)

      host's IP address (decimal numbers separated by periods) in both
      Filter and Systems instead.

      Automatic failover recovery can be arranged between systems that each
      have multiple modems, or multiple connection methods.  If two systems
      are connected via a dedicated line (sync or async), that entry should
      be first in Systems, followed by another entry describing an on-demand
      dial-up connection.  See the HP PPP User Guide for more details.

 SECURITY CONCERNS    [Toc]    [Back]
      The file /etc/ppp/Systems should be mode 600.

 AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]
      ppp.Systems was developed by the Progressive Systems.

 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      ppp.Auth(4), ppp.Services(4), ppp.Dialers(4), ppp.Filter(4),
      ppp.Keys(4), pppd(1), RFC 1548, RFC 1332, RFC 1144, RFC 1055.

 Hewlett-Packard Company            - 6 -   HP-UX 11i Version 2: August 2003
[ Back ]
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